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  • ddc:330  (173,379)
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  • 1
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 3
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Springer Spektrum
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: In diesem Open Access-Buch werden fünf zentrale Themenbereiche des Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagement (UBRM) vorgestellt. Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagerinnen und -manager kennen die Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, wie sie zum Beispiel in der Agenda 2030 der Vereinten Nationen - den sogenannten nachhaltigen Entwicklungszielen (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) - formuliert wurden. Sie denken vernetzt und verfügen über fachliche, methodische und soziale Kompetenzen, die für eine inter- und transdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit erforderlich sind. Sie sind in der Lage, mit sich verändernden Anforderungen umzugehen und können sich in eine breite Palette von Fachbereichen vertiefen. Ihre Qualifikation wird in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen, in nationalen und internationalen Organisationen sowie in privaten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen nachgefragt. Die Leserinnen und Leser bekommen in jedem der hier vorgestellten Themenbereich Einblicke in verschiedene UBRM-Fachbereiche sowie darüber, welche Kompetenzen und Fertigkeiten erworben werden können. Dies wird anhand konkreter Fallbeispiele verdeutlicht. Abschließend veranschaulichen Porträts von Absolventinnen und Absolventen die Studien- und Berufspraxis und zeigen, wie nachhaltige Zukunftsgestaltung im Sinne der Agenda 2030 aussehen kann.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltmanagement ; Bioressourcen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Sustainability ; Universität für Bodenkultur ; Open Access ; UBRM
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 5
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    Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: Dieses Open-Access-Fachbuch setzt sich empirisch und theoretisch mit Teilaspekten der digitalen Transformation und deren Konsequenzen für die Unternehmensführung auseinander. Die mit der Digitalisierung verbundenen neuen Technologien, Geschäftsmodelle sowie Denk- und Handlungsweisen verändern die Welt grundlegend und mit einer hohen Geschwindigkeit. Der Band greift aktuelle, praxisrelevante Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen des Megatrends Digitalisierung auf und bietet Informationen zu Themen wie plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen, Cybersicherheit, Ambidextrie, Big Data Analytics, Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts, Online Marketing Tools, Augmented Reality und Social Influencing. Die 15 Beiträge wurden durch Autorenteams erarbeitet. Diese setzen sich aus Lehrenden und Forschenden sowie Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der Unternehmenspraxis mit akademischem Background zusammen. Sämtliche Beiträge basieren auf empirischen Analysen, die zumeist ihren Schwerpunkt auf Gestaltungsprobleme aus der Unternehmenspraxis legen, und beinhalten somit ein breites Spektrum an konkreten Fallbeispielen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Digitale Transformation ; Digitalisierung ; Open Access ; Digitaler Wandel ; Digital Business ; Unternehmensführung ; Management ; Megatrend ; Big Data ; Geschäftsmodelle ; Cybersicherheit ; Digitales Zeitalter ; Virtual Reality ; Arbeitsmodelle ; Google AdWords ; Schweiz ; Social Influencing ; Augmented Reality ; Ambidextrie ; Kryptowährungen
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    London: UK Government, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
    Publication Date: 2019-05-16
    Description: As part of its wider work into heat decarbonisation, BEIS commissioned E4Tech to assess existing literature on the emissions and air pollutants that could be associated with a hydrogen supply chain in a possible future hydrogen-for-heating scenario. The report focusses on 6 key research questions: 1. What are the potential hydrogen leakage rates at the hydrogen production stage via steam methane reformation (SMR) with carbon capture, coal and bio gasification with carbon capture and electrolysis? 2. What are the potential wider fugitive emission types and rates from hydrogen production via SMR with carbon capture, coal and bio gasification with carbon capture, and electrolysis? 3. What are the potential fugitive hydrogen emission rates post-production (transmission to end-use) with distribution via the gas grid? 4. What are the upstream/well-to-tank carbon emissions of using coal as a hydrogen input fuel? 5. For each of the questions above, what is the technical and commercial potential for abatement of these emissions? 6. Which research papers have explored upstream/well-to-tank non-carbon emissions from using natural gas, coal and biogas as hydrogen input fuels? The report also identifies gaps in the evidence that may inform future research.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    London: UK Government, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
    Publication Date: 2019-05-16
    Description: The study looks at new commercial and industrial property used to house office work, manufacturing or warehousing, while excluding sector-specific sites such as farms or retail outlets. It draws on the findings of 8 case studies and econometric analysis of the impact of development on local employment, turnover, wages and productivity.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    London: UK Government, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
    Publication Date: 2019-05-16
    Description: The paper investigates the main drivers for the relocation of firms within the UK. It covers more sectors than previous analysis and reflects changes in sectoral composition.The research included: 40 in-depth interviews with relocating firms and stakeholders, econometric analysis using the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Given the vital role of independent directors in determination of executives' compensation, we explore how independent directors view the CEO pay disparity. Using the data of all companies listed on the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges for the period 2005 to 2015, we find that the proportion of independent directors on the board is negatively associated with the extent to which executives' pay is dispersed. This finding suggests that independent directors view the dispersion of the CEO's and other executive directors' pay from the managerial power theory perspective rather than from the tournament theory.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; CEO pay disparity ; CEO tenure ; China ; independent directors ; managerial power ; and state owned firms ; tournament incentives
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Münster: CAWM
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: We conduct a field experiment with the visitors of the German Catholic Convention in Münster, Germany. We aim at investigating the effect of the announced attitude of a Catholic institution concerning climate protection efforts, of people's experimentally induced religiosity (using a priming intervention) and of the corresponding interaction on people's willingness to donate to a carbon-offsetting fund. Our results suggest that the supporting signal by the Catholic institution substantially increases donations by about 56 %. We observe neither a direct effect of the induced religiosity nor an interaction with the institution's signal. Our results thus indicate that religious authorities can promote sustainable behavior. As we observe no evidence that the signalmainly influences particularly religious people, we further conclude that religious institutions may serve as more general authorities when it comes to sustainable behavior rather than solely as leaders of those aiming to follow religious prescripts.
    Keywords: C93 ; D64 ; D91 ; Q56 ; Z12 ; ddc:330 ; Sustainable behavior ; Field experiment ; Religiosity ; Priming ; Carbon offsets
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the relationship between procedural justice and deviant workplace behavior with the mediation of perceived organizational support. After applying purposive sampling technique, a sample of 150 respondents has been drawn from the target population. Data on the three variables with the help of a single adopted questionnaire have been collected. Data has been analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Results revealed that: 1) procedural justice and deviant workplace behavior has negative and significant relationship; 2) procedural justice has significant and positive relationships with perceived organizational support; 3) deviant workplace behavior has a significant and negative relationship with perceived organizational support; and 4) the perceived organizational support acts as a partial mediator between procedural justice and workplace deviance. The results have implications for managers in the sense that if they have policies based on justice and are successful in the dispensation of procedural justice, perpetration of negative behaviors of workforce could be minimized, if not eliminated. Besides, this will boost the morale of employees and they will contribute positively to achieve the organizational goals. The study has included perceived organizational support as a mediator for the first time.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; procedural justice ; perceived organizational support ; interpersonal deviance ; organizational deviance
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: This study explores the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and investor intention's to invest under the indirect mediating mechanism of corporate identity and corporate image. The data were collected in time lags under case study method by using adopted / adapted questionnaires, duly filled by graduate university students across major cities of Pakistan, The CSR activities of Samsung Company was considered by the respective students. The data analysis was performed through AMOS, and results of structure equation modeling revealed positive direct relationship between corporate social responsibility and investor's intention to invest. The indirect mediating mechanism of corporate identity and corporate image under the said relationship was also established. The study reveals theoretical and practical implications in terms of mediating roles and CSR worth in developing country, respectively. The in-depth understanding of studied variables under certain relationships is deliberated for target sector in particular and other sectors in general.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; corporate identity ; corporate image ; investor's intention to invest ; Samsung
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Berlin: De Gruyter
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Wearables (beispielsweise Datenbrillen und Smartwatches) sind ein besonders sichtbares Element von Industrie-4.0-Anwendungen. Sie sollen situationsgerechte Informationen zur Verfügung stellen, können aber zugleich auch Daten über den Arbeitsprozess – und teils sogar über Bewegungsmuster und Vitalfunktionen der Beschäftigten – generieren. Die Wearable-Technologie ist in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium, in dem die Interessen und Sichtweisen der relevanten Akteure, vor allem der Technikentwickler und des Managements möglicher Anwendungsunternehmen von besonderer Bedeutung sind. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die Rolle der Lösungsentwickler und ihr Verständnis von Arbeit und den Arbeitsprozessen, in denen Wearables eingesetzt werden sollen. Er beruht auf leitfadengestützten Interviews mit Lösungsentwicklern. Gezeigt wird ein ambivalentes Verständnis von Arbeit: Auf der einen Seite dominiert die Wahrnehmung menschlicher Arbeitskräfte als potenzielle Fehlerquellen und die Fokussierung auf die Optimierung einzelner Arbeitsplätze und ihrer Ergonomie, während übergreifende Fragen der Arbeitsgestaltung und Arbeitsorganisation ausgeblendet werden. Auf der anderen Seite werden die Potenziale und Gefahren der Wearable-Technologien im Hinblick auf Individualisierung, Datenschutz und Kontrolle differenziert gesehen und diskutiert.
    Description: Wearables (such as data glasses and smartwatches) are a particularly visible element of Industry 4.0 applications. They aim at providing situationspecific information to workers, but at the same time they can also generate data on the work process – and sometimes even on movement patterns and vital functions of the employees. Wearables technology is at an early stage of development, in which the interests and perspectives of relevant stakeholders, especially technology developers and the management, are of particular importance. This article explores the role of solution developers and their understanding of work and the work processes in which wearables are to be used. It is based on semi-structured interviews with solution developers and experts from science and companies. The analysis shows an ambivalent understanding of work: on the one hand, it is characterized by the perception of workers as potential sources of error and it focuses on the optimization of individual workplaces and their ergonomics, while broader questions of work design and work organization are ignored. On the other hand, the technology developers see and discuss the potentials and dangers of wearables technologies with regard to individualization, data protection and control in a differentiated manner.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Industrie 4.0 ; Technologie ; Technologieentwicklung ; Arbeitsprozess ; Optimierung ; industry 4.0 ; technology ; developers ; labour process ; optimization
    Language: German
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  • 14
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    London: Taylor & Francis
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: The article presents an analysis of the association between labor market characteristics related to female employment and the prevalence of in-work poverty. We compare two relative measures of in-work poverty: The individual definition refers to workers whose salary is below 60% of the median, while the household-level definition refers to individuals whose household income is below 60% of the median. Microdata from the 2014 EU-SILC survey and macrodata on involuntary part-time employment and female labor market participation are used to perform a multilevel analysis on 31 European countries. The results show a positive relationship between involuntary part-time work and in-work poverty according to the household definition. Female labor market participation is positively associated with the individual definition and negatively with the household one. However, after controlling for the level of within-country income inequality, only the effect of the female employment rate remains positive and significant for the individual in-work. These results shed light on the multifaceted role of labor market characteristics related to female employment and their implications for policy. We argue that the promotion of female participation should be combined with explicit measures to reduce the disadvantageous position of women in the labor market.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; working poor ; household poverty ; female employment ; involuntary part-time ; low-wage
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: This paper investigates the existing political environment in Pakistan and its impact of women entrepreneurial performance. The importance of having a stable political environment for flourishing entrepreneurial activities has also been discussed. For this purpose, the study employs a research design where self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from two groups of Pakistani women entrepreneurs; Registered and Non-Registered. The registered members were selected from the seven women chambers of commerce and industries of Pakistan using a stratified random sampling method whereas the non-registered members were selected from the groups on Facebook. The quantitative method of research has been employed using sample size of 506. Multiple regression analyses reveal that there is an impact of political factors on women entrepreneurial performance for both the groups. The results also show that women entrepreneurs believe that government is not supporting them for carrying out the activities for running their enterprises.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; women entrepreneurs ; political factors ; entrepreneurial performance ; registered entrepreneurs ; non- registered entrepreneurs
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: In a highly competitive environment, the phenomenon of coopetition is emerging rapidly among various firms as well as markets which is significant to enhance firm's open innovation performance (FOIP). However, Malaysian High-Tech SMEs are unable to develop a well-managed coopetition mechanism which influence negatively on open innovation (OI) performance. To address this problem, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of coopetition-based OI on the FOIP. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted by using cross-sectional research design. Managerial employees of Malaysian high-tech SMEs were selected as the ultimate respondents of this study. While analyzing the data through PLS-SEM, it is revealed that coopetition has major contribution to enhance FOIP. Likewise, it is highlighted that the role of trust and dependency is crucial to develop a good coopetition platform. The study contributed in the body of literature by investigating the mediating role of trust and dependency to enhance the positive effect of coopetition based OI on FOIP, particularly in Malaysian high-tech SMEs. Thus, the current study has major importance for Malaysian high-tech SMEs to look on the vital factors to expedite coopetition and innovation activities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; coopetition ; open innovation ; firm performance ; trust ; dependency ; high-tech SMEs
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Researchers and practitioners are trying hard to analyze the leadership into a widespread and general set of processes, methods, and measures. Attempts are being made by various researchers to discover the best leadership practices having larger success stories. The purpose of this inquiry is to investigate the impact of transformational leadership factors on project success. In this empirical investigation, transformational leadership has been discussed by combining two different leadership models in this study. The data were obtained from 125 project managers selected through systematic random technique working on different higher education commission projects in Pakistan and analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results unveiled six dimensions of transformational leaders from two different leadership models that have better responsiveness towards project success i.e. model the way, inspired a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, encourage the heart and individual consideration. This study adds the body of knowledge in leadership and project management by presenting current times transformational leadership dimensions particularly for ensuring project success. Further, the current study elaborates various dimensions of transformational leadership that are helpful of project managers to boost project success. This is a unique inquest to compare the dimensions of two different transformational leadership models in relation to project success and present a comprehensive package based on dimensions that are relatively more effective to ensure project success.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; transformational leadership ; inspire a shared vision ; model the way ; enable others to act ; encourage the heart ; individual consideration ; project success ; project leadership
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Heidelberg: Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Der Beitrag diskutiert Bedeutung, praktisches Potenzial und konkrete Herausforderungen von bibliothekarischen Serviceangeboten für den grünen Weg des Open Access. Er adressiert Einrichtungen, die einen Zweitveröffentlichungsservice auf- bzw. ausbauen wollen und präsentiert mögliche Workflows und Werkzeuge. Im Fokus stehen Möglichkeiten der Gewinnung von Autor*innen und der Akquise von Publikationsdaten, rechtliche Grundlagen für Zweitveröffentlichungen sowie die einzelnen Schritte hin zu einer Zweitveröffentlichung. Zudem werden Hinweise für die Automatisierung von einzelnen Prozessen gegeben. Dem Beitrag angehängt sind sechs Checklisten, die im Alltag herangezogenwerden können.
    Description: The article discusses the significance, practical potential and concrete challenges services offered by libraries in the field of Green Open Access. It addresses institutions that wish to set up or expand a self-archiving service and presents possible workflows and tools for the daily routine. The article focuses on measures for the acquisition of authors and publication data, the legal basis for self-archiving and measures for different steps of archiving. In addition, hints are given for the possible automation of individual processes. Six checklists are attached to the article which can be used in the daily routine of a self-archiving service.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Open Access ; Grüner Weg ; Zweitveröffentlichung ; Service ; Workflow
    Language: German
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  • 19
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the relationship between social entrepreneurship and sustainable enterprise development. Four dimensions of social entrepreneurship i.e. social mission, social innovation, social networking, and financial returns are regressed with three dimensions of sustainable enterprise development i.e. social, environmental, and economic. In current literature, most of the work in the field of social entrepreneurship is qualitative in nature and none of the existing studies explained the impact of labeling "social enterprise" as a source of enterprise sustainability and this study used positivist paradigm to test this impact. Data was collected from social entrepreneurs and employees of social enterprises via online questionnaire (n=434) developed and distributed through "Google Docs". Social entrepreneurs from 41 different countries participated in online survey. The results of the study reveal that social entrepreneurship results in sustainable enterprise development. The study supports the fact that one of the important factors in enterprise development is the way the enterprise is managed and the label of "social enterprise‟ is resulting in sustainable development of social enterprise itself. The research contributes to literature by empirically testing the relationship between social entrepreneurship and sustainable enterprise development which was never tested before. The study used a unique methodology that results in gathering of data from 41 countries of the world. This results of this study can be used by social entrepreneurs to create more positive impact for the society.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; social entrepreneurship ; social mission ; social networks ; social innovation ; financial returns ; sustainable enterprise development ; social sustainability ; environmental sustainability ; economic sustainability
    Language: English
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Likewise, other historic cities of Pakistan, Peshawar has two major commercial areas i.e. old city region and Saddar Bazaar. In commercial areas, the Central Business District (CBD) has prime importance, which is the retail heart of a city. Normally, dual cores of the city are present in each city. The cantonment area has suitable grid layout, wide streets & roads and land use planning which make it more dynamic for modern transportation and infrastructure modifications particularly for commercial commuters. The present study is an attempt to identify the CBD of Peshawar using basic characteristics of a CBD. These characteristics are land & rent values, retail volume of sales, vehicular & pedestrian flow, area etc. Using geo-spatial analysis techniques, these characteristics are measured and compared to identify the CBD of Peshawar. The aggregate value of all indicators shows that Saddar Bazaar has 68.25 % value with cumulative probability (% age) of 87.17 %. Saddar Bazaar in cantonment area has no match in these characteristics with old city region and identified as CBD of Peshawar.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Geo-spatial ; Central Business District (CBD) ; Commercial Activities ; Land & Rent Values ; Retailing
    Language: English
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: This study examines the link between environmental indicators and output volatility unlike the previous literature that mainly emphasized the importance of carbon emissions and economic growth nexus. Output uncertainty is considered a serious global issue as it undermines economic gains and quality of life. This study scrutinizes the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on output volatility in 155 countries over the period 1971-2017. The empirical analysis is based on Pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Random and Fixed Effects Models. The empirical results confirm that carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), methane (CH4), and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are positively contributing to amplify global output volatility. Moreover, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of pollutant indicators also confirms the main results. Comparatively carbon emissions are contributing more to augment output volatility. A comparative analysis also reveals that all pollutants augment output volatility more in agricultural economies. The results of Granger causality confirm the bidirectional causality between environmental degradation and output volatility providing an evidence of endogeneity problem. To address it, the system GMM estimator is used by incorporating the instruments in output volatility model and the results of system GMM are also consistent with main findings. Findings of the study imply that a promising path of sustainable growth can be achieved by adopting the alternative ways of energy resources that produce less pollutant relative to greenhouse gasses.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; output volatility ; environmental degradation ; greenhouse gases ; GDP per capita ; CO2 emissions ; NOX emissions ; CH4 emissions
    Language: English
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Customer loyalty has gained foremost attention among the practitioners and the academic researchers because of its proximity to organizational growth, profit and survival. Based on existing literature, this study has highlighted a few critical issues related to the telecommunication sector in Pakistan such as the decline in subscriber growth, decrease in average revenue, and the increasing trend of users switching among the telecom operators. The objective of the present study is to analyze the impact of perceived service quality, price fairness; justice to service and relational bonds on customer loyalty with the mediating role of customer satisfaction .the framework of the present study is based on the expectancy confirmation model and the principles of reciprocity. Data for the current study was collected from 539 prepaid subscribers based in four major capital cities of Pakistan through questionnaires by adopting the proportionate stratified random sampling. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23 and the Smart PLS Structure Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings of the study revealed that perceived service quality and customer satisfaction are the main driving forces to customer loyalty. Moreover, customer satisfaction successfully mediates between exogenous and endogenous variables. The present study has also suggested some theoretical and practical contributions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; price fairness ; Justice with service recovery ; relational bonds ; telecom sector
    Language: English
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-15
    Description: Current research aims to develop and test a conceptual framework that poses attention to individuals' personality as a potential predictor of their knowledge creation capability, considering the mediating effect of transformational leadership. According to an estimate, poor knowledge management costs Fortune 500 companies' huge annual losses through taking a toll on their efficiency and productivity. Thus knowledge management is crucial for organizations, and various ways to improve knowledge creation and management need to be studied. In this regard, current research uses Nonaka's knowledge creation theory to study the knowledge creation capability in organizations as a consequence of managers' personality and leadership style. Cross-sectional data was collected from middle level managers working in thirteen different organizational sectors from Pakistan. Covariance based structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. All scales were found reliable; however, measurement models were re-specified to improve the construct validity. Through SEM, this research revealed that openness, agreeableness and extraversion have direct influence on knowledge creation capability. Furthermore, transformational leadership mediates the relationship between all the Big-Five personality traits and knowledge creation capability. Therefore, to develop knowledge creation capability of managers, organizations should rethink their organizational procedures to put in place such recruitment, selection, and training & development practices that are oriented towards managers' personalities and their leadership styles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies Big-Five personality traits as antecedents of knowledge creation capability, incorporates transformational leadership in the model, and tests these relationships empirically. It also provides valuable insights in the domain of knowledge management among middle level managers of various Pakistani firms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; knowledge creation capability ; openness to new experience ; agreeableness ; conscientiousness ; extraversion ; neuroticism ; big-five personality traits ; transformational leadership
    Language: English
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: This article introduces a quantitative measure of trade policy space at the national level, and investigates empirically whether it influences foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to countries. The empirical analysis covers an unbalanced panel dataset of 158 countries (both developed and developing countries), over the period 1995-2015, and uses the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) approach. Results suggest that the impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows is positive and increases as countries enjoy greater trade policy space. Furthermore, advanced economies tend to experience a higher positive impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows than less advanced economies. Overall, trade policy space matters significantly for countries' FDI inflows.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Trade policy space ; FDI inflows
    Language: English
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Equilibrium real exchange rate and corresponding misalignment estimates differ tremendously depending on the panel estimation method used to derive them. Essentially, these methods differ in their treatment of the time-series (time) and the cross-section (space) variation in the panel. The study shows that conventional panel estimation methods (pooled OLS, fixed, random, and between effects) can be interpreted as restricted versions of a correlated random effects (CRE) model. It formally derives the distortion that arises if these restrictions are violated and uses two empirical applications from the literature to show that the distortion is generally very large. This suggests the use of the CRE model for the panel estimation of equilibrium real exchange rates and misalignments.
    Keywords: F31 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; equilibrium real exchange rate ; panel estimation method ; correlated random effects model ; productivity approach ; BEER ; price competitiveness
    Language: English
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Using firm-level data between 2004 and 2012 for eleven countries of the European Union (EU), we document the size of product and labour market imperfections within narrowly defined sectors including services which are virtually undocumented. Our findings suggest that perfect competition in both product and labour markets is widely rejected. Levels of the price-cost margin and union bargaining power tend to be higher in some service sectors depicting however substantial heterogeneity. Dispersion within sector and across countries tends to be higher in some services sectors assuming a less tradable nature which suggests that the Single Market integration is partial particularly relaxing the assumption of perfect competition in the labour market. We report also figures for the aggregate economy and show that Eastern countries tend to depict lower product and labour market imperfections compared to other countries in the EU. Also, we provide evidence in favour of a very limited adjustment of both product and labour market imperfections following the international and financial crisis.
    Keywords: D40 ; J50 ; L10 ; ddc:330 ; market imperfection ; market structure ; nash bargaining ; European Union
    Language: English
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    Göttingen: Courant Research Centre Poverty, Equity and Growth
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: A crucial prerequisite for the success of development interventions is their uptake in the targeted population. We use the setup of an intervention conducted in Indonesia and Pakistan to investigate dis-/incentivizing factors for program's uptake and support. Making use of a framework grounded in psychological theory, "The Theory of Planned Behaviour", we consider three determinants for intervention uptake: personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use. As most development interventions are characterized by a cooperation among local and international agents, we investigate further a potentially important dis-/incentivizing factor: the salience of the implementer's background. Our findings show that attitudes, important others and ease of intervention use are indeed associated with increased uptake in our two culturally different settings. Conducting a framed field experiment in Indonesia we show further that the study population in the Acehnese context exhibits higher levels of support for the project if the participation of international actors is highlighted. We find that previous experience with the respective actor is pivotal. To strengthen supportive behaviour by the target population for locally led projects, it is essential to strengthen local capabilities to create positive experiences. Hence, our results encourage development research and cooperation, first, to consider personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use in the design of interventions in order to increase uptake. Second, depending on the country context, implementers should consider the previous experience with and attitude towards partners - either local or international - when aiming to achieve behavioural change.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Theory of Planned Behaviour ; Framed Field Experiment ; Implementation Research ; Public Health
    Language: English
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: We investigate the impact of errors in medium run tax revenue forecasts on the final budget balance. Our analysis is based on fiscal data for the entirety of German states and takes advantage of revenue forecasts and respective errors that can be considered as exogenously given in the budgeting process. We find that forecast errors at various forecast horizons translate considerably into the final budget balance, indicating that expenditure plans get only marginally adjusted when revenue forecasts get revised. Consequently, the accuracy of medium run forecasts considerably affects the sustainability of public finances. Our calculations suggest that a significant share of total debt of German states results from revenue forecasts that were too optimistic.
    Keywords: E62 ; H61 ; H68 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal policy ; fiscal planning ; medium run forecasting ; budget balance ; public debt
    Language: English
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: In der vorliegenden Studie werden zunächst die weltweiten konjunkturellen Aussichten für das Ende des Jahres 2018 und für die Jahre 2019 bis 2023 dargestellt. Dabei wird folgender Länderkreis betrachtet: Deutschland, Frankreich, Griechenland, Großbritannien, Irland, Italien, Niederlande, Polen, Portugal, Schweden, Slowakei, Spanien und Tschechien. Im Herbst 2018 sind die Unsicherheiten über den Fortgang der Weltkonjunktur groß. Bis zum Sommer expandierte die globale Produktion zwar weiterhin recht kräftig. In den meisten Ländern schätzen die Unternehmen aber gegenwärtig ihre Geschäftslage deutlich weniger günstig ein als in der ersten Jahreshälfte, und im Oktober haben die Aktienbewertungen weltweit deutlich nachgegeben. Auch stellen sich nunmehr die finanziellen Rahmenbedingungen für die Schwellenländer aufgrund eines Rückzugs von internationalen Investoren schlechter dar. Allerdings dürfte in den meisten fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften die Binnenkonjunktur angesichts eines zumindest bis in das Jahr 2019 hinein insgesamt expansiven geld- und finanzpolitischen Umfelds zunächst recht kräftig bleiben. Belastend wirken indes die protektionistischen Maßnahmen der US-Politik sowie die Verunsicherung über die Zukunft der Welthandelsordnung. Ein Hauptrisiko für die Weltkonjunktur ist gegenwärtig die Gefahr einer weiteren Zuspitzung des Handelskonflikts zwischen den USA und China. Aber auch die handelspolitischen Spannungen zwischen den USA und der Europäischen Union sind noch nicht ausgeräumt. Speziell für die Konjunktur in Europa sind zwei Risiken zu nennen: zum einen die Möglichkeit eines ungeordneten Austritts Großbritanniens aus der EU im Frühjahr 2019, zum anderen eine neue Schuldenkrise, falls die Regierung Italiens ihre expansiven finanzpolitischen Vorhaben in großem Stil umsetzt und dabei weiter Vertrauen der Finanzmärkte in die Solvenz des italienischen Staates verspielt. Die wahrscheinlichste wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in dem betrachteten Länderkreis (Basisszenario) wird anhand grundlegender volkswirtschaftlicher Kennzahlen, etwa der Zuwachsrate des Bruttoinlandsprodukts, beschrieben. Es wird auch die Entwicklung für den Fall skizziert, dass die Weltwirtschaft eine ungünstige, eine sehr ungünstige Wendung (mittelschweres und schweres Negativszenario), oder auch eine günstige Wendung nimmt (Positivszenario). Das mittelschwere Negativszenario ist so gewählt, dass die gesamtwirtschaftliche Produktion in der betrachteten Ländergruppe im Jahr 2019 gemäß der aus dem Modell resultierenden Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung nur mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit von 10% noch geringer ausfällt; das schwere Negativszenario ist so gewählt, dass sich mit einerWahrscheinlichkeit von nur 1% eine noch geringere Produktion realisieren dürfte. Das Positivszenario wird schließlich so gewählt, dass es mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit von nur 10% zu einer noch höheren Produktion in der genannten Ländergruppe kommen dürfte. Im Basisszenario liegt der Produktionszuwachs im betrachteten europäischen Länderkreis in den Jahren 2018 und 2019 bei jeweils 1,9%. Im Fall eines mittelschweren Einbruchs bleibt die Zuwachsrate der europäischen Ländergruppe im Jahr 2019 mit 0,3% um 1,6 Prozentpunkte unter der Rate im Basisszenario, im Fall eines schweren Einbruchs mit -1% um 2,9 Prozentpunkte. Besonders stark bricht in den negativen Risikoszenarien die Produktion in Griechenland, Irland, der Slowakei und Polen ein. Besonders stabil ist die Produktion dagegen in Frankreich. Der weltwirtschaftliche Schock reduziert die Produktion in Deutschland ungefähr so stark wie im Durchschnitt der Ländergruppe, die deutsche Wirtschaft erholt sich dann aber besonders rasch. Die länderspezifischen Szenarien erlauben auch die Antwort auf die Frage, wie stark die deutsche Wirtschaft von dem Wirtschaftseinbruch eines bestimmten Landes aus dem europäischen Länderkreis betroffen ist. Es zeigt sich, dass es für Deutschland nur bei einem schweren Einbruch der Konjunktur in Großbritannien, den Niederlanden und Polen zu messbaren Produktionsverlusten kommt. Zuletzt wird ein Szenario betrachtet, in dem ein mehrjähriger weltwirtschaftlicher Wirtschaftseinbruch mit einer deutlichen Erhöhung der Zinsen einhergeht. Ein solches Szenario könnte sich etwa aus einem Verlust an Vertrauen von Unternehmen und Haushalten in die Stabilitätsorientierung der Geldpolitik entwickeln. In einem solchen Fall können die Zentralbanken gezwungen sein, ihre Reputation durch eine Hochzinspolitik wieder herzustellen auch unter Inkaufnahme einer längeren Phase gesamtwirtschaftlicher Unterauslastung.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: We provide a simulation smoother to a exible state-space model with lagged states and lagged dependent variables. Qian (2014) has introduced this state-space model and proposes a fast Kalman filter with time-varying state dimension in the presence of missing observations in the data. In this paper, we derive the corresponding Kalman smoother moments and propose an efficient simulation smoother, which relies on mean corrections for unconditional vectors. When applied to a factor model, the proposed simulation smoother for the states is efficient compared to other state-space models without lagged states and/or lagged dependent variables in terms of computing time.
    Keywords: C11 ; C32 ; C38 ; C63 ; C55 ; ddc:330 ; state-space model ; missing observations ; Kalman filter and smoother ; simulation smoothing ; factor model
    Language: English
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Wie werden Arbeitszeitkonten im Detail geregelt? Um eine Antwort geben zu können, wurden 670 Betriebs- und Dienstvereinbarungen mit Regelungen zu Arbeitszeitkonten ausgewertet. Entstanden ist eine Übersicht zu Kurzzeitkonten und Langzeitkonten. Gefragt wurde im Detail u. a.: Wie sehen Regelungen im Detail aus, die das Funktionieren von Arbeitszeitkonten sicherstellen sollen? Wie werden Fehlverläufe repariert? Wer bestimmt, wie angesparte Zeitguthaben genutzt werden können? Welche Ziele werden mit Arbeitszeitkonten verfolgt? Welchen Einfluss haben Betriebsräte und Gewerkschaften auf die Gestaltung der Konten?
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Little is known about foreign aid provided by private donors. This paper contributes to closing this research gap by comparing the allocation of private humanitarian aid to that of official humanitarian aid awarded to 140 recipient countries over the 2000-2016 period. We construct a new database that offers information on the country in which the headquarters of private donors are located to test whether private donors follow the aid allocation pattern of their home country. Our empirical results confirm that private aid "follows the flag." This finding is robust against the inclusion of various fixed effects, estimating instrumental variables models, and disaggregating private aid into corporate aid and NGO aid. Donor country-specific estimations reveal that private aid from China, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States "follow the flag".
    Keywords: H84 ; F35 ; F59 ; ddc:330 ; foreign aid ; humanitarian assistance ; disaster relief ; aid allocation ; private donors ; non-governmental organizations ; corporations ; private foundations
    Language: English
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Some consumption opportunities are both indivisible and only valuable in particular tates of nature. The existence of such state-dependent indivisible consumption opportunities influences a person's risk attitudes. In general, people are not risk averse anymore even if utility from divisible consumption is concave. I propose a definition of insurance in the context of state-dependent preferences and investigate the different motives underlying insurance demand. The same reasons that rule out risk aversion turn out to be the basis of a desire to insure. This calls into question the standard approach that bases insurance demand on risk aversion with important implications for policy and research.
    Description: Einige Konsummöglichkeiten sind nicht teilbar und nur in bestimmten Naturzuständen wertvoll. Die Existenz solcher zustandsabhängigen, unteilbaren Konsummöglichkeiten beeinflusst das Risikoverhalten einer Person. Im Allgemeinen sind die Menschen nicht mehr risikoscheu, auch wenn der Nutzen aus dem teilbaren Konsum konkav ist. Ich schlage eine Definition von Versicherung im Zusammenhang mit zustandsabhängigen Präferenzen vor und untersuche die verschiedenen Motive für Versicherungsnachfrage. Die gleichen Gründe, die Risikoaversion ausschließen, erweisen sich als Grundlage für den Wunsch nach einer Versicherung. Damit wird der Standardansatz in Frage gestellt, nach dem Versicherungsnachfrage auf Risikoaversion beruht, mit wichtigen Konsequenzen für Politik und Forschung.
    Keywords: D01 ; D81 ; ddc:330 ; risk preferences ; indivisible consumption ; insurance ; gambling
    Language: English
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: A vast literature investigating behavioural underpinnings of financial bubbles and crashes relies on laboratory experiments. However, it is not yet clear how findings generated in a highly artificial environment relate to the human behaviour in the wild. It is of concern that the laboratory setting may create a confound variable that impacts the experimental results. To explore the similarities and differences between human behaviour in the laboratory environment and in a realistic natural setting, with the same type of participants, the authors translate a field study Sornette et al. (under review) with trading rounds each lasting six full days to a laboratory experiment lasting two hours. The laboratory experiment replicates the key findings from the field study but the authors observe substantial differences in the market dynamics between the two settings. The replication of the results in the two distinct settings indicates that relaxing some of the laboratory control does not corrupt the main findings, while at the same time it offers several advantages such as the possibility to increase the number of participants interacting with each other at the same time and the number of traded securities.
    Keywords: C90 ; D47 ; D80 ; ddc:330 ; laboratoy expriment ; field experiment ; experimental asset market ; replication
    Language: English
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-14
    Description: We characterize mixed-strategy equilibria when capacity constrained suppliers can charge location-based prices to different customers. We establish an equilibrium with prices that weakly increase in the costs of supplying a customer. Despite prices above costs and excess capacities, each supplier exclusively serves its home market in equilibrium. Competition yields volatile market shares and an inefficient allocation of customers to firms. Even ex-post cross-supplies may restore efficiency only partly. We show that consumers may benefit from price discrimination whereas the the firms make the same profits as with uniform pricing. We use our findings to discuss recent competition policy cases and provide hints for a more refined coordinated-effects analysis.
    Keywords: L11 ; L41 ; L61 ; ddc:330 ; Bertrand-Edgeworth ; capacity constraints ; inefficient competition ; spatial price discrimination ; subcontracting ; transport costs
    Language: English
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: The theory of economic development was an exception to Paul Samuelson's claim of being a "generalist" in economics. It was a hard subject to tackle analytically because of the intrinsic difficulty of some of the concepts involved, such as increasing returns and long-term economic evolution. Nevertheless, Samuelson was aware of the utmost practical relevance of the topic, and discussed at length, sometimes critically, the empirics of development and the theories and policies put forward by development economists, particularly in connection with market failures that could help to explain underdevelopment phenomena. Moreover, he paid more attention than most development economists to the Malthusian demographic dimension of poverty. On the other hand, development planners made use of Samuelson's turnpike theorems of growth theory, and reacted, mostly critically, to his factor price equalization (FPE) theorem of international trade and its apparent conflict with income divergence between developed and underdeveloped economies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Samuelson ; economic development ; divergence ; convergence ; increasing returns
    Language: English
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Die derzeit beim Development Assistance Committee (DAC) laufende Reform der Statistik über Entwicklungsfinanzierung (DAC-Statistik) gibt Anlass zur Sorge. Die teils schon umgesetzten und noch in Diskussion befindlichen Änderungen untergraben die bisher einheitliche Messbasis, indem sie zwei sehr unterschiedliche Kategorien mischen: "cash flow" (Zahlungsflüsse) mit "grant equivalent" (Zuschussäquivalent). Technische Integrität und Glaubwürdigkeit der Statistik der internationalen Entwicklungshilfeleistungen drohen damit verloren zu gehen. Die österreichische Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (EZA) ist gefordert, hier klar Stellung zu beziehen.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Bonn: Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn
    Publication Date: 2019-05-14
    Description: Die vorliegende Untersuchung setzt sich mit der Situation von Selbstständigen in der Grund-sicherung auseinander. Ursächlich für den Bezug von ergänzenden Leistungen der Grundsi-cherung sind in den meisten Fällen deutlich rückläufige Einkommen. Tatsächlich ist die Ein-kommenssituation selbstständiger Leistungsberechtigter trotz guter Ausbildung und langer Arbeitszeiten noch deutlich schlechter als die der abhängig Beschäftigten in der Grundsiche-rung. Dennoch gelingt es den meisten Selbstständigen, die Hilfebedürftigkeit relativ schnell wieder zu beenden. Ein Teil von ihnen ist allerdings verhältnismäßig lange auf ALG II ange-wiesen. Da dies in den meisten Fällen betriebliche Gründe haben dürfte, ist hier möglicher-weise das der Selbstständigkeit zugrunde liegende Geschäftsmodell kritisch zu hinterfragen. Allgemein ist die Grundsicherung für Selbstständige jedoch ein sinnvolles Instrument, das es vielen ermöglicht, ihr Unternehmen nach einer Krise neu auszurichten und anschließend wieder auf eigenen Beinen stehen zu können.
    Description: We analyze the situation of self-employed receiving means-tested benefits in Germany. A severe loss of income is the main reason why self-employed individuals become entitled for means-tested benefits. Despite relatively high levels of education and working hours, the income of the self-employed actually is much worse in comparison to paid employees who also receive those benefits. The majority of self-employed individuals are able to improve their incomes and end their need of means-tested benefits within two years after entry. How-ever, some self-employed remain in need for longer periods. In general, our results are sug-gestive of positive effects for the self-employed because it provides them with the required time for restructuring their businesses and for improving their incomes.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; Selbstständige ; Einkommen ; Erwerbsarmut ; Arbeitslosengeld II ; Self-Employed ; Income ; Working Poor ; Means-Tested Benefits
    Language: German
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    Kiel: Kiel Centre for Globalization (KCG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: The loss of international competitiveness of domestic industries remains a key obstacle to the implementation of effective carbon prices in a world without harmonized climate policies. We analyze countries' non-cooperative choices of emissions taxes under imperfect competition and mobile polluting firms. In our general equilibrium setup with trade, wage effects prevent all firms from locating in the same country. While under local or no pollution countries achieve the first-best, under transboundary pollution taxes are inefficiently low and lower than under autarky where only the "standard" free riding incentive distorts emissions taxes. This effect is more pronounced when polluting firms are mobile.
    Keywords: F12 ; F18 ; H23 ; ddc:330 ; FDI ; Strategic Environmental Policy ; Firm Location ; Carbon Leakage ; General Equilibrium
    Language: English
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    s.l.: Forum on Capital As Power - Toward a New Cosmology of Capitalism
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: From the 1980s to the present, Hollywood's major distributors have been able to redistribute U.S. theatrical attendance to the advantage of their biggest blockbusters and franchises. At the global scale and during the same period, Hollywood has been leveraging U.S. foreign power to break ground in countries that have historically protected and supported their domestic film culture. For example, Hollywood's major distributors have increased their power in such countries as Mexico, Canada, Australia and South Korea (Jin, 2011). This paper will analyze a pertinent 'test case' for Hollywood's global power: China and its film market. Not only does China have a film-quota policy that restricts the number of theatrical releases that have a foreign distributor (~ 20 to 34 films per year), the Communist Party has also nurtured a Chinese film business that has steady film releases and its own movie star system. Theoretically, China would be a prime example of a film market that would need to be opened with the assistance of the U.S. government. Empirically, however, the case of Chinese cinema might be a curious exception; we can investigate how a political economic strategy rooted in explicit power is reaching a limit. Hollywood is, potentially without any other option, taking a more friendly, collaborative approach with China's censorship rules and its quota and film-production laws.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; China ; cinema ; Hollywood ; power ; international trade ; United States
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    s.l.: Forum on Capital As Power - Toward a New Cosmology of Capitalism
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: What makes the rich different? Are they more productive, as mainstream economists claim? I offer another explanation. What makes the rich different, I propose, is hierarchical power. The rich command hierarchies. The poor do not. It is this greater control over subordinates, I hypothesize, that explains the income and class of the very rich. I test this idea using evidence from US CEOs. I find that the relative income of CEOs increases with their hierarchical power, as does the capitalist portion of their income. This suggests that among CEOs, both income size and income class relate to hierarchical power. I then use a numerical model to test if the CEO evidence extends to the US general public. The model suggest that this is plausible. Using this model, I infer the relation between income size, income class, and hierarchical power among the US public. The results suggests that behind the income and class of the very rich lies immense hierarchical power.
    Keywords: D31 ; D33 ; B5 ; ddc:330 ; hierarchy ; power ; functional income distribution ; personal income distribution ; inequality ; capital as power ; class
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Luxembourg: European Investment Fund (EIF)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: This paper examines the impact of venture capital (VC) investments supported by the EIF on the financial growth and performance of young and innovative firms. Using a novel dataset covering European start-ups supported by VC in the years 2007 to 2014, we generate a counterfactual group of non-VCbacked firms through a combination of exact and propensity score matching. To offset the relatively limited set of observables allowed by our data, we estimate treatment propensity using a series of innovative measures based on machine learning, network theory, and satellite imagery analysis. Our results document the positive effects of EIF-supported VC investments on start-up performance, as measured through various financial indicators (e.g. assets, revenue, employment). We find that VC financing enables start-ups to prioritise long-term growth, trading off short- to medium-term profitability if necessary. Overall, our work provides meaningful evidence towards the positive effects of EIF-supported VC investment on the financial growth of young and innovative businesses in Europe.
    Keywords: G24 ; L25 ; M13 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; EIF ; venture capital ; public intervention ; real effects ; start-ups ; machine learning ; geospatial analysis ; network theory
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: This paper analyzes the relationship between education and health outcomes using a natural experiment in Turkey. The compulsory schooling increased from 5 to 8 years in 1997. This increase was accompanied by a massive construction of classrooms and recruitment of teachers in a differential rate across regions. As in previous studies, we confirm that the 1997 reform substantially increased education in Turkey. Using the number of new middle school class openings per 1000 children as an intensity measure for the 1997 reform, we find that, on average, one additional middle school class increases the probability of completion of 8 years or more of schooling by about 7.1 percentage points. We use this exogenous increase in the educational attainment to investigate the impact of education on body mass index, obesity, smoking behavior, and self-rated health, as well as the effect of maternal education on the infant’s well-being. Using ordinary least squares, we find that there is a statistically significant favorable effect of education on health outcomes and behavior. However, this relationship becomes insignificant when we account for the endogeneity of education and health by instrumenting education with exogenous variations generated by the 1997 reform and the accompanying middle school class openings. The insignificance of the health effect may be due to lack of statistical power in our data, or to the fact that this policy affects only relatively low levels of schooling and the health effects of education need to be examined at higher levels of schooling.
    Keywords: C26 ; I12 ; I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; health ; education ; compulsory schooling ; body mass index ; obesity ; smoking ; selfrated health ; maternal education ; infant’s well-being ; Turkey
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-14
    Description: The estimation of the employment effects of offshore safety and environmental regulation is often highly speculative and based on questionable assumptions. Nevertheless, it is still highly publicized and used as a basis for policy statements in support or, or in opposition to, proposed regulations. Much more reliable estimates of such employment effects can be made, however, based on fundamental principles of microeconomic analysis. This paper demonstrates this by developing a microeconomic model explaining the effects of offshore regulations on employment, assuming the standard profit-maximization behavior of firms. The paper finds that the most relevant and reliable measures of employment effects are: reductions in employment from operations that are terminated because of the new regulation, increases in employment because of additional labor needed to meet the new requirements, and increases in employment in equipment manufacturing when the regulation calls for the expanded use of certain equipment. The costs related to these contractions or expansions of employment can often be gleaned from information in the benefit-cost analysis that was required to accompany the proposed regulation by the regulatory agency involved. For example, the daily costs of offshore rigs and the costs of equipment can be translated to increases in employment.
    Keywords: J23 ; D20 ; Q48 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; Offshore ; Oil ; Gas ; Regulation ; Employment ; Microeconomics
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-14
    Description: While education and labor force participation of women have been increased, there is still a substantial gender gap in labor market opportunities. This gives rise to the question of what factors lead employers to promote work-family balance and gender equality. We address this question by examining the influence of works councils on the gender policies of establishments in Germany. Using data of the IAB Establishment Panel, we find that the incidence of a works council is associated with an increased likelihood that an establishment provides family-friendly practices and promotes equal opportunities of men and women. This finding also holds in a recursive multivariate probit model that accounts for potential endogeneity of works council incidence.
    Keywords: J13 ; J16 ; J52 ; J53 ; ddc:330 ; Non-union employee representation ; works councils ; gender equality ; work-family balance ; equal opportunities ; organizational gender policies
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2019-04-09
    Description: This article bridges the gap between the intellectual history and critical geography of neoliberalism through a study of the overlooked figure of the German economist Herbert Giersch. As a public economist and director of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy from 1969 to 1989, Giersch blended German traditions of location theory with liberal globalism to lay the foundation of a neoliberal economic geography. We show the origins of globalism at Kiel through the work of the institute's founder, Bernhard Harms, and Giersch's influences, including Johann Heinrich von Thünen, August Lösch, and Alfred Weber. We argue that Giersch's neoliberal economic geography emerged out of two perceived necessities in the 1970s. On the one hand, he saw a need to reorient German industry through import competition with the global South. On the other hand, he felt the need for an ethically defensible global imaginary to pose against both traditional German social democracy and the promise of the global South's New International Economic Order. In his metaphor of a landscape of so-called Schumpeterian volcanoes in which regions were locked in perpetual struggle for temporary monopoly positions against competitors, Giersch provided a powerful distillation of the geographic imaginary at the heart of the neoliberal movement since the 1970s.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG-geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich / This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; neoliberalism ; economic geography ; world economy ; economic system ; New International Economic Order ; criticism
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Oxford: Wiley | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-04-09
    Description: There has been much talk about ordoliberalism recently. Scholars and the press identify it as the dominant economic instruction sheet for Germany's European crisis politics. However, by analyzing ordoliberalism only as an economic theory, the debate downplays that ordoliberalism is also an ethical theory, with strong roots in Protestant social thought. It is this rooting in Protestant social thought that makes Ordoliberalism incompatible with the socioeconomic ethics of most of the European crisis countries, whose ethics originate in Catholic and Orthodox social thought. This divergence is the source of a crisis of understanding between European nations and hinders a collective response to the Euro crisis.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; religion ; ordoliberalism ; European integration
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: In a standard Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides labour market with frictions, the authors seek to determine when there is more employment with individual wage bargaining than with collective wage bargaining, using a wage equation generated by the standard total surplus sharing rule. Using a Cobb-Douglas production function, they find that if the bargaining power of the individual is high compared to the bargaining power of the union, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting and vice versa. When the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, if the cost of opening a vacancy is sufficiently high, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting. Finally, for a constant marginal product of labour production function AL, when the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, individual bargaining produces more unemployment.
    Keywords: E24 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Matching frictions ; unemployment ; individual and collective wage setting
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy (ICAE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: What determines the realisticness of a model? It is argued that to come up with an account of model realisticness that can answer this question, one has to make strong philosophical commitments to an account of representation, an account of model-world comparisons as well as the ontology of models and their targets. Without such commitments it is not feasible to determine the realisticness of a model. Since all these areas are subject to ongoing philosophical debate, it is not feasible to come up with a unique and all-encompassing account. Based on this observation, one account of model realisticness, which is based on an antirealist fictional view of models, a commitment to realism about mathematical objects, and the DEKI account of representation, is introduced and discussed. The account aligns well with the practice of applied scientists, who regularly apply validation techniques to assess the realisticness of models. This practice can nicely be accommodated for in the proposed account, and it suggests a number of promising avenues for further philosophical inquiry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Models ; epistemology ; fictionalism ; representation ; model-world comparisons
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-16
    Description: Several papers have attempted to estimate and document the impact of conflict on numerous education, health and socioeconomic outcomes. One lesson from this research is the heterogeneity in the effect of violent conflict across and within countries. In this paper we attempt to estimate the casual impact of conflict in Nigeria on welfare related outcomes. The 2009 insurgence of Boko Haram and the Fulani herdsmen versus farmers conflicts have led to a significant increase in violent conflict in the North Eastern and Central parts of Nigeria. However, bouts of violent conflict has existed in different communities across Nigeria since independence. We estimate the general effect of conflict exposure on welfare, across Nigeria using the three waves of the Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS) combined with ACLED conflict data. Employing a fixed effect approach, our results suggest that recent and long term exposure to conflict increased poverty incidence, poverty gap and poverty severity in Nigeria.
    Keywords: I10 ; I30 ; O1 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; Violence ; Nigeria ; Conflict ; Boko Haram ; Economic Welfare ; Poverty
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-16
    Description: Green fiscal reforms would contribute to climate change mitigation, increase the economic efficiency of national tax systems and provide additional public revenues. Some countries in Latin America have already taken first steps towards green fiscal reforms. This outlook article provides an overview of the major challenges for the successful implementation of such reforms and discusses how they could be overcome.
    Keywords: H23 ; E62 ; Q54 ; N16 ; Q48 ; ddc:330 ; green fiscal reform ; energy subsidies ; Latin America ; multi-objective climate policy ; sequencing ; distribution
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-16
    Description: This paper offers an introduction to the special issue on FDI and multinational corporations: http://www.economics-ejournal.org/special-areas/special-issues/fdi-and-multinational-corporations. It summarizes the contents of the five papers included, and relates them to the recent literature on the subject.
    Keywords: F21 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; foreign direct investment ; multinational corporations
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-16
    Description: This paper may be summarized by the following points. First, the crisis of the liberal world order arises from a misalignment of our social, economic and political domains of activity, along with a resulting destabilization of our physical environment. The integration of the global economy has generated problems that extend beyond our current bounds of social and political cooperation. Second, extending our social cooperation - on which basis our political cooperation can be extended as well - requires the creation of the appropriate moral narratives. These narratives must guide business strategies, public policies and civic activities. Third, these narratives must be supplemented by multilevel governance structures that address challenges at the scale - micro, meso and macro - at which these challenges arise. Finally, past human experience in developing moral narratives, supported by multilevel governance structures, suggests guidelines for a future form of multilateralism that enables us to meet this challenge.
    Keywords: A12 ; A13 ; A14 ; B55 ; F02 ; H11 ; ddc:330 ; economy ; polity ; society ; environment ; liberal world order ; social cooperation ; multilevel governance ; narratives
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Bamberg: Bamberg University, Bamberg Economic Research Group (BERG)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-16
    Description: This paper presents an empirical analysis of the distributional and dynamic properties of firm profit rates, measured by returns on assets, using panel data on 1095 long-lived Japanese (non-financial) listed firms over the 1971-2012 period. In particular, this paper tests the validity of statistical equilibrium approach of Alfarano et al. (2012), by investigating whether the two representative firm size measures of total assets and total sales are the significant determinants of key parameters ruling over the distributional outcome and stochastic motion of firm profit rates: a system-wide aver- age rate of profit, a system-wide dispersion measure of profit rates, and an idiosyncratic noise factor reecting individual firm characteristics. Employing information-theoretic model selection approach and standard panel data econometric techniques which control for both unobserved individual firm heterogeneity and time effects, this paper finds: (i) under the various levels of aggregation using the two size measures as firm classification instruments, the empirical density of profit rates is well described by the Laplace distribution; (ii) the key parameters characterizing the profit rate distribution and its dynamics are independent of the movements in firm size measures. These findings confirm the fundamental predictions from statistical equilibrium approach and the finding (ii) implies that firm competition is an autonomous system, immune to the size of individual firms.
    Keywords: C23 ; C52 ; D22 ; ddc:330 ; diffusion process ; firm size ; Laplace distribution ; long-lived firms ; profit rate dynamics ; statistical equilibrium
    Language: English
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  • 55
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    München, Berlin: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Collaborative Research Center Transregio 190 - Rationality and Competition
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: How do alternative job opportunities affect teacher quality? We provide causal evidence on this question by exploiting business cycle conditions at career start as a source of exogenous variation in the outside options of potential teachers. Unlike prior research, we directly assess teacher quality with value-added measures of impacts on student test scores, using administrative data on over 30,000 teachers in Florida public schools. Consistent with a Roy model of occupational choice, teachers entering the profession during recessions are significantly more effective in raising student test scores. Results are supported by robustness tests and unlikely to be driven by differential attrition.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 56
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    München, Berlin: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Collaborative Research Center Transregio 190 - Rationality and Competition
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: Support for democracy in the population is considered critical for the emergence and stability of democracy. Macro-determinants and retrospective experiences have been shown to affect the support for democracy at the individual level. We investigate whether and how the individual life horizon, in terms of the prospective length of life and age, affect individual attitudes toward democracy. Combining information from period life tables with individual survey response data spanning more than 260,000 observations from 93 countries over the period 1994-2014, we find evidence that the expected remaining years of life influence the attitudes toward a democratic political regime. The statistical identification decomposes the influence of age from the influence of the expected proximity to death. The evidence shows that support for democracy increases with age, but declines with expected proximity to death, implying that increasing longevity might help fostering the support for democracy. Increasing age while keeping the remaining years of life fixed as well as increasing remaining years of life for a given age group both contribute to the support for democracy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; attitudes toward democracy ; life expectancy ; aging
    Language: English
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  • 57
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    München, Berlin: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Collaborative Research Center Transregio 190 - Rationality and Competition
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: We argue that a long-run cultural persistence of right-wing ideology can explain the recent rise of right-wing populism. Shifts in the supply of party platforms can interact with this existing demand, and give rise to patterns of historical persistence. We study the context of Germany in the 2017 federal election, when the emergence of the AfD offered voters a populist right-wing option, with little social stigma attached. We show that municipalities that expressed strong support for the Nazi party in 1933 are more likely to vote for the AfD now, but not in 2013, when the AfD was a more moderate, fiscally conservative party. Using opinion surveys, we show that these dynamics are not generated by a concurrent demand shift: political attitudes do not shift sharply to the right in the municipalities with a history of Nazi support.
    Keywords: D72 ; N44 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Persistence ; Culture ; Right-wing ideology ; Germany
    Language: English
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  • 58
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 60
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 61
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 62
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper investigates the role of works councils in job satisfaction. Using the recently developed Linked Personnel Panel, we consider both the direct and indirect impact via further training. Basic estimates on an individual level do not reveal clearly direct effects, but on an establishment level, the existence of a works council increases the average job satisfaction in a company. In more extended approaches, we also find a positive, weakly significant link on an individual level accompanied by positive training with regard to job satisfaction if we control for personal characteristics, working conditions, firm size, collegiality variables and industry dummies. Firms with industry-wide bargaining agreements drive this result. The effects are stronger if the firm carries the training costs and if the share of trained workers within the firm measures training. The direct impact of works councils remains positive but becomes insignificant if Lewbel's instrumental variables estimator is applied.
    Keywords: J24 ; J28 ; J53 ; ddc:330 ; job satisfaction ; training ; works councils
    Language: English
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  • 63
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Neither market income nor consumption expenditure provides an adequate picture of individual standard of living. It is time which enables and restricts individual activities and is a further brick to a more comprehensive picture of individual well-being. In our study we focus on a prominent part of time use in non-market services: it is parental child care which contributes not only to individual but also to societal well-being. Within a novel approach we ask for multidimensional polarization effects of parental child care where compensation/substitution of time for parental child care versus income is interdependently evaluated by panel estimates of society's subjective well-being. The new interdependent 2DGAP measure thereby provides multidimensional polarization intensity information for the poor and the rich and disentangles the single time and income contribution to subjective well-being ensuring at the same time the interdependence of the polarization dimensions. Socio-economic influences on the polarization pole risk and intensity will be quantified by two stage Heckman estimates. The analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel with 21 waves and robust fixed effects estimates of subjective well-being as well as the German Time Use Surveys 1991/92 and actual 2012/13 with detailed diary time use data. The empirical results discover the interdependent relations between parental child care and income under a common evaluation frame and contribute to the question of dimension specific targeted policies in a multidimensional polarization approach. Prominent result: compensation between parental child care time and income proved to be significant, but there are multidimensional regions with no compensation, where parental child care time deficit is not compensated by income. Interdependent multidimensional polarization by headcount and intensity increased significantly over the twenty years under investigation with remarkable risk and intensity differences between the polarization poles with different disentangled parental child care time and income contributions to subjective well-being.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; J22 ; D10 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; parental child care ; multidimensional polarization of interdependent time and income ; subjective well-being ; poverty and affluence ; minimum multidimensional 2DGAP risk and intensity ; German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) ; German Time Use Study (GTUS 1991/92 and 2012/13)
    Language: English
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