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  • ddc:650  (8,954)
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  • 1
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    Koblenz: Hochschule Koblenz - University of Applied Sciences, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2021-02-04
    Description: Die EU-Klimapolitik gilt als eines der Kernthemen der EU-Politik und umfasst neben anderen Klimaschutzmaßnahmen das Emissionshandelssystem zur Verringerung der Treibhausgasemissionen in Europa. Aktuell steht das im Jahr 2005 gestartete System am Ende der dritten und vor dem Beginn der vorerst letzten festgeschriebenen Handelsperiode. Aus diesem Grund rückt die tatsächliche Wirksamkeit des Instrumentes in den Fokus. Wie wirkt sich das Europäische Emissionshandelssystem auf Unternehmen mit Anlagenstandort in Deutschland aus? Wie beurteilen deutsche Unternehmen die bisherige Umsetzung und welche Möglichkeiten sehen Sie zur Verbesserung des europäischen Emissionshandels? Der vorliegende Beitrag liefert Antworten.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2021-02-12
    Description: There is a reward for a project that can be increased through ability, effort, and cheating. This is analysed for one agent and a team of two. As an extension, a preference for honesty is added, which can prevent cheating but not without limit and not so easily in the team context.
    Description: Es gibt für ein Projekt eine Belohnung, die durch Fähigkeit, Anstrengung und Betrug gesteigert werden kann. Dies wird für einen Agenten und ein Zweierteam analysiert. Als Erweiterung wird eine Präferenz für Ehrlichkeit hinzugefügt, die Betrug verhindern kann, aber nicht unbegrenzt und nicht so leicht im Teamkontext.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; D82 ; K42 ; Z20 ; Z22
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)
    Publication Date: 2021-02-12
    Description: This paper explores how governments may efficiently inform the public about an epidemic to induce compliance with their confinement measures. Using an information design framework, we find the government has an incentive to either downplay or exaggerate the severity of the epidemic if it heavily prioritizes the economy over population health or vice versa. Importantly, we find that the level of economic inequality in the population has an effect on these distortions. The more unequal the disease's economic impact on the population is, the less the government exaggerates and the more it downplays the severity of the epidemic. When the government weighs the economy and population health sufficiently equally, however, the government should always be fully transparent about the severity of the epidemic.
    Description: Revised version - January 28, 2021
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Public Health ; Epidemic Control ; Information Design ; Strategic Behavior
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Reutlingen: Hochschule Reutlingen, ESB Business School
    Publication Date: 2021-02-09
    Description: Bei der nachhaltigen Bereitstellung von Plattformchemikalien der organischen Chemie rücken biobasierte Reststoffe als Kohlenstoffquelle in den Fokus. Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Konversion von Biomasse zu Plattformchemikalien in einer thermochemischen Bioraffinerie auf Basis einer Torrefizierung mit überhitztem Dampf. Auch die folgenden Separationsverfahren werden in die Betrachtung einbezogen. Zunächst wird ein verfahrenstechnischer Aufbau der Bioraffinerie und ihren nachgeschalteten Separationsverfahren entworfen. Anschließend werden die Prozesse analysiert und hinsichtlich der zentralen Material- und Energieströme kalkuliert. Die zu erwarteten Umweltbelastungen werden schließlich daraus abgeleitet und Hotspots identifiziert.
    Description: Regarding the sustainable supply of platform chemicals for the organic chemistry, residual biomass resources are coming into focus as a carbon source. This study is concerned with the conversion of biomass to platform chemicals using a thermochemical biorefinery based on torrefaction with superheated steam. The following separation processes are also included in the consideration. First, a procedural design of the biorefinery and its downstream separation processes is sketched. Subsequently, the processes are analyzed and calculated with regard to the central material and energy flows. Finally, the expected environmental impacts are derived and hotspots are identified.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Bioraffinerie ; Biomasse ; Konversionsverfahren ; thermochemisch ; Plattformchemikalien ; biobasiert ; biorefinery ; biomass ; conversion processes ; thermochemical ; platform chemicals ; biobased
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2021-02-20
    Description: This essay examines how different individual and collective actors interpreted the initial weeks of the worldwide COVID-19 outbreak from the German perspective. During this early phase, knowledge about COVID-19 was quite limited and uncertain, which also influenced the ability to assess (potential) impacts. The analysis relies on twitter data and traces the main arguments in the public German discourse between January and March 2020. It shows that actors ascribed different meanings to the outbreak - either recognizing or negating the gravity of the COVID-19 threat. Shortly before the first German lockdown, the seriousness of the COVID-19 threat had begun to feature prominently within the public discourse.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Pandemic ; COVID-19 ; social construction ; discourse analysis ; Twitter
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: The purpose of this case study is to explore the topic of organizational culture and ultimately define the culture of HealthIA, a rapidly growing service organization operating in the hospitality industry. By collecting qualitative data through interviews and focus groups we aim to benchmark the organization of study against identified practices of healthy culture and provide suggestions for transformation and change. We base our analysis on well-researched cultural theories, namely Schein's ten step assessment process, Cameron and Quinn's Competing Values Framework and House et al.'s GLOBE study. For defining HealthIA's organizational culture, we make use of Schein's three levels of culture, determining the artefacts, espoused beliefs and values, and basic underlying assumptions. HealthIA is identified as culturally diverse with a communitarian focus valuing teamwork and relationships with an underlying assumption that the purpose of the organization is to be highly profitable. Since employee perceptions towards the organizational culture were found to be negatively charged and misaligned with the cultural perceptions of management, an incremental cultural transformation is advised. By extending identified desirable values such as innovation and transparency the organization can improve its culture towards more effective practices. HealthIA's leaders were identified as a crucial component of cultural change and are suggested to be empathetic, encouraging, and communicative. Moreover, HealthIA is advised to align strategy and culture, practice clear and consistent leadership, and emphasize employee socialization practices.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; M14 ; M13 ; M12 ; Organizational Culture ; Service Industry ; Cultural Transformation ; Culture Change ; Leadership
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Berlin: European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)
    Publication Date: 2021-03-05
    Description: This paper explores how governments may efficiently inform the public about an epidemic to induce compliance with their confinement measures. Using an information design framework, we find the government has an incentive to either downplay or exaggerate the severity of the epidemic if it heavily prioritizes the economy over population health or vice versa. Importantly, we find that the level of economic inequality in the population has an effect on these distortions. The more unequal the disease's economic impact on the population is, the less the government exaggerates and the more it downplays the severity of the epidemic. When the government weighs the economy and population health sufficiently equally, however, the government should always be fully transparent about the severity of the epidemic.
    Description: Revised version - February 11, 2021
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Public Health ; Epidemic Control ; Information Design ; Strategic Behavior
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2021-03-12
    Description: Die Einführung der W-Besoldung und der Juniorprofessur durch die Novelle des Hochschulrahmengesetzes 2002 wird kritisch betrachtet, sowohl aus der damaligen Perspektive als auch rückblickend.
    Description: The introduction of the W-salaries and the junior professorship through the amendment of the University Framework Act 2002 is viewed critically, both from the perspective of that time and in retrospect.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; I23 ; I28 ; J33 ; J45 ; K31 ; M12 ; M51 ; M52
    Language: German
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  • 9
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2021-03-12
    Description: The starting point of this paper is the ongoing discussion among academics and practitioners on how to define qualityin university teaching. The different perspectives of the Humboldtian model of higher education, the fields of university didactics and quality management are brought together in a definition of "good teaching" in higher education. With reference to John Hattie's seminal study, five quality factors are proposed for higher education teaching: quality of the (1) curriculum, (2) didactics and methodology of teaching, (3) learning media, (4) performance assessment, and (5) student support. These factors have to be implemented in different forms of study: on campus studies, distance learning, dual studies and part-time studies. Due to the special characteristics of each of these forms, different challenges arise.Quality management in teaching also has to consider in how far the objectives of good university teaching have been achieved in a given situation. Four levels of measurement - reaction, learning, behaviour and results - clarify the distinction between output (direct and immediate results) and outcomes (long-term effects) of university teaching.The discussion of what teaching quality in higher education really means will remain a "hot topic". Continuous changes in society ensure that the discussion must go on.Especially the ongoing developments in digitalization will give new ground for this discussion. The common denominator is that high quality teaching should provide students with the competencies required for their future professional and personal life.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; A22 ; A23 ; Qualität der Hochschullehre ; Hochschuldidaktik ; Kompetenzförderung
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Essen: FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management, KCE KompetenzCentrum für Entrepreneurship & Mittelstand
    Publication Date: 2021-03-13
    Description: Krisen sind ein Beschleunigungsfaktor für Transformationsprozesse. Je schneller sich die Rahmenbedingungen für die Geschäftstätigkeit wandeln, umso stärker sind Unternehmen herausgefordert, ihr Geschäftsmodell daran anzupassen und zukunftsfähig zu gestalten. Die Corona-Pandemie 2020 und die wirtschaftspolitischen Gegenmaßnahmen der ersten und zweiten Welle haben dieses Potenzial in KMU geweckt. Unternehmen mussten sich mit kurzfristigen und kaum prognostizierbaren Änderungen der institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen auseinandersetzen und nach Lösungen für ihre betriebliche Zukunft suchen. Wie ein Brennglas hat die Pandemie so dazu beigetragen, Change-Prozesse in Unternehmen anzustoßen, digitale Geschäftsmodelle zu fördern und Netzwerkbildung anzuregen. Dieser Beitrag analysiert aus ordnungsökonomischer Perspektive die Herausforderungen für KMU anhand von Investitionssicherheit, Kundenkreisen und Betriebsstilllegung und stellt die betrieblichen Lösungsstrategien aus Perspektive des Change-Managements in den Feldern New Work, Digitalisierung, Innovation und Netzwerke dar. Abschließend werden Impulse für eine politische Begleitung dieses ökonomischen Transformationsprozesses gegeben.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    Publication Date: 2021-03-26
    Description: Nonprofit arts organizations face conflicting objectives to balance—or more specifically, to create—artistic and educational value and to generate financial income from various sources. Pay‐what‐you‐want (PWYW), a participative pricing mechanism where services have no fixed price and customers actively decide what to pay, is a novel pricing mechanism and is of high interest for organizations and researchers alike. Based on the concepts of loss aversion and gain, this study presents a field experiment to test the effects of different PWYW pricing strategies on the amount of money paid by visitors of a German photo biennial. Explicitly, the provisions of minimum, maximum, and suggested external reference prices are compared to a setting with no external reference prices. We test the derived hypotheses, discuss the results, and provide implications for future research, as well as for the management of nonprofit arts organizations.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; external reference price ; internal reference price ; nonprofit arts organizations ; pay‐what‐you‐want ; pricing strategy
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Berlin: European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: Product proliferation occurs in supply chains when manufacturers respond to diverse market needs by trying to produce a range of products from a limited variety of raw materials. In such a setting, manufacturers can establish market responsiveness and/or cost efficiency in alternative ways. Delaying the point of the proliferation helps manufacturers improve their responsiveness by postponing the ordering decisions of the final products until there is partial or full resolution of the demand uncertainty. This strategy can be implemented in two different ways: (1) redesigning the operations so that the point of proliferation is swapped with a downstream operation or (2) reducing the lead times. To establish cost efficiency, manufacturers can systematically reduce their operational costs or postpone the high-cost operations. We consider a multi-echelon and multi-product newsvendor problem with demand forecast evolution to analyze the value of each operational lever of the responsiveness and the efficiency. We use a generalized forecast-evolution model to characterize the demand-updating process, and develop a dynamic optimization model to determine the optimal order quantities at different echelons. Using anonymized data of Kordsa Inc., a global manufacturer of advanced composites and reinforcement materials, we show that our model outperforms a theoretical benchmark of the repetitive newsvendor model. We demonstrate that reducing the lead time of a downstream operation is more beneficial to manufacturers than reducing the lead time of an upstream operation by the same amount, whereas reducing the upstream operational costs is more favorable than reducing the downstream operational costs. We also indicate that delaying the proliferation may cause a loss of profit, even if it can be achieved with no additional costs. Finally, a decision typology is developed, which shows effective operational strategies depending on product/market characteristics and process flexibility.
    Description: Revised version - March 16, 2021
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Product proliferation ; lead-time reduction ; process redesign ; delayed differentiation
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Reutlingen: Hochschule Reutlingen, ESB Business School
    Publication Date: 2020-02-01
    Description: Obwohl eSports bereits seit mehr als zwanzig Jahren professionell betrieben wird, sind große Teile der Öffentlichkeit immer noch sehr wenig mit eSports vertraut. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die grundlegende Aspekte rund um eSports erläutert. Gewaltverherrlichung unter Jugendlichen oder negative gesundheitliche Auswirkungen sind Beispiele von Diskussionen, derer sich eSports ausgesetzt sehen. Auch die kontrovers geführte Debatte um die Einbindung von eSports in die Olympischen Spiele verdeutlicht den Bedarf nach mehr Hintergrundwissen über eSports.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Marketing ; Management ; E-Sport ; Sport
    Language: German
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  • 14
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    Singapore: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2020-02-19
    Description: This open access book brings together narratives of inbound and outbound expatriate entrepreneurship in Japan to provide a comprehensive overview of international entrepreneurship in the region. Through in-depth interviews with expatriate entrepreneurs, policymakers, and additional stakeholders it provides the reader with a solid understanding of the current landscape of international entrepreneurship as it relates to Japan and the challenges for policymakers. The topics addressed in this book include definitions of expatriate entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship policy development and implementation, concepts of mindset, cultural brokerage, community, and identity as they relate to Japanese self-initiated expatriate entrepreneurs working in South East Asia and to non-Japanese self-initiated expatriate entrepreneurs working in Japan. Additionally, the book provides an overview of issues connected to regional development and economic growth in Asia. Illustrated through carefully chosen cases from Japan, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Indonesia and developed by connecting these cases to policy and interdisciplinary studies, this book is highly recommended to scholars, policymakers and practitioners who seek an in-depth and up-to-date integrated overview of the field of expatriate entrepreneurship in Asia.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Expatriate Entrepreneurship ; Japanese Entrepreneurship ; Self-Initiated Entrepreneurship ; Asian Entrepreneurship ; Asian Economies ; Entrepreneurship Policy ; Unternehmer ; Unternehmensgründung ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Japan ; Südostasien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 15
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    Berlin: European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: Product proliferation occurs in supply chains to produce diverse products from a limited variety of raw materials. In such a setting, manufacturers can establish market responsiveness and/or cost efficiency in alternative ways. Delaying the point of the proliferation helps manufacturers improve the responsiveness by postponing the ordering decisions of the final products until partial or full resolution of demand uncertainty. This strategy can be implemented in two different approaches: (1) redesigning the operations such that the point of proliferation is swapped with a downstream operation and (2) reducing the lead times. To establish cost efficiency, manufacturers can systematically reduce the costs of all operations or postpone the high-cost operations. We consider a multi-echelon and multi-product newsvendor problem with demand forecast evolution to analyze the value of each operational lever of the responsiveness and the efficiency. We use the multiplicative martingale model of forecast evolution to characterize the demand-updating process, and develop a dynamic optimization model to determine the optimal order quantities at different echelons. We show that reducing the lead time of a downstream operation is more beneficial to manufacturers than reducing the lead time of an upstream operation by the same amount, whereas reducing the costs of upstream operations is more favorable than reducing the costs of downstream operations. We also indicate that delaying the proliferation may cause a loss of profit even if it can be achieved with no additional cost. We develop a decision typology that shows effective operational strategies depending on product/market characteristics and process flexibility.
    Description: Revised version
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; product proliferation ; lead-time reduction ; process redesign ; delayed differentiation
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: Es gibt große Unterschiede in der Bezahlung von professionellen Fußballerinnen und Fußballern. Während die Sportmedien regelmäßig über hohe Einnahmen männlicher Fußballer berichten, wird die Vergütung von Fußballerinnen nur selten öffentlich thematisiert. Nur wenige professionelle Fußballerinnen selbst auf dem höchsten Niveau können von der Vergütung für ihre sportliche Leistung leben und viele sind auf Nebeneinkünfte und Sponsoren angewiesen. Den Verdienstunterschieden stehen jedoch auch große Leistungsunterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern sowohl in körperlicher Hinsicht als auch in Turnieren gegenüber. In den USA wird "equal play, equal pay" gefordert für die sportlich und finanziell erfolgreichere weibliche Nationalmannschaft, die trotzdem deutlich weniger verdient als das Herrenteam. Diskriminierung nach dem Geschlecht lässt sich jedoch keineswegs in allen Ländern feststellen, wenn man die Leistung berücksichtigt.
    Description: There are large differences in the remuneration of female and male professional football players. While the sports media regularly report high earnings for male football players, the remuneration of female football players is quite seldom an issue. Only a few female professional football players even at the highest rank can live from the remuneration for their athletic performance and many depend on additional income and sponsors. However, there are also large performance differences between the sexes in physical terms and in tournaments. In the USA "equal play, equal pay" is claimed for the sportily and financially more successful female national team that nevertheless earns significantly less than the men's team. Yet gender discrimination cannot be determined in all countries if the performance is taken into account.
    Keywords: D63 ; J16 ; J24 ; J31 ; J71 ; L83 ; M52 ; Z22 ; ddc:650 ; Leistungsentgelt ; Geschlechterunterschiede ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Profisport ; Fußball
    Language: German
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  • 17
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-03-24
    Description: In diesem Beitrag werden die wesentlichen Gründe für wissenschaftliche Publikationen behandelt und die diesbezüglichen Vorteile des Internets. Außerdem wird dargelegt, warum der Übergang zu (reinen) Internet-Publikationen so schwierig war und teilweise noch ist.
    Description: This paper examines the main reasons for academic publications and the advantages of the internet in this regard. Furthermore, it argues why the transition to (mere) internet publications has been so difficult and partly still is.
    Keywords: D80 ; I23 ; L17 ; L82 ; L86 ; O33 ; ddc:650
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: This paper discusses some transport economic dimensions of Lucians "Dialogues of the Dead". Using the service "soul transportation to Hades" as an example, we discuss the transport economic notions revealed in these dialogues, and we draw the parallels to modern economic and political debates. It is shown, that Lucian was in position to anticipate some modern competition principles and regulatory approaches.
    Keywords: L91 ; L98 ; R41 ; R48 ; ddc:650 ; Marktversagen ; Regulierung ; Bepreisung
    Language: German
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  • 19
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: The paper focuses on meetings as an over-utilized, but often under-structured tool for managerial effectiveness and efficiency. The authors present four different meeting types, more precisely termed team facilitations, as commonly used in aviation by flight crews: Brainstorming, Briefing, Decision Meeting and Debriefing. In addition, the role of a facilitator is discussed and the importance of a "Comm Cadence" (structural and communicative rules for each facilitation) is put forth. It is suggested that each facilitation be used with a specific purpose, structure, set of attendants, timing etc., and argued towards their general usefulness beyond aviation in any contemporary business setting.
    Keywords: M10 ; M11 ; M31 ; N70 ; ddc:650 ; Luftfahrt ; Aviation ; Time Management ; Projektmanagement ; Meetings ; Führung ; Agilität
    Language: German
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  • 20
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: In general, maintenance as part of the plant management ensures the maximum efficiency and availability of production and infrastructure plants at optimal cost and under satisfactory conditions of quality, safety and protection for the environment. Furthermore, it can be divided into four tasks, such as inspection, preventive maintenance, improvement and repair. As an economically function, maintenance has to be managed in accordance to the corporate strategy. For this reason, maintenance management has a strong strategic focus and decides e.g. which services will be outsourced (buy) or insourced (make). Like any management decision, both show strength and weaknesses as well as opportunities and treats. This discussion paper deals with the external sourcing of technical services in comparison to the services done by own maintenance staff. First, the basics of maintenance and maintenance management like make or buy and the procurement process are outlined. Afterwards, the risk analysis is introduced and applied. Several potential risks were identified and explained in detail. For each risk, several compensate measures were introduced and the individual impact is discussed.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Instandhaltung ; Beschaffung ; Kompetenzen ; Qualitätsmanagement ; Risikoanalyse
    Language: German
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  • 21
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: In today's political and media discussion there is an argument that airline tickets should not be cheaper than train tickets as this would foster growth of air traffic hurting the global climate by being the most negative means of transportation with regard to CO2- and other greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, rail transportation should be subsidized even more, and value added taxes should be reduced so that train tickets might become cheaper to dry out demand for air transportation and by this reduce traffic and its environmental impact. A cost benchmarking of a seat offered in a long-distance train at the example of a GERMAN ICE-2 and an Airbus A320, each operated on the route between Düsseldorf and Berlin shows, that this rationale is based on alternative facts.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Aviation ; Airlines ; Rail Companies ; Long Distance Train ; Cost Benchmarking ; Short haul Flights ; Modal Cost Rail Traffic ; Modal Cost Air Traffic
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: The article compares regional airport infrastructures in Germany to those of other European countries and analyzes recent developments and situation of traffic at German regional airports. Type of services are segregated into hub feeder services, connections to European cities relevant for business travel and private travel destinations. It shows that, compared to other large European countries the landscape of regional airports in Germany is less dense and that traffic there is mostly restricted to hub feeders, major leisure destinations and other destinations for private air travel.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Aviation ; Airlines ; Regional Airports ; Regional Air Traffic Market ; Point-to-Point Air Traffic ; German Air Traffic Market
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: The cross-industry megatrend of digitization is changing the understanding of banking. Innovative technologies such as Big Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence or Cloud Computing are penetrating the financial industry at a rapid pace and are forcing traditional banks to adapt. Modern financial services provided by so-called fintechs or bigtechs are particularly convincing due to their high degree of user-friendliness and ensure increased competi-tive intensity in the financial industry. The retail banking resulting from this digital transformation is called bank-ing 4.0 and will be considered in this paper. The practical effects for customers as well as the challenges for the classical business model of banks are explained by means of selected examples. It turns out that completely digitalized applications unfold their greatest potential through so-called open banking and can thus make the best possible use of the network effects of cooperations. Such platforms are able to provide the appropriate fi-nancial solution individually at any time and any place. This is referred to as embedded banking. which end cus-tomers often experience through so-called smart assistants, which are now installed as standard The associated payment transactions are also becoming increasingly digital, although there are still major regional differences. Decentralized systems such as blockchain technology are used for particularly transaction-intensive applications and already enable cross-border transfers in real time. There is still a large difference between the technically possible and the actually applied banking, but the financial system is also being transformed and redesigned by digitization.
    Keywords: G21 ; O33 ; ddc:650 ; Banking 4.0 ; Digitalisierung
    Language: German
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  • 24
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: Die "Digitale Transformation" wird von Wirtschaft, Verbänden und Politik seit Jahren als die zentrale Herausforderung zur Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Unternehmen und damit der gesamten deutschen Volkswirtschaft diskutiert. Neuere Studien zeigen, dass die Digitalisierung mittlerweile im deutschen Mittelstand angekommen ist, nicht nur als Teil der Strategie, sondern auch in der betrieblichen Praxis. Die Unternehmen sehen in der Digitalisierung überwiegend ein großes Potenzial, Ihre Marktanteile und damit ihren langfristigen Unternehmenserfolg zu sichern und weiter auszubauen. Wo aber stehen die deutschen KMU Logistikdienstleister und vor allem wie gehen sie die digitale Transformation an? Ist ihre Vorgehensweise in erster Linie von einem fremdgesteuerten Aktionismus geprägt oder wird der Entwicklungsprozess durch eine systematische und strategieorientierte Reifegradentwicklung ganzheitlich geführt und unterstützt? Im Ergebnis dieser Studie können wir feststellen: Die Digitalisierung steht bei den Logistikdienstleistern nicht nur ganz oben auf der Agenda. Die Unter-nehmen arbeiten auch intensiv daran, ihre Prozesse, Produkte und Dienstleistungen durch den Einsatz von digitalen Technologien zu verbessern. Im Detail zeigen sich allerdings bei der Mehrheit der Unternehmen klare Handlungsbedarfe in der systematischen, ganzheitlichen und strategieorientierten Vorgehensweise. Signifikante Unterschiede in der Schwerpunktsetzung der Digitalisierungsaktivitäten zwischen Transport und Logistik sind - von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen - nicht zu erkennen.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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  • 25
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: Digitization not only makes it possible to expand existing business models with digital service functions, digitization also enables completely new business models. The digital technologies can be existential for a business model or support you in achieving a new cost / benefit ratio through an increased value proposition. For example, sales and communication channels, sources of income or complete products and services can be rethought or newly combined. Digital Business Development supports organizations in developing digital business models and successfully implementing them in operational practice. The following discussion paper deals with the possibilities and limits of new business models. The focus here is on selected patterns of digital business models and their far-reaching changes in industry, trade and services. The discussion focuses on the following question: What opportunities do new business models offer and what are their challenges and limits? First, the basics of business development in the digital age are outlined. The potential and challenges of selected patterns of digital business models are then presented. It concludes with a critical reflection on the limits of digital business models based on the knowledge gained. The importance of the factors "people and the real economy" in the digital age is emphasized.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Digitale Geschäftsmodelle ; Business Development ; Ambidexteritätsproblematik ; Value Proposition
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-04-10
    Description: Banken und Finanzdienstleister sind aktuell aufgrund der anhaltenden Niedrigzinspolitik der Europäischen Zentralbank, eines zunehmend regulierten Marktumfelds und einer rasch fortschreitenden Digitalisierung mit zahlreichen - für sie neuen und teils unerwarteten - Herausforderungen konfrontiert. Der anhaltende Rückgang, der für Banken so wichtigen Zinserträge und die stagnierenden oder nur mäßig wachsenden Provisionserträge führen derzeit zu einem Wegbrechen von Erträgen. Gepaart mit der Digitalisierung, die nicht nur neue Wettbewerber in den Markt bringt, sondern auch die Geschäftsmodelle der Banken selbst im Kern verändert, führt dies dazu, dass sich die Rahmenbedingungen in der Finanzbranche grundlegend verändert haben und auch in Zukunft noch weiter verändern werden. Hinzu kommt, dass sich auch das Verhalten und die Erwartungen der Kunden dahingehend verändert haben, dass Faktoren wie "Bequemlichkeit", "Flexibilität" und "Schnelligkeit" für sie zunehmend von Relevanz sind. Aus diesem Grund wird - nach einem theoretischen Überblick zum Status Quo sowie zu den Herausforderungen - im Rahmen einer eigens durchgeführten Studie den Fragen nachgegangen, was Bankkunden eigentlich wollen und was sie konkret von ihrer Bank erwarten.
    Keywords: G21 ; M30 ; M31 ; M37 ; ddc:650 ; Kundenerwartungen ; Kundenzufriedenheit ; Kundenbindung ; Betreuungskonzept ; ganzheitliche Beratung
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
    Description: Despite extensive research on the liability of newness of young firms and what they can do to reduce information asymmetries, relatively little is known about how young digital ventures' growth and scaling is affected by different forms of endorsement. With a focus on third-party endorsements from industry analysts, I approach this question using a two-stage research design. First, I empirically examine the connection between awards given by industry analysts and the funding of digital ventures. I use the example of the Cool Vendor award given by the analyst firm Gartner and focus on the fintech domain. Using semi-structured interviews, I then identify and explain different forms of endorsement from a digital venture perspective, thereby differentiating between pure market signals and more sophisticated mechanisms. This differentiation is presented in a conceptual framework, which I propose as a supplement to the signalling literature. This paper promotes a better understanding of what helps fledgling digital firms to develop and prosper.
    Description: Trotz umfangreicher Untersuchungen zur sogenannten Bürde der Neuheit junger Unternehmen und darüber, was sie tun können, um Informationsasymmetrien zu verringern, ist relativ wenig darüber bekannt, wie das Wachstum und die Skalierung junger digitaler Unternehmen durch verschiedene Formen der Unterstützung beeinflusst wird. Mit einem Fokus auf die Unterstützung durch Branchenanalysten gehe ich dieser Frage mit einem zweistufigen Forschungsdesign nach. Zunächst untersuche ich empirisch den Zusammenhang zwischen der Vergabe von Auszeichnungen durch Analysten und der Finanzierung junger digitaler Unternehmen. Ich benutze das Beispiel der Cool Vendor-Auszeichnung der Analystenfirma Gartner und konzentriere mich auf den Fintech-Bereich. Mit Hilfe halbstrukturierter Interviews identifiziere und erkläre ich zudem verschiedene Formen der Unterstützung aus Perspektive junger digitaler Unternehmen und unterscheide dabei zwischen reinen Marktsignalen und komplexeren Mechanismen. Diese Unterscheidung wird in einem konzeptionellen Framework dargestellt, welches ich als Ergänzung zur Signalling-Literatur vorschlage. Dieser Beitrag fördert ein besseres Verständnis davon, was junge digitale Unternehmen in ihrer Entwicklung unterstützt.
    Keywords: D83 ; G24 ; M13 ; O33 ; ddc:650 ; Gründungsfinanzierung ; E-Business ; Signalling ; Befragung
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: The tourism and hospitality industry currently faces one of its most serious operational, commercial, and financial crises as a result of the worldwide spread of COVID-19. Both destinations and source markets are substantially affected and have suspended operations and commercial activities. Major market players in all areas of the touristic value chain, i.e., airlines, tour operators, hotels, cruise lines, and retailers, have either minimized or even completely stopped their production for an undefined period of time, resulting in the sudden and total cut-off of their revenue streams. This paper will comprehensively highlight in an initial assessment economic impacts and operational challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry caused bv the from COVID-19 crisis. General and mostly European-centered perspectives are supplemented by an African insight represented by a Ghanaian case-study.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; COVID-19 ; tourism industry ; travel industry ; hospitality management ; economic impact ; operational challenges ; crisis management
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: We test the impact of online hotel ratings on the customers' hotel choice using a binary choice experiment where the online rating score is one of the hotels' attributes. Results show that online rating scores have a positive and significant impact on hotel choice. We also calculate the individual willingness to pay for higher rating scores and report the corresponding income and age elasticities.
    Keywords: C25 ; L8 ; D12 ; Z31 ; ddc:650 ; Hotel rating ; online review ; discrete choice model ; logit model ; monetary valuation ; eWOM
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: Churches are places of faith, but also tourist attractions. Especially cultural tourists appreciate the church build-ings for their architecture and atmosphere. There are different types of tourists who are interested in culture and visiting churches. Within the framework of a quantitative study, the example of the Church of St. Michaelis (Michel) in Hamburg is used to investigate what motivates older travellers in particular to visit churches on holiday. The Michel is a landmark of the city of Hamburg and high investment sums are currently being planned to improve the use of space around the church, which should also influence the quality of stay of citizens and visitors in the city. Despite competition from the Elbe Philharmonic, the Michel is still perceived as a landmark of the city and is therefore on the sightseeing list of older citizens. They are motivated above all by their interest in culture and education and especially by their interest in churches and landmarks.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Kulturtourismus ; Städtetourismus ; Seniorentourismus ; Kirchentourismus ; Reisemotivation ; Attraktionspunkte
    Language: German
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  • 31
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-05
    Description: Nowadays Airbnb represents a popular subject both within professional journals as well as on industry platforms. Most of them focus on the aspect of the competition of Airbnb and the hospitality industry - hotels, guesthouses as well as apartments. This research paper focuses a slightly different aspect: approaches of selected European destinations within their attitude towards Airbnb. Within this research a combined survey from various angles is conducted: identification of the 10 European destinations most represented on Airbnb (by offered accommodation - reference date Oct 15, 2018), potential course of action from destination management point of view as well as enforced course of action within the selected destination. As part of the analysis a ranking of the range of Airbnb offers within the correspondent destinations is set up.
    Keywords: L19 ; L83 ; ddc:650 ; Sharing Economy ; Beherbergungsgewerbe ; Destinationsmanagement ; Airbnb
    Language: German
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  • 32
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-06
    Description: Employers currently encounter more and more members of Generation Z - who finished their school as well as university education - without knowing exactly what this generation wishes and needs. This paper verifies current assumptions about Generation Z with a quantitative study in Germany, consisting of two parts. As a first step, members of Generation Z (n = 103) were queried upon their work attitudes while in a second step, company representatives (n = 48) were asked about their assumptions on the adolescents' preferences. Thus, not only conclusions on young adults could be drawn, but also on the (lack of) knowledge about Generation Z of their employers. The prior assumption that the young generation would be difficult to employ inter alia due to their refusal of a work-life blending, lacking career orientation, and inability to take feedback could not be supported. In fact, Generation Z seems to be committed as well as motivated to work for their professional success. Employers showed a decent understanding of their young employees, though there seem to be a couple of misapprehensions.
    Keywords: M12 ; M50 ; ddc:650 ; Generation Z ; work attitudes ; desired workplace design ; leadership ; feedback culture
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-08
    Description: Virtual tutorials are the only interface to classroom teaching in distance learning. They correspond to lectures, seminars and exercises in direct study. Their designated position is committed to quality in order to keep distance learning competitive on the long run. High dropout rates already indicate a lack of binding quality in distance learning. The approach of involvement, as a person- and tutorial-related variable, is a predisposed possibility to increase the quality of education and loyalty of distance learning with very little resource expenditure. According to the typology of virtual models by Mason (1998), the degree of involvement is decisive for the quality of the model. Due to the high demands of distance learning on the self-management ability of the students, a high level of personal loyalty is necessary in order to absorb the feeling of lonely and alone learning. This can be counteracted through the feeling of belonging to a group or group awareness. This feeling that most students experience in direct study on their own must be actively generated in distance learning due to the mediating medium. The tools required for this are available on all common learning platforms, but their importance is not recognized. Involvement can also be created through active participation opportunities for learners. This includes the possibility of active communication in virtual tutorials, which can be guided by the tutors through skillful rhetorical means, as well as the active participation via shared screen functions, which gives participants writing, drawing and arithmetic possibilities in the shared virtual space, as well as the immediate publication of cell phone photos and thus current documents about the simultaneous entry to the zoom meeting with the cell phone. The importance of the tutorials can be taken into account when creating the curriculum. With the implementation of research-related teaching as one of the central tasks of university political education, the virtual tutorial is the only place for classroom teaching in distance learning. (Wissenschaftsrat, 2016) With the help of the matrix for the classification of research-oriented teaching by Rueß, J./Gess, C./Deicke, W. (2016), all 12 levels of research-related teaching can be incorporated into the curriculum of distance learning courses in order to fulfill the central task of teaching of research competencies. This involves communicative requirements in the form of discussion and exchange, which can only be realized through the online-based tutorial. The virtual tutorial thus represents a crucial quality component in distance learning as an education and interpersonal attachment factor.
    Keywords: I19 ; ddc:650 ; virtuelle Tutorien ; Group Awareness ; Bildungsqualität ; Bindungsqualität ; Ressourcen ; Matrix forschungsorientierter Lehre ; Involvement in virtuellen Modellen ; Selbststeuerung ; involvementförderliche Fragetechniken
    Language: German
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  • 34
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Description: The covid-19-virus has been causing a global pandemic in 2020. As a result of the rapid spread of the virus, the German government has decided to restrict social contacts as much as possible. This also has an impact on companies that increasingly allow their employees to work from home. Both for science and practice there is the chance to gain new insights into remote-work. This article pursues three central questions: How widespread was remote-work in Germany before the Corona crisis? What special demands and resources are necessary for people to cope with the new situation (working at home)? And finally: What factors influence the performance, commitment and job-satisfaction of employees working at home?
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Corona-crisis ; remote-work ; job-demands ; job-ressources ; commitment ; job-satisfaction ; performance
    Language: German
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  • 35
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Description: In the long term, real estate in Germany and the USA delivers high returns of 5% to 8% per year. However, the path to these average yields differs greatly: total returns on the German real estate markets tend to develop similarly to the gross domestic product with only slight fluctuations. The US real estate markets tend to show high yield fluctuations with a time lag parallel to the stock market. The corona pandemic is a huge exogenous shock with an uncertain outcome for society, the economy and the financial markets. The study of real estate data over the last 40 years and the analysis of two economic crises (2000-2003 and 2007-2009) indicate that the German residential and office markets in particular will also survive the corona pandemic with stable performance. In the USA, stronger price declines are to be expected with a time lag, which will probably recover in subsequent years.
    Keywords: R31 ; R33 ; O16 ; ddc:650 ; Immobilien ; Immobilienmarkt ; Immobilienrenditen ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Finanzkrise ; Corona
    Language: German
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  • 36
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-05-16
    Description: In this study, we perform a meta-analysis on existing research covering the relationship between a venture capitalist's involvement (VCI) and the performance (P) of funded firms. As research on this topic has been inconclusive, we aim to determine whether providers of venture capital (VC) only possess superior scouting capabilities or whether they can also provide additional value beyond the simple endowment of financial resources. Furthermore, we determine whether the nature of the institutions in the funded firms' home countries, in terms of institutional quality and financial market efficiency, is a critical factor in the VCI - P relationship. We argue that a venture capitalist's decision to actively engage in its portfolio firms and provide value beyond capital depends on the quality of formal institutions and the likelihood of achieving a successful exit. We test our arguments using a meta-analytical approach on a dataset of 984 effect sizes in 15 individual countries. Our results show that venture capitalists have advantages stemming from superior selection and guidance capabilities. In addition, our results confirm that higher quality of formal institutions and the efficiency of the financial market in the startups' home countries strengthen the VCI - P relationship. In essence, we help corroborate arguments from the resource-based view, which suggest that the success of a VCI depends on institutional factors.
    Description: In dieser Studie wird eine Metaanalyse der gegenwärtig vorliegenden Forschung durchgeführt, die sich mit der Beziehung zwischen der Venture Capital-Beteiligung (VCI) und der Performance (P) der finanzierten Unternehmen befasst. Da die Forschungsergebnisse zu diesem Thema nicht eindeutig sind, wird untersucht, ob Anbieter von Venture Capital ihre Portfoliobeteiligungen nur besser auswählen oder ob sie auch über die bloße Ausstattung mit finanziellen Mitteln hinaus einen Mehrwert, z. B. durch aktives Engagement, generieren können. Darüber hinaus soll ermittelt werden, ob die Art der Institutionen in den Heimatländern der finanzierten Unternehmen hinsichtlich ihrer Qualität und Finanzmarkteffizienz einen Einfluss auf die Beziehung zwischen VCI und P hat. Es wird argumentiert, dass die Entscheidung eines Risikokapitalgebers, über das Kapital hinaus Unterstützung zu leisten, von der Qualität der formalen Institutionen und der Wahrscheinlichkeit eines erfolgreichen Exits abhängt. Diese Argumente werden mit Hilfe eines metaanalytischen Ansatzes anhand von 984 Effektgrößen aus 15 einzelnen Ländern getestet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Risikokapitalgeber Vorteile haben, die sich aus ihren überlegenen Fähigkeiten zur Auswahl und Unterstützung der Portfoliobeteiligungen ergeben. Darüber hinaus bestätigen die Ergebnisse, dass die höhere Qualität der formalen Institutionen und die Effizienz des Finanzmarktes in den Heimatländern der Portfoliounternehmen die Beziehung zwischen VCI und P stärkt. Dies stützt Argumente der ressourcenbasierten Sicht, dass der Erfolg einer VCI von institutionellen Faktoren abhängt.
    Keywords: G2 ; G24 ; L25 ; M13 ; O43 ; ddc:650
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2020-05-22
    Description: This paper analyzes optimal hedge ratios for foreign exchange (FX) rate risk of companies. Our contribution to the literature is twofold: (i) We present a theoretical two-period regret model that allows us to analyze the determinants of the optimal hedge ratio given the outcome of past hedging decisions and future expectations. The model implies that the optimal hedge ratio depends on the past hedge ratio, the past exchange rate return, the expected exchange rate return and the skewness of its distribution, its covariance to the foreign market return, as well as the company's risk and regret aversion. (ii) We test the related model-derived hypotheses on a broad sample of US non-financial companies over the period 1995 to 2015 and find strong evidence for the model's predictions. By adding a dynamic regret approach to the hedging and FX literature we shed further light on the rationale behind selective hedging.
    Keywords: F31 ; G15 ; G32 ; G41 ; ddc:650 ; exchange rate exposure ; regret aversion ; hedging ; risk aversion ; derivatives
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2020-05-22
    Description: The currency carry trade (CCT) strategy - borrowing in low-interest-rate currencies and investing in high-interest-rate currencies - has been found to generate excess returns that cannot be explained by common risk factors. We argue that companies implicitly execute carry trades, when they have input costs and sales in countries with differing interest rate levels. Consequently, the equity of companies that are not fully hedged against foreign exchange rate changes should be sensitive to returns from currency carry trades. Analyzing a broad sample of US firms, our contribution to the literature is twofold: (i) Based on an APT approach we find a risk premium for implicitly executed currency carry trades in equity returns. (ii) We examine the influence of various company-specific characteristics and find that a company's size and liquidity have the most significant impact on its sensitivity to currency carry trade returns.
    Keywords: F31 ; G32 ; G15 ; ddc:650 ; carry trade ; hedging ; exchange rate exposure ; uncovered interest parity
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2020-05-22
    Description: This paper examines the foreign exchange rate exposures of US companies and how they are linked to foreign macroeconomic determinants. I use US trade-weighted macroeconomic indices of foreign countries to explain the variation in foreign exchange rate exposures, measured as the sensitivities of stock returns to exchange rate returns of US non-financial companies over the period 1995 to 2017. I find strong evidence that the after-hedging exposures of potential exporters are affected by their expectations of foreign market gross domestic products, current account balances, consumer price indices, term spreads, unit labor costs as well as government expenditures.
    Keywords: F31 ; G1 ; E44 ; ddc:650 ; exchange rate exposure ; macroeconomic expectations ; selective hedging
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Reutlingen: Hochschule Reutlingen, ESB Business School
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Influencer Marketing stellt derzeit einen der größten Trends im Online-Marketing dar. Zahlreiche Unternehmen betreiben aktuell Influencer Marketing und die Zahl wächst stetig. Das Bilden und Beeinflussen der Meinung von Konsumenten ist nicht neu, im Gegenteil, dies ist eine grundsätzliche Aufgabe von Werbung. Doch worin besteht der Reiz des Influencer Marketing sowohl für Unternehmen als auch für Konsumenten? Wodurch konnte eine kompett neue Berufsgruppe erschaffen werden, die dadurch ein festes Einkommen generiert? Das heutige Influencer Marketing kann aufgrund der derzeitigen Entwicklung sogar größere Erfolge als herkömmliche Werbemaßnahmen auslösen. Im nachfolgenden Diskussionspapier sollen die Fragen um die Herkunft, die Vorgehensweisen und den Hype um Influencer Mareting sachlich argumentiert dargelegt werden. Zudem werden vier Unternehmen, die erfolgreich Influencer-Marketing betreiben, näher betrachtet und Expertenmeinungen aus diesen Unternehmen vorgestellt.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Marketing ; Management ; Influencer ; Social Media
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-06-04
    Description: Naturwissenschaftliche Fragen rund um den Klimawandel sind von Naturwissenschaftlern zu beantworten. Ökonomen und Wirtschaftsethiker können jedoch dazu beitragen, den Klimawandel und mögliche Gegenmaßnahmen zu bewerten. Dabei ist ein einheitlicher Preis für die Emission von Treibhausgasen zu empfehlen. Es gibt ein globales Kollektivgutproblem, welches sich am ehesten durch die Vereinbarung einer Zertifikatslösung überwinden lässt. Außerdem sollten die Forschung und Entwicklung gefördert werden.
    Description: Natural scientific questions regarding climate change have to be answered by natural scientist. However, economists and economic ethicists can contribute to the evaluation of climate change and possible countermeasures. In doing so, a uniform price for the emission of greenhouse gases is advisable. There is a global public good problem that can most likely be resolved by the agreement of a certificate solution. Moreover, research and development should be supported.
    Keywords: A11 ; A12 ; D61 ; D70 ; D81 ; F64 ; H23 ; H41 ; H87 ; P18 ; Q40 ; Q51 ; Q54 ; Q55 ; Q58 ; ddc:650
    Language: German
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  • 42
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    Koblenz: Hochschule Koblenz - University of Applied Sciences, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2020-06-04
    Description: Durch die Digitalisierung ergeben sich neue Möglichkeiten der Optimierung der gesamten Wertschöpfungskette von Unternehmen. Spezialisierte Anbieter haben dies erkannt und dafür digitale B2B-Lösungen entwickelt. Unternehmen müssen entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz der neuen Technologien für sie lohnt und sollten diese einer Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtung unterziehen. An zwei konkreten Fallbeispielen wird untersucht, ob solche Investitionen einer Wirtschaftlichkeitsüberprüfung standhalten können. Welche zusätzlichen Faktoren beeinflussen die Entscheidung?
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Digitalisierung ; Wirtschaftlichkeit ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Investitionsrechnung ; Hotellerie ; Tourismuswirtschaft ; Lagermanagement
    Language: German
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  • 43
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    Stralsund: Hochschule Stralsund, Stralsund Information Management Team (SIMAT)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-18
    Description: Hackathons as events for participative, creative problem solving, originating from software development have been adapted to many other industries in recent years, among them museums. A series of hackathons was implemented in museums in different countries in the Baltic Sea region, in an international project uniting museums, universities and NGOs. This document summarizes the experiences made and lists the recommendations derived from reflections of the organizing teams of the four events. In this working paper, firstly, the project and the concept of hackathons is introduced. Then, the experiences made with different concepts for realizing hackathons for museums are described. Finally, the major part of this document describes the recommendations for developing a tailored hackathon concept, developing the event communication and planning the event infrastructure. The document additionally provides a template for a project plan and provides examples for gathering feedback after the event.
    Keywords: M16 ; O31 ; O36 ; ddc:650 ; Hackathon ; Museum ; Open Innovation
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-06-30
    Description: It has often been claimed that services are so much special and featured by challenging characteristics such as "intangibility", "perishability" "simultaneity" and "heterogeneity". This paper will show that indeed services and industrial manufacturing are both featured by same process characteristics and challenges. For this purpose, the paper introduces into the General Process Model as a tool for analysis and visualisation. Then, the named characteristics will be examined, including numerous examples easy to understand. The reader will understand that the above mentioned features either apply to any industrial manufacturing as well, or have academic but no practical relevance, or even reflect analytical failure in service theory. More important, the author points at the real issues worth being discussed: Products (services) that are highly customer-specific and demand arrivals with low predictability, both challenging capacity management and both calling for solutions manufacturing and services industries can deliver to each other.
    Keywords: B40 ; D24 ; L60 ; L80 ; M10 ; M11 ; ddc:650 ; service characteristics ; general process model ; business process reengineering ; service definition ; service concept ; service theory
    Language: English
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-06-30
    Description: Aim of the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action plan was to strengthen entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe. Women belong to the underrepresented groups owning or founding own businesses and therefore offer unused economic potential. For this reason, women's entrepreneurship research is once again more in focus. Especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) the entrepreneur has a decisive influence on the success of the company. As a previous study showed, there are significant differences between the personality traits and self-regulation competencies of women entrepreneurs leading fast-growing companies (+72.8 % growth in turnover or number of employees within three years), not fast-growing companies and non-entrepreneurs. Looking to the future of Germany the question arises whether the personality characteristics and self-regulation skills of the female Generation Z as young generation support the goals of the EU and are already matching the profile of successful female entrepreneurs or still need to be developed.
    Keywords: M10 ; M13 ; ddc:650 ; Women Entrepreneurship ; Entrepreneurship Education ; Small and Medium-Sized Companies ; Generation Z
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 46
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    Berlin: European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)
    Publication Date: 2020-07-03
    Description: Private cartel damages litigation is on the rise in Europe since early 2000. This development has been initiated by the European courts and was supported by various policy initiatives of the European Commission, which found its culmination in the implementation of the EU Directive on Antitrust Damages end of 2016. This paper explores the impact of this reform process on effective compensation of damaged parties of cartel infringements. For that purpose we analyse all European cartel cases with a decision date between 2001 and 2015, for which we analyse litigation activity and speed. Overall, we find a substantial reduction of the time until first settlement (increase in litigation speed) together with a persisting high share of cases being litigated (high litigation activity). This supports the view that the reform not only increased the claimant's expectation about the amount of damages being awarded, but also resulted in an alignment in the expectations of claimants and defendants in the final damages amount, i.e. the European Commission succeeded in reaching its objective to clarify and harmonize legal concepts across Europe.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; cartels ; private damages ; competition law
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 47
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    Hamburg: NBS Northern Business School - University of Applied Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: Ziel dieses Working Papers ist es, die Auswirkungen der aktuellen Krisenlage auf die Risiken von Handelsunternehmen, Opfer von Kriminalität zu werden, zu bewerten. Ausgehend von der Entwicklung der Ladendiebstähle der letzten Jahre und der von Unternehmen ergriffenen Maßnahmen wird untersucht, inwieweit die unterschiedlichen Szenarien der aktuellen Situation - stark erhöhte Nachfrage insbesondere nach Einzelprodukten einerseits und Lagerhaltung der restlichen Güter andererseits - die Risikoeinschätzung verändern sowie welche Maßnahmen kurzfristig durch die Unternehmen ergriffen werden können.
    Description: The aim of this working paper is to assess the effects of the current crisis on the risks of trading companies to become victims of crime. Based on the development of shoplifting in recent years and the measures taken by companies, it is examined to what extent the different scenarios of the current situation - greatly increased demand, in particular for individual products on the one hand and warehousing of different goods on the other hand - change the risk assessment and which measures can be taken by the companies in the short term.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Hamburg: NBS Northern Business School - University of Applied Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: Ziel dieses Working Papers ist es, die Entwicklung der Wirtschaftskriminalität im Zuge der Corona-Pandemie zu analysieren. Auf Grundlage eines Medienlagebildes werden mit Hilfe kriminalwissenschaftlicher Theorien Auswirkungen der aktuellen Krisenlage für das Deliktfeld der Wirtschaftskriminalität bewertet sowie Handlungsempfehlungen für Unternehmen erörtert.
    Description: The aim of this working paper is to analyze the development of white-collar crime in the wake of the corona pandemic. Based on a media situation picture, the effects of the current crisis situation for the crime field of white-collar crime are assessed with the help of criminal science theories and recommendations for action for companies are discussed.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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    Hamburg: NBS Northern Business School - University of Applied Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: Ziel dieses Working Papers ist die Betrachtung der Rolle der Sicherheitswirtschaft in Deutschland im Rahmen der Corona-Krise. Dazu wurde durch die Autoren eine Umfrage unter Führungskräften aus Unternehmen der Sicherheitswirtschaft durchgeführt, deren Ergebnisse hier vorgestellt werden. Die Auswirkungen der Krise werden diskutiert und Schlussfolgerungen zur weiteren Entwicklung der Branche an sich abgeleitet. Zugleich wird auch die Rolle der Sicherheitswirtschaft in der Sicherheitsarchitektur der Bundesrepublik und bei der Bewältigung von Krisen betrachtet.
    Description: The aim of this working paper is to examine the role of the security industry in Germany in the context of the corona crisis. For this purpose, the authors carried out a survey of executives from companies in the security industry, the results of which are presented here. The effects of the crisis are discussed and conclusions are drawn on the further development of the industry itself, but also on the role of the security industry in the security architecture of the Federal Republic and in coping with crises.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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  • 50
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    Erfurt: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-06-29
    Description: No concept of corporate management has spread as quickly in global business practice as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton. This discussion paper examines its origins, theoretical foundation, practical distribution and key points of criticism in the literature a quarter of a century after its inception. The paper is based on a former publication by the same author in the German WISU journal.
    Keywords: M10 ; M11 ; M40 ; ddc:650 ; Management Accounting ; Controlling ; Balanced Scorecard ; Management Control
    Language: English
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-06-30
    Description: The COVID-19 crisis has identified several weaknesses and shortcomings of global supply chain networks. Due to the rapidly increasing demand of protective healthcare equipment, i.e. goggles, masks or equipment, it is visible that global supply chains have been significantly challenged. Furthermore, countries had to compete for available products, also leading to drastic price rises. The German government had to ask Multinational Companies (MNC) to procure healthcare equipment, as government procurement authorities were not experienced in dealing with global supply chains (Petersen, 2020). Moreover, even though machines for making masks and healthcare equipment are manufactured in Germany, there was no domestic supply. Under pressure to overcome the masks shortage in Germany, the government has promised state subsidies covering 30% of investment costs of companies venturing to launch fabric production. The funding will be capped at €10 million ($10.9 million), but includes a purchase guarantee from the government. The situation displayed how fragile and disruptive global supply chains can be in crisis situations. Moreover, the case shows the dependency on imports from China and other countries for pharmaceuticals or medical equipment.
    Keywords: L91 ; L98 ; R41 ; R48 ; ddc:650 ; Public Procurement ; Supply Chain Management (SCM) ; Procurement Strategy ; Public Sourcing
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Stralsund: Hochschule Stralsund, Stralsund Information Management Team (SIMAT)
    Publication Date: 2020-07-04
    Description: Die Earned-Value-Analyse (EVA) ist eine integrierte Betrachtung von Kosten, Zeit und Leistung in Bezug auf die erbrachte Projektleistung. Sie ermöglicht damit dem Projektmanagement - gleich ob die verantwortliche Person der Projektüberwachung, Projektleitung oder Teilprojektleitung zuzurechnen ist oder lediglich Verantwortung für ein Arbeitspaket trägt - eine umfassende Sicht auf den Projektfortschritt. Ihren Einsatz findet die EVA im Rahmen eines umfassenden Earned-Value-Managements (EVM). Insgesamt kann sie als Frühwarnsystem für das Projektmanagement betrachtet werden. Hierzu lassen sich mit ihrer Hilfe Kosten- und Zeitabweichungen ermitteln sowie entsprechende Prognosen bis zum Projektende erstellen. Grafische Darstellungen erlauben einen schnellen Überblick über den Projektstatus. Voraussetzungen für eine Anwendung der EVA sind insbesondere realistische und vollständige Planungen sowie eine hohe Qualität der projektbezogenen Ist-Daten.
    Keywords: M10 ; M21 ; M42 ; ddc:650 ; Earned-Value-Analyse ; Earned Value Management ; Fertigstellungswertanalyse ; Projektmanagement ; Projektsteuerung
    Language: German
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  • 53
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-07-24
    Description: In times of digitalization, new ways occur to integrate suppliers in the B2B buying process. Community cloud computing enhances the collaboration between B2B buyers and suppliers. However, so far, there is little empirical evidence on how B2B buyers can use community cloud computing to integrate suppliers in the B2B buying process. This study investigates the areas of application, motives, and risks of B2B buyers to use community cloud computing for supplier integration. We use an exploratory research design and conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 experts in the German market. Even though our results show that community cloud computing is not an established technology, we find that B2B buyers use cloudbased procurement systems to enhance supplier integration. Interestingly, cloud-based procurement systems appear in all steps of the B2B buying process. This study identifies four ideal types of B2B buying processes, whose manifestations depend on the buying situation and the importance of the product. The use of cloud-based procurement systems in B2B buying adds up to the three main outcomes cost reduction, time savings, and resource access. We provide recommendations to B2B buyers and suppliers facing the four types how to use cloud computing in order to establish long-term relationships. Finally, we open up new research areas to further explore this topic.
    Description: In Zeiten der Digitalisierung ergeben sich neue Wege, Lieferanten in den B2B-Einkaufs¬prozess zu integrieren. Community Cloud Computing verbessert die Zusammenarbeit zwischen B2B-Einkäufern und -Lieferanten. Bislang gibt es jedoch kaum empirische Erkenntnisse darüber, wie B2B-Käufer Community Cloud Computing nutzen können, um Lieferanten in den B2B-Kaufprozess zu integrieren. Diese Studie untersucht die Anwendungsbereiche, Motive und Risiken von B2B-Käufern, Community Cloud Computing für die Lieferantenintegration zu nutzen. Wir wenden ein exploratives Forschungsdesign an und führen semi-strukturierte Interviews mit 14 Experten auf dem deutschen Markt durch. Obwohl unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Community Cloud Computing keine etablierte Technologie ist, stellen wir fest, dass B2B-Käufer cloud-basierte Beschaffungssysteme nutzen, um die Lieferantenintegration zu verbessern. Interessanterweise tauchen Cloud-basierte Beschaffungssysteme in allen Schritten des B2B-Einkaufsprozesses auf. Diese Studie identifiziert vier ideale Arten von B2B-Einkaufsprozessen, deren Erscheinungsformen von der Einkaufssituation und der Bedeutung des Produkts abhängen. Der Einsatz Cloud-basierter Beschaffungssysteme beim B2B-Einkauf addiert sich zu den drei Hauptergebnissen Kostensenkung, Zeitersparnis und Ressourcenzugang. Wir geben B2B-Einkäufern und -Lieferanten, die mit den vier Arten von Cloud Computing konfrontiert sind, Empfehlungen, wie sie Cloud Computing nutzen können, um langfristige Beziehungen aufzubauen. Schließlich eröffnen wir neue Forschungsbereiche, um dieses Thema weiter zu erforschen.
    Keywords: M11 ; M15 ; ddc:650
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Augsburg: University of Augsburg, Chair of Management and Organization
    Publication Date: 2020-07-18
    Description: Substantial efforts have contributed to overcome the scarcity of hidden champions research. Nevertheless, literature has missed to compile a comprehensive review. Drawing on the insights of 94 publications, four strands of literature could be distinguished to unravel the essence of hidden champions. Research on hidden champions studies their 1) internationalization strategies, 2) R&D and innovation strategies, the 3) worldwide and regional geographic distribution of hidden champions and finally 4) other research that could not be assigned to one of the first three strands. A hand-collected sample of 1372 German hidden champions exemplifies the key insights from the reviewed research articles. Discussing the findings of the different literature strands aims at drawing a conclusion on their main results and analytical pitfalls to eventually unfold and motivate future research avenues.
    Keywords: D4 ; L1 ; L22 ; O32 ; ddc:650 ; Literature Review ; Hidden Champions ; Niche Strategy
    Language: English
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    Kaiserslautern: Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Lehrstuhl für Unternehmensrechnung und Controlling
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Betriebe sind das Erfahrungsobjekt der betriebswirtschaftlichen Forschung. So eindeutig und geradezu trivial diese Aussage klingt, so diffus erscheinen die Antworten auf die Frage, was denn nun eigentlich einen Betrieb von einem "Nicht-Betrieb" unterscheidet, wobei Letzterer dann vom Selbstverständnis des Faches ausgehend nicht zum Gegenstandsbereich der Betriebswirtschaftslehre [BWL] zählen würde. Wird diese Frage überhaupt thematisiert, so wird typischerweise auf Abgrenzungen rekurriert, die aus der Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts stammen und die dementsprechend die damaligen wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse widerspiegeln. Dadurch werden z. B. große, längst als Erfahrungsobjekte der BWL etablierte, Bereiche als "Nicht-Betriebe" nicht erfasst (z. B. öffentliche Verwaltungen), neuere Entwicklungen (z. B. Public-Private-Partnerships) ausgeblendet oder betriebswirtschaftlich vergleichbare Institutionen kategorial unterschieden, was erkenntnistheoretisch ebenfalls nicht überzeugen kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit nimmt sich genau dieser Limitationen der klassischen Betriebsauffassungen an, wobei auf Forschungsansätze der "neueren Systemtheorie" zurückgegriffen wird, welche als Fundament einer neuen sozio-technischen Konzeption des Betriebs dienen. Hierbei kombiniert der Beitrag in neuartiger Weise die potentielle Selbsterhaltungsfähigkeit sozialer Systeme mit einem vertieften und differenzierteren Verständnis technischer Systeme. Da aber nicht jedes sozio-technische System bereits sinnvoll als Betrieb bezeichnet werden kann, werden weitere betriebskonstitutive Eigenschaften erarbeitet. Danach sind Betriebe solche sozio-technischen Systeme, die durch einen Betreiber betrieben werden und einen für Dritte erkennbaren und vom System über eine gewisse Dauer mit einem gewissen Mindestprofessionalisierungsgrad verfolgten Betriebszweck aufweisen. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer kritischen Würdigung der Operationalisierung des Kriteriums der erwerbswirtschaftlichen Ausrichtung und einer daraus entwickelten Reformulierung, wonach Unternehmen als wertschöpfungsfokussierte Betriebe zu charakterisieren sind.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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  • 56
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    Essen: KCMS KompetenzCentrum für Marketing & Sales Management der FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management
    Publication Date: 2020-08-05
    Description: Kfz-Versicherungen können durch aktives Schadenmanagement die Kosten senken sowie die Kundenzufriedenheit und Kundenbindung steigern. Dies gilt auch im Rahmen des betrieblichen Flottenmanagements, das in diesem Beitrag behandelt wird. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es wichtig, die Kundenerwartungen an das aktive Schadenmanagement und deren Erfüllung zu kennen, um daraus Optimierungsansätze abzuleiten. Dementsprechend wird ein kundenseitiges Beurteilungsmodell des aktiven Schadenmanagements aus bestehender Literatur und Experteninterviews abgeleitet. Kern der Untersuchung ist eine Befragung von 238 Kunden eines Automobilflottendienstleisters. Methodische Grundlage ist die Means-End Theory of Complex Cognitive Structures. Insgesamt werden die Erwartungen der Kunden an das aktive Schadenmanagement zu circa 80% erfüllt. Den Kunden ist die schnelle Wiederherstellung der Mobilität wichtiger als die langfristige Schadenbehebung. Die schon als relativ positiv wahrgenommene Qualität des persönlichen Kontaktes, des fachlichen Supports und der Werkstattlösung sollte von Dienstleistern ausgebaut werden. Ein höherer Optimierungsbedarf liegt jedoch bei der Ersatzwagenlösung vor, so dass hier eine Qualitätsaufbaustrategie angeraten ist.
    Description: Vehicle insurances can reduce cost and increase customer satisfaction and loyalty through active damage management. This also applies to commercial vehicle fleets, which this article focuses on. Against this background, it is important to know the customer expectations and their fulfilment so that improvement measures can be taken. Accordingly, a customer-oriented evaluation model is deduced from literature and expert interviews. A survey of 238 customers of a vehicle fleet management provider is the core of this research, using the Means-End Theory of Complex Cognitive Structures as method. Active damage management fulfils approximately 80% of the customers' expectations. The customers regard it as being more important to regain mobility quickly than having an effective long-term repair solution. The personal contact, expertise and repair solution are of good quality and should be secured by service providers. Providing a suitable courtesy car and quickly restoring mobility for the customers, however, needs substantial improvement.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-08-14
    Description: Marketing has to be completely rethought in the age of the digital revolution. An expansion of existing concepts and models, as has always been done since the 1950s, is no longer sufficient here. This means that findings from the past few decades, such as consumer focus and segmentation, can be better adapted to the model. The new concept now puts the individual consumer at the center of attention and consistently aligns marketing with it. From the point of view of the consumer, it is no longer important to optimize the marketing mix, but the perceived customer-specific offer. This change of perspective has far-reaching consequences: innovation management is detached from the marketing mix, information gathering is given a more central role, and options for individualization and customer relationships are also taken better into account. The marketing instruments are no longer viewed in isolation, but always in collaboration and in interaction with the consumer. The associated increase in complexity leads, in a first step, from a personnel-centered marketing- and target group analysis to a process-oriented analysis.
    Keywords: M31 ; ddc:650 ; Marketing House ; Digital Revolution ; Consumer Orientation ; Automated Customer Segmentation ; Thought Model
    Language: German
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  • 58
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    Bad Honnef: IUBH Internationale Hochschule
    Publication Date: 2020-08-14
    Description: The lack of qualified nurses has been a burden on the German health care system for many years. Due to the important role of nurses in health services, there are increasing attempts to address the shortage of staff by recruiting professionals from abroad. To alleviate the shortage of skilled labour in general, the German government passed a new law in 2020 on the immigration of skilled workers from outside the European Union to take up work in Germany (Fachkräfteeinwanderungsgesetz). Whether recruiting nurses from abroad is a viable or sufficient strategy needs to be evaluated. In our case, a selection of participants in the healthcare sector, hospital managers, staffing agencies and foreign nursing staff were interviewed. Although foreign professionals are perceived to make a significant contribution to mitigate the tight staffing situation, serious obstacles have been identified. In addition, data collected and analysed showed, that recruitment of foreign nursing staff still accounts for a small number of nurses. Even though it helps, it cannot substitute changes in the German system and workforce attractiveness itself. Especially, since nurses from abroad have similar work expectations as Germans do. The challenges for foreign nursing staff relate mainly to administrative hurdles, language barriers and social integration, especially cultural issues, the latter having also emerged as the key factors for long-term retention. Furthermore, the Global Code of Conduct of the WHO prohibits recruiting from countries which themselves already suffer from a shortage of skilled workers or have a similar demographic development as Germany. Also recruitment from abroad should not postpone necessary reforms in the German nursing sector. Therefore, recruiting foreign nurses is not the only strategy against the nursing shortage. Only a mix of different measures will lead to long-term success. The study provides insights into the feasibility and sustainability of international recruitment, not disregarding the complexity of the underlying reasons for the nursing shortage and is, therefore, relevant for scientists and practitioners alike.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; nursing shortage ; foreign nurses ; professionals from abroad ; obstacles to international recruitment ; professional recognition ; workplace integration ; long-term retention
    Language: English
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    Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School (CBS)
    Publication Date: 2020-08-13
    Description: This is a paper-based dissertation, consisting of a 'cape' and three articles, one of which is singleauthored. The topic is servitization at work. Servitization is a competitive strategy that, typically, Western industrial manufacturing companies implement in order to secure their continued existence in increasingly competitive markets. Servitization means combining products with a service component. With increasing servitization implementation, companies move away from focusing on the sales of products and instead emphasize their use, for example by repairing them, renting them out or by operating and maintaining machines for clients. But more recent literature also highlights that companies face many challenges when implementing servitization, up to the point where some close their service business again. This indicates that servitization has important implications to it other than 'just' selling services. This dissertation argues that some of these implications have gone by unnoticed because much of the literature is both rooted in and itself perpetuating a number of widely-held assumptions. Taking on a pragmatic stance, it explores how servitization is at work, despite the challenges associated with it. In so doing, it challenges three taken-for-granted notions in the literature, namely that customers demand services by default, that products are stable and that servitization is one definite thing. It draws on the infralanguage and methodology provided by Actor-Network Theory. In particular, it mobilizes the ideas around qualification, inscription and multiplicity.
    Description: The section from page 90-143 is under an embargo and has been removed from the accepted manuscript version.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Leistungsbündel ; Beziehungsmarketing ; Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie ; Theorie-Praxis-Verhältnis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:doctoralThesis
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    Hamburg: NBS Northern Business School - University of Applied Sciences
    Publication Date: 2020-08-25
    Description: Ziel dieses Working Papers ist es, aus der Beobachtung der Auswirkungen der Corona-Pandemie Schlussfolgerungen für das Konzept der Resilienz von Organisationen zu ziehen. Dabei werden auf Grundlage eines Medienlagebildes Entwicklungen beschrieben und mit vorhandenen Interpretationsansätzen verglichen sowie Thesen für die weitere Befassung mit dem Thema erörtert.
    Description: The aim of this working paper is to draw conclusions for the concept of organisational resilience from the observation of the effects of the corona pandemic. Developments are described on the basis of a media situation picture and compared with existing interpretive approaches. Theses for further dealing with the topic are discussed.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Language: German
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Organisationsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-08-27
    Description: Because of the COVID-19-pandemic the men's first German football league (Bundesliga) had to finish the season 2019/20 with ghost games as spectators were not allowed in the stadiums. Comparing these games with the regular ones between the same teams before, we find that the normal advantage for the home team disappears. One reason for this is the disappearances of the home bias of the referees whereas changes in the sportive performance of the teams seem to be irrelevant in this regard.
    Description: Wegen der COVID-19-Pandemie musste die erste deutsche Bundesliga der Männer die Saison 2019/20 mit Geisterspielen beenden, da Zuschauer in den Stadien nicht zugelassen waren. Wenn wir diese Spiele mit den regulären Spielen zwischen denselben Teams vergleichen, stellen wir fest, dass der normale Vorteil für die Heimmannschaft verschwindet. Ein Grund dafür ist das Verschwinden des Bias der Schiedsrichter für die Heimmannschaft, während Änderungen in der sportlichen Leistung der Mannschaften in dieser Hinsicht irrelevant zu sein scheinen.
    Keywords: Z20 ; ddc:650 ; Fußball ; Profisport ; Erfolgsfaktor ; Coronavirus ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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    Köln: Technische Hochschule Köln, Schmalenbach Institut für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2020-08-27
    Description: The increasing public awareness of business related impacts on environmental and social well-being, be it positive or negative, are nowadays key drivers of corporate success. Internal and external business environments exert pressure and force transparency as well as responsible action in terms of resolving environmental and social impacts. In line with this, Porter and Kramer regard business behaviour that addresses societal needs and challenges, as the "new way to achieve economic success". However, whereas some companies "remain trapped in an out-dated approach to value creation" and restrict their CSR commitment to the compliance with governmental regulation, others proactively address stakeholder needs. By addressing these needs, companies can benefit from grasping the opportunity of enhanced cost efficiency and lowered risk or gaining competitive advantages through establishing unique value propositions, in a way that meets stakeholder demands. Apart from that, CSR performance can be seen as powerful tool to successfully influence stakeholder perceptions in terms of reputation, and thus an exceptional source of value creation. In addition to this, organisations can profit from win-win-win situations related to syncretic value creation by means of partnering with stakeholders. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; CSR ; Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility ; Value creating ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Wertschöpfung
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-08-22
    Description: This discussion paper reports and reflects on the reception of our article "Organizational path dependence: Opening the black box", which was published in 2009 in the Academy of Management Review and granted the AMR Decade Award in 2019. While we were invited by the editor of the journal to discuss the criticism evoked by that paper, to re-examine our original propositions in the light of advanced insights and to outline new avenues for future research on organizational path dependence, in this discussion paper we report in some detail and comment on the citation landscape of our original AMR piece.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Management ; Organization ; Strategy ; Structural Inertia ; Institutional Persistence ; Path Dependence ; Path Creation ; History
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, European Research Center for Information Systems (ERCIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-08-29
    Description: Constraint-logic object-oriented programming is useful in the integrated development of business software that occasionally solves constraint-logic problems. So far, work in constraint-logic object-oriented programming was limited to considering constraints that only involve logic variables of primitive types; in particular, boolean, integer, and floating-point numbers. However, the availability of object-oriented features calls for the option to use logic variables in lieu of objects as well.Therefore, support for reference-type logic variables (or free objects) is required. With the present work, we add support for reference-type logic variables to a Java-based constraint-logic object-oriented language. Allowing free objects in statements and expressions results in novel interactions with objects at runtime, for instance, non-deterministic execution of invocations on free objects(taking arbitrary class hierarchies and overriding into account). In order to achieve this, we also propose a dynamic type constraint that restricts the types of free objects at runtime.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; constraint-logic object-oriented programming ; reference-type logic variables ; programming language implementation ; runtime systems
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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