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  • Annual Reviews  (23,855)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of peptic ulceration, distal gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. Only 15% of those colonized develop disease, and pathogenesis depends upon strain virulence, host genetic susceptibility, and environmental cofactors. Virulence factors include the cag pathogenicity island, which induces proinflammatory, pro-proliferative epithelial cell signaling; the cytotoxin VacA, which causes epithelial damage; and an adhesin, BabA. Host genetic polymorphisms that lead to high-level pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to infection increase cancer risk. Pathogenesis is dependent upon inflammation, a Th-1 acquired immune response and hormonal changes including hypergastrinaemia. Antral-predominant inflammation leads to increased acid production from the uninflamed corpus and predisposes to duodenal ulceration; corpus-predominant gastritis leads to hypochlorhydria and predisposes to gastric ulceration and adenocarcinoma. Falling prevalence of H. pylori in developed countries has led to a falling incidence of associated diseases. However, whether there are disadvantages of an H. pylori-free stomach, for example increased risk of esosphageal adenocarcinoma, remains unclear.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Loss of Ca2+ homeostasis, often in the form of cytoplasmic increases, leads to cell injury. Depending upon cell type and the intensity of Ca2+ toxicity, the ensuing pathology can be reversible or irreversible. Although multiple destructive processes are activated by Ca2+, lethal outcomes are determined largely by Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. This form of damage is primarily dependent upon mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, which is regulated by the mitochondrial membrane potential. Retention of the mitochondrial membrane potential during Ca2+ increases favors mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and overload, resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition and cell death. In contrast, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, retards mitochondrial permeability transition, and delays death, even in cells with large Ca2+ increases. The rates of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake may determine cellular sensitivity to Ca2+ toxicity under pathological conditions, including ischemic injury.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Atherosclerosis, the cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic gangrene, is an inflammatory disease. The atherosclerotic process is initiated when cholesterol-containing low-density lipoproteins accumulate in the intima and activate the endothelium. Leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemokines promote recruitment of monocytes and T cells. Monocytes differentiate into macrophages and upregulate pattern recognition receptors, including scavenger receptors and toll-like receptors. Scavenger receptors mediate lipoprotein internalization, which leads to foam-cell formation. Toll-like receptors transmit activating signals that lead to the release of cytokines, proteases, and vasoactive molecules. T cells in lesions recognize local antigens and mount T helper-1 responses with secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to local inflammation and growth of the plaque. Intensified inflammatory activation may lead to local proteolysis, plaque rupture, and thrombus formation, which causes ischemia and infarction. Inflammatory markers are already used to monitor the disease process and anti-inflammatory therapy may be useful to control disease activity.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sarcomas form a highly diverse group of rare tumors that are derived from connective tissue. More than 100 different malignant and benign soft tissue neoplasms can be recognized by histologic examination. Few diagnostic markers exist, and the cell of origin for many soft tissue tumors is unknown. The accurate diagnosis of many of these tumors therefore remains a challenge. The study of sarcomas has yielded many insights that can be applied to other neoplasms such as carcinoma. For example, the success of the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor with Imatinib has led to an increased effort to find targeted therapies for other malignancies. Here we describe the known molecular changes in a number of sarcomas and focus on novel scientific approaches that can be expected to lead to improved diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy of sarcoma.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the past 25 years, a majority of cancer studies have focused on examining functional consequences of activating and/or inactivating mutations in critical genes implicated in cell cycle control. These studies have taught us a great deal about the functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and the signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation and/or cell death. However, such studies have largely ignored the fact that cancers are heterogeneous cellular entities whose growth is dependent upon reciprocal interactions between genetically altered "initiated" cells and the dynamic microenvironment in which they live. This review highlights the aspects of cancer development that, like organogenesis during embryonic development and tissue repair in adult mammals, are regulated by interactions between epithelial cells, activated stromal cells, and soluble and insoluble components of the extracellular matrix.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Developmental heart disorders are the most common of all human birth defects and occur in nearly one percent of the population. Survivors of congenital heart malformations are an increasing population, and it is becoming clear that genetic mutations that cause developmental anomalies may result in cardiac dysfunction later in life. This review highlights the progress in understanding the underlying molecular basis for cardiac formation and how disruption of the intricate steps of cardiogenesis can lead to congenital heart defects. The lessons learned from examining the early steps of heart formation are essential for informing the prevention of malformations and their long-term consequences, as well as for approaches to guide stem cells into cardiac lineages.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Modern techniques of cell and molecular biology have rapidly uncovered the mechanisms underlying inflammatory injury of the lung. This expanding knowledge (which includes an understanding of complement, cell surface receptors, cytokines and chemokines, transcription factors, oxidants, proteinases, and endogenous inhibitors, as well as the role of leukocyte adhesion-promoting molecules) has provided new insights into the inflammatory system in general, as well as in the context of lung injury. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the regulation of lung inflammation by using immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexĐ??induced lung injury as a model. These studies have provided information on the role of various inflammatory mediators and their sequence of engagement. Insights into potential interventional approaches for the suppression of inflammatory processes in humans have emerged from those studies.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Among the many viruses that are known to infect the human liver, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unique because of their prodigious capacity to cause persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. HBV and HCV are noncytopathic viruses and, thus, immunologically mediated events play an important role in the pathogenesis and outcome of these infections. The adaptive immune response mediates virtually all of the liver disease associated with viral hepatitis. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells exacerbate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced immunopathology and that platelets enhance the accumulation of CTLs in the liver. Chronic hepatitis is characterized by an inefficient T cell response unable to completely clear HBV or HCV from the liver, which consequently sustains continuous cycles of low-level cell destruction. Over long periods of time, recurrent immune-mediated liver damage contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nonimmune glomerulopathies are an area of significant research. This review discusses the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with particular attention to the role of the podocyte in the initiation of glomerulosclerosis and the contribution to glomerulosclerosis from capillary hypertension and soluble factors such as transforming growth factor beta, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiotensin. The effects of these factors on endothelial and mesangial cells are also discussed. In addition, we review our current understanding of the slit diaphragm (a specialized cell junction found in the kidney), slit diaphragmĐ??associated proteins (including nephrin, podocin, ʼ̛-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein, and transient receptor potential channel 6), and the role of these proteins in glomerular disease. We also discuss the most recent research on the pathogenesis of collapsing glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, Denys-Drash, diabetic nephropathy, Alport syndrome, and other diseases related to the interaction between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prostate cancer displays considerable clinical, morphological, and biological heterogeneity. Classical genetic techniques have provided only limited information about the pathogenesis of prostate cancer progression. Nevertheless, several candidate genes and pathways have been implicated in prostate cancer development. High-throughput techniques have exponentially expanded the number of candidate genes, including some whose role in prostate cancer pathogenesis has been studied. However, the techniques used to study the prostate cancer genome, transcriptome, and proteome generate massive amounts of data that have yet to be integrated and explored. To move beyond candidate gene identification and develop a comprehensive understanding of cancer pathogenesis, integrative approaches need to analyze this data on a global level. This review addresses candidate genes involved in prostate cancer pathogenesis in a biological and clinical context and demonstrates how integrated analysis of high-throughput data augments our understanding of prostate cancer.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The endothelial cells lining vascular and lymphatic vessels are targets of several infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria, that lead to dramatic changes in their functions. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the clinical manifestations of those infections has been advanced through the use of animal models and in vitro systems; however, there are also abundant studies that explore the consequences of endothelial infection in vitro without supporting evidence that endothelial cells are actual in vivo targets of infection in human diseases. This article defines criteria for considering an infection as truly endothelium-targeted and reviews the literature that offers insights into the pathogenesis of human endothelial-target infections.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a large number of benign and malignant diseases is unique among DNA viruses. Within infected tissues, proteins that are expressed during the normal lytic and latent viral life cycle lead to cellular alterations that contribute to these EBV-associated diseases. Although the early events of EBV infection are poorly understood, increasing knowledge of the viral processes that govern viral latency has shed light upon the potential mechanisms by which EBV infection can lead to cellular transformation. Our current understanding of the role of EBV in the development of Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and other EBV-associated diseases is discussed.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Malignant gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumor, are a spectrum of tumors of varying differentiation and malignancy grades. These tumors may arise from neural stem cells and appear to contain tumor stem cells. Early genetic events differ between astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, but all tumors have an initially invasive phenotype, which complicates therapy. Progression-associated genetic alterations are common to different tumor types, targeting growth-promoting and cell cycle control pathways and resulting in focal hypoxia, necrosis, and angiogenesis. Knowledge of malignant glioma genetics has already impacted clinical management of these tumors, and researchers hope that further knowledge of the molecular pathology of malignant gliomas will result in novel therapies.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurodegenerative diseases as diverse as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease share a common pathogenetic mechanism involving aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins, which leads to progressive central nervous system disease. Although the type of aggregated protein and the regional and cellular distribution of deposition vary from disease to disease, these disorders may all be linked by similar pathways of protein aggregation with fibril formation and amyloid deposition. This perspective on pathogenesis suggests that a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases can be grouped mechanistically as brain amyloidoses, an outlook that yields novel insights into potential therapeutic approaches that may be applicable across the broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disease.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: From histological and biological perspectives, lung cancer is a complex neoplasm. Although the sequential preneoplastic changes have been defined for centrally arising squamous carcinomas of the lung, they have been poorly documented for the other major forms of lung cancers, including small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. There are three main morphologic forms of preneoplastic lesions recognized in the lung: squamous dysplasias, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. However, these lesions account for the development of only a subset of lung cancers. Several studies have provided information regarding the molecular characterization of lung preneoplastic changes, especially for squamous cell carcinoma. These molecular changes have been detected in the histologically normal and abnormal respiratory epithelium of smokers. Two different molecular pathways have been detected in lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis: smoking-associated activation of RAS signaling, and nonsmoking-associated activation of EGFR signaling; the latter is detected in histologically normal respiratory epithelium.
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  • 16
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: I am honored to write the prefatory chapter for the inaugural volume of the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. This publishing venture signals that pathology takes its rightful place alongside the other biomedical sciences. I thought it may be of interest to some to delineate how a circuitous path led me into a career in experimental pathology and to give some of the flavor of a past era in experimental approaches. Thus, my title.
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  • 17
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    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parasitic diseases represent major global health problems of immense proportion. Schistosomiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, cause millions of deaths annually, and present an immense social and economic burden. Recent advances in genomic analysis of several of the major global parasites have revealed key factors involved in the pathogenesis of parasite diseases. Among the major virulence factors identified are parasite-derived proteases. This review focuses on the direct role of proteases in disease pathogenesis. Well-characterized examples of the roles proteases play in pathogenesis include their involvement in invasion of the host by parasite migration through tissue barriers, degradation of hemoglobin and other blood proteins, immune evasion, and activation of inflammation.
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  • 18
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    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has long been suspected of having an infectious etiology on the basis of its unusual epidemiology, histopathology, and natural history. Nearly a decade ago, a novel herpesviral genome was discovered in KS biopsies, and since that time strong epidemiologic evidence has accumulated correlating infection with this KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus 8) with the development of the disease. Here we review the evidence linking KSHV infection to KS risk and discuss current notions of how KSHV gene expression promotes the development of this remarkable neoplasm. These studies show that both latent and lytic viral replicative cycles contribute significantlyĐ??but differentlyĐ??to KS development. The studies also highlight mechanistic differences between oncogenesis caused by KSHV and that caused by its distant relative Epstein-Barr virus.
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  • 19
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1553-4006
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although Gram-negative bacteria have often been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock, how they trigger these often lethal syndromes is uncertain. In particular, the role played by blood-borne bacteria is controversial. This review considers two alternatives. In the first, circulating Gram-negative bacteria induce toxic reactions directly within the vasculature; in the second, the major inflammatory stimulus occurs in local extravascular sites of infection and circulating bacteria contribute little to inducing toxic responses. Evidence for each alternative is found in the literature. Bacteremia and severe sepsis are not so closely linked that the most striking cases can be a model for the rest. Intravascular and extravascular triggers may warrant different approaches to prevention and therapy.
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  • 20
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 251-276 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review recent advances in understanding, modeling, and controlling oscillations in the flow past a cavity. The fundamental mechanisms underlying cavity flow oscillations have been known for at least 40 years, but suppressing these oscillations in a reliable and robust way is still a challenge today. Interest in controlling the flow past a cavity is motivated by aerospace applications, but in addition, cavity flows provide an attractive canonical problem for exploring general flow control techniques. The focus is on recent advances in modeling these flows, and in controlling them, using both open-loop and closed-loop techniques. A relatively new perspective is that cavity oscillations may not always be self-sustained, but under some flow conditions may be lightly damped resonances, sustained by external disturbances such as boundary layer turbulence. Areas in which our understanding is incomplete, and which deserve further study, are discussed, in particular the effects of high-frequency open-loop forcing, fundamental limitations of feedback control for a given configuration of sensors and actuators, and the development of a feedback design methodology that respects the limited range of validity of the available dynamical models.
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  • 21
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 371-394 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.
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  • 22
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 339-369 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We consider the hydrodynamics of creatures capable of sustaining themselves on the water surface by means other than flotation. Particular attention is given to classifying water walkers according to their principal means of weight support and lateral propulsion. The various propulsion mechanisms are rationalized through consideration of energetics, hydrodynamic forces applied, or momentum transferred by the driving stroke. We review previous research in this area and suggest directions for future work. Special attention is given to introductory discussions of problems not previously treated in the fluid mechanics literature, with hopes of attracting physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers to this relatively unexplored area of fluid mechanics.
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  • 23
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 65-86 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The fluid mechanics of artificial blood pumps has been studied since the early 1970s in an attempt to understand and mitigate hemolysis and thrombus formation by the device. Pulsatile pumps are characterized by inlet jets that set up a rotational "washing" pattern during filling. Strong regurgitant jets through the closed artificial heart valves have Reynolds stresses on the order of 10,000 dynes/cm2 and are the most likely cause of red blood cell damage and platelet activation. Although the flow in the pump chamber appears benign, low wall shear stresses throughout the pump cycle can lead to thrombus formation at the wall of the smaller pumps (10Đ??50 cc). The local fluid mechanics is critical. There is a need to rapidly measure or calculate the wall shear stress throughout the device so that the results may be easily incorporated into the design process.
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  • 24
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 87-110 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.
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  • 25
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 159-192 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The review deals with drop impacts on thin liquid layers and dry surfaces. The impacts resulting in crown formation are referred to as splashing. Crowns and their propagation are discussed in detail, as well as some additional kindred, albeit nonsplashing, phenomena like drop spreading and deposition, receding (recoil), jetting, fingering, and rebound. The review begins with an explanation of various practical motivations feeding the interest in the fascinating phenomena of drop impact, and the above-mentioned topics are then considered in their experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects.
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  • 26
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 49-63 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prostate cancer is an attractive target for chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, treatment-related morbidity, long latency between premalignant lesions and clinically evident cancer, and defined molecular pathogenesis. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has provided the first firm evidence that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral agent. Additional agents, many of which are antioxidants with antiandrogenic effects, are being tested (or soon will be) in large clinical trials. The current body of evidence is insufficient to make a routine recommendation of any dietary or nutritional supplement for the prevention of prostate cancer.
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  • 27
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 1-18 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancer have now been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, and in 28 other countries including China. Clinical application of this new class of drugs is informed by certain principles from angiogenesis research. Oncogenic mutations initiate tumorigenesis, but angiogenesis is necessary for expansion of tumor mass. Two angiogenesis inhibitors have been developed that have a broad spectrum of anticancer activity, yet virtually no side effects. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors act as tumor suppressor proteins. The angiogenic response in vivo is based on the genetic background of the host. Several types of angiogenesis inhibitors reveal a biphasic, U-shaped curve of efficacy. "Antiangiogenic chemotherapy" is a novel approach to the treatment of drug resistance.
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  • 28
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 207-221 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals as the result of an immune response to gluten. This immune response occurs in both the lamina propria and the epithelium of the small intestine. There is a close link to HLA DQ2 and DQ8, although these HLA genes account for only 40% of the genetic influence. Environmental factors, such as the amount and timing of gluten administration in infancy, as well as breastfeeding, influence the disease. Serologic screening studies that use sensitive and specific antibody tests have revealed the disease to be common, occurring in Đ♯1% of the population. Clinical presentations are diverse and atypical; the majority of patients lack diarrhea. Therapy is a gluten-free diet that requires avoidance of wheat, rye, and barley, although there is potential for other therapies based on our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.
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  • 29
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 499-511 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer's disease have become an increasingly important focus of clinical research. These symptoms also pose a tremendous challenge to families and caregivers. The late afternoon/evening exacerbation of behavioral symptoms in dementia has been recognized by clinicians for 〉60 years. Researchers have utilized a variety of increasingly sophisticated tools to examine the circadian, hormonal, physiological, and epidemiological correlations with sundowning behavior. Although treatment remains largely empirical, an improved understanding of the complex relationships that drive sundowning behavior should lead to more effective therapies in the future.
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  • 30
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 575-590 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the short time since it became effective for health care organizations, a privacy regulation issued under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) has had a significant adverse impact on the conduct of clinical research in the United States, without a substantial corresponding increase in privacy protection for research participants. Some of the problems associated with HIPAA have been resolved through revisions since the regulation's initial promulgation in December 2000, and other problems can be addressed by better educating health care providers and researchers about its requirements and available alternatives for compliance; however, considerable structural challenges remain. These constitute substantial barriers to research and resulting medical advances. Additional revisions to HIPAA based on the principles and trade-offs reflected in the Common RuleĐ??which responsibly balances an individual's interest in privacy protection with the public interest in gaining knowledge through biomedical researchĐ??can go a long way to remedying remaining flaws in the system.
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  • 31
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 535-551 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Existing treatments for neuropathic pain deliver inadequate pain relief, unacceptable side effects, or both. The unmet medical need for more effective treatment is driving a large volume of research to discover new drugs. Most existing treatments are drugs introduced to treat other pain conditions or other medical conditions, such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants, which were found empirically to be effective for neuropathic pain. Only recently have drug discovery efforts have become mechanistically driven, addressing targets identified by a molecular neurobiological approach to the pathophysiology of neuropathic states.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 473-484 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We review the clinical and genetic disorders associated with exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with normal hearts. Foremost are those with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to abnormalities in either the ryanodine receptor 2 genes (RyR2) or the calsequestrin genes (CASQ). These patients manifest ventricular premature beats and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in response to exercise or on exposure to catecholamines. A great deal of basic information has been accumulated suggesting that these arrhythmias are caused by abnormalities in Ca2+ metabolism. The ensuing cytosolic Ca2+ overload results in delayed after-depolarizations and extrasystolic Ca2+ waves, leading to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Most of these patients will respond to beta-blocker therapy but a significant minority (30%) will require a defibrillator. Advances in genetic testing allow better understanding of this syndrome.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 513-533 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 4.5 million people in the United States. The mainstays of current pharmacotherapy for AD are compounds aimed at increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, thereby facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission through inhibition of the cholinesterases. These drugs, known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), were first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 based on clinical trials showing modest symptomatic benefit on cognitive, behavioral, and global measures. In 2004 the FDA approved memantine, an NMDA antagonist, for treating dementia symptoms in moderate to severe AD cases. In clinical practice, memantine may be co-administered with an AChEI, although neither drug individually or in combination affects the underlying pathophysiology of dementia. Dementia in AD results from progressive synaptic loss and neuronal death. As knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration in AD increases, it is anticipated that neuroprotective drugs to slow or prevent neuronal dysfunction and death will be developed to complement current symptomatic treatments.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 167-180 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Rotavirus is the single most common cause of acute, dehydrating gastroenteritis worldwide. This is a highly contagious and highly democratic disease. The attack rate in infants and young children is similar regardless of sanitation, socioeconomics or geography. Rotavirus vaccine development began in the early 1980s using a "Jennerian" approach based on rotaviruses that normally infect animals. Although these vaccines were found to be generally safe, protection from disease was inconsistent. The second generation of vaccines was based on the same animal viruses configured to carry the relevant coat proteins of human rotaviruses. An attenuated human rotavirus vaccine has also been developed. After close to 20 years of laboratory and clinical studies, safe and effective rotavirus vaccines are approaching regulatory approval.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 331-347 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A number of genetic disorders can result in the accumulation of excess iron in the body. These causes of hereditary hemochromatosis include defects in genes encoding HFE, transferrin receptor 2, ferroportin, hepcidin, and hemojuvelin. Hepcidin, with its cognate receptor, ferroportin, has emerged as a central regulator of iron homeostasis; all of the known causes of hemochromatosis appear to prevent this system from functioning normally. The most common form of primary hemochromatosis is that caused by C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. This mutation is most prevalent among Northern Europeans. Although the frequency of the homozygous genotype is approximately 5 per 1000, the disease itself is quite rare because the clinical penetrance of the genotype is very low.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 19-31 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Advances in radiation oncology have been made on three major fronts: biology, physics, and clinical application. Our biological understanding of how radiation kills cells and how malignant cells avoid damage has identified new targets for therapeutic manipulation. Research in physics has yielded sophisticated methods to direct the deposition of radiation energy in ways that enhance target coverage while minimizing dose to normal structures as much as possible. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy represent new paradigms in treatment planning and dose delivery. Clinical management of the cancer patient is multidisciplinary. Increasingly, combinations of radiation and chemotherapy, with or without surgery, are enhancing cure rates, often with preservation of organ function. Taken together, these advances have increased the effectiveness of radiation therapy and promise better treatment results in the future.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 543-561 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The physical removal of viruses and bacteria on the mucociliary escalator is an important aspect of the mammalian lung's innate defense mechanism. The volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) present in the respiratory tract is a critical determinant of both mucus hydration and the rate of mucus clearance from the lung. ASL volume is maintained by the predominantly ciliated epithelium via coordinated regulation of (a) absorption, by the epithelial Na+ channel, and (b) secretion, by the Ca2+ -activated Cl channel (CaCC) and CFTR. This review provides an update on our current understanding of how shear stress regulates ASL volume height in normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia through extracellular ATP- and adenosine (ADO)-mediated pathways that modulate ion transport and ASL volume homeostasis. We also discuss (a) how derangement of the ADO-CFTR pathway renders CF airways vulnerable to viral infections that deplete ASL volume and produce mucus stasis, and (b) potential shear stressĐ??dependent therapies for CF.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 375-401 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Cyclic nucleotideĐ??activated ion channels play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological processes. By opening in response to intracellular cyclic nucleotides, they translate changes in concentrations of signaling molecules to changes in membrane potential. These channels belong to two families: the cyclic nucleotideĐ??gated (CNG) channels and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotideĐ??modulated (HCN) channels. The two families exhibit high sequence similarity and belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas HCN channels are activated by voltage and CNG channels are virtually voltage independent, both channels are activated by cyclic nucleotide binding. Furthermore, the channels are thought to have similar channel structures, leading to similar mechanisms of activation by cyclic nucleotides. However, although these channels are structurally and behaviorally similar, they have evolved to perform distinct physiological functions. This review describes the physiological roles and biophysical behavior of CNG and HCN channels. We focus on how similarities in structure and activation mechanisms result in common biophysical models, allowing CNG and HCN channels to be viewed as a single genre.
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    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 461-490 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase Sgk1 plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion transport. This kinase is very rapidly regulated at the transcriptional level as well as via posttranslational modifications involving phosphorylation by the MAP or PI-3 kinase pathways and/or ubiquitylation. Although Sgk1 is a cell survival kinase, its primary role likely concerns the regulation of epithelial ion transport, as suggested by the phenotype of Sgk1-null mice, which display a defect in Na+ homeostasis owing to disturbed renal tubular Na+ handling. In this review we first discuss the molecular, cellular, and regulatory aspects of Sgk1 and its paralogs. We then discuss its roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion transport.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 1-26 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter begins with a summary of a model, developed half a century ago, that distinguishes three qualitatively different processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization. The model, originally geared to and experimentally tested in the context of persuasive communication, was subsequently applied to influence in the context of long-term relationships, including psychotherapy, international exchanges, and the socialization of national/ethnic identity. It has been extended to analysis of the relationship of individuals to social systems. Individuals' rule, role, and value orientations to a systemĐ??conceptually linked to compliance, identification, and internalizationĐ??predict different reactions to their own violations of societal standards, different patterns of personal involvement in the political system, and differences in attitude toward authorities and readiness to obey. In a further extension of the model, three approaches to peacemaking in international or intergroup conflicts are identifiedĐ??conflict settlement, conflict resolution, and reconciliationĐ??which, respectively, focus on the accommodation of interests, relationships, and identities, and are conducive to changes at the level of compliance, identification, and internalization.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 117-137 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of the genetics of complex behaviors has evolved dramatically from the days of the nature versus nurture debates that dominated much of the past century. Here we discuss advances in our understanding of the genetics of affective and anxiety disorders. In particular, we highlight our growing understanding of specific gene-environment interactions that occur during critical periods in development, setting the stage for later behavioral phenotypes. We review the recent literature in the field, focusing on recent advances in our understanding of the role of the serotonin system in establishing normal anxiety levels during development. We emphasize the importance of understanding the effect of genetic variation at the level of functional circuits and provide examples from the literature of how such an approach has been exploited to study novel genetic endpoints, including genetically based variation in response to medication, a potentially valuable phenotype that has not received much attention to date.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 227-254 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of explanation, while related to intuitive theories, concepts, and mental models, offers important new perspectives on high-level thought. Explanations sort themselves into several distinct types corresponding to patterns of causation, content domains, and explanatory stances, all of which have cognitive consequences. Although explanations are necessarily incompleteĐ??often dramatically so in laypeopleĐ??those gaps are difficult to discern. Despite such gaps and the failure to recognize them fully, people do have skeletal explanatory senses, often implicit, of the causal structure of the world. They further leverage those skeletal understandings by knowing how to access additional explanatory knowledge in other minds and by being particularly adept at using situational support to build explanations on the fly in real time. Across development and cultures, there are differences in preferred explanatory schemes, but rarely are any kinds of schemes completely unavailable to a group.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 255-284 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 345-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 375-400 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important to the success of authorities, institutions, and institutional arrangements since it is difficult to exert influence over others based solely upon the possession and use of power. Being able to gain voluntary acquiescence from most people, most of the time, due to their sense of obligation increases effectiveness during periods of scarcity, crisis, and conflict. The concept of legitimacy has a long history within social thought and social psychology, and it has emerged as increasingly important within recent research on the dynamics of political, legal, and social systems.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 453-485 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews research on consumer psychology with emphasis on the topics of categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion. The chapter reviews theory-based empirical research during the period 1994Đ??2004. Research on categorization includes empirical research on brand categories, goals as organizing frameworks and motivational bases for judgments, and self-based processing. Research on inferences includes numerous types of inferences that are cognitively and/or experienced based. Research on affect includes the effects of mood on processing and cognitive and noncognitive bases for attitudes and intentions. Research on persuasion focuses heavily on the moderating role of elaboration and dual-process models, and includes research on attitude strength responses, advertising responses, and negative versus positive evaluative dimensions.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 55-85 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: It is usually assumed that stressful life events interfere with our ability to acquire new information. However, many studies suggest that stressful experience can enhance processes involved in learning. The types of learning that are enhanced after stressful experiences include classical fear and eyeblink conditioning, as well as processes related to learning about threatening stimuli. Stressful life experiences do seem to interfere with processes involved in memory, often expressed as deficits in the retention or retrieval of information that was acquired prior to and was unrelated to the stressful experience. The trends are limited, as are their implications, because most studies examine adult males, yet the effects of stress on learning processes are influenced by age and sex differences. With respect to mechanisms and anatomical substrates, the effects of stress on learning are usually dependent on the action of stress hormones in combination with neuronal activities within the hippocampus, amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the prefrontal cortex.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 167-197 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Neuroecology is the study of adaptive variation in cognition and the brain. The origin of neuroecology dates from the 1980s, when researchers in behavioral ecology began to apply the methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. The comparative approach, however, is much older. It was a mainstay of ethology, it has been part of the study of neuroanatomy since the seventeenth century, and it was used by Darwin to marshal evidence for the theory of natural selection. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressures and species or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural selection acts on cognition and its neural mechanisms. This chapter describes the general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved in mating systems, social organization, communication, and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to psychology and the neurosciences is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 317-344 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Couple therapy research affirms that various approaches to couple treatment produce statistically and clinically significant improvement for a substantial proportion of couples in reducing overall relationship distress. Recent studies have extended these findings in indicating the effectiveness of couple-based interventions for a broad range of coexisting emotional, behavioral, or physical health problems in one or both partners. In contrast to these encouraging results, research also indicates that a sizeable percentage of couples fail to achieve significant gains from couple therapy or show significant deterioration afterward. Research on processes of change and predictors of treatment outcome in couple therapy provides preliminary evidence regarding factors potentially contributing to variable treatment response. The chapter concludes with 12 recommendations regarding future directions in couple therapy research and clinical training.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 423-451 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Characteristics of the physical environment that influence child development are discussed. Topics include behavioral toxicology, noise, crowding, housing and neighborhood quality, natural settings, schools, and day care settings. Socioemotional, cognitive, motivation, and psychophysiological outcomes in children and youths are reviewed. Necessary methodological and conceptual advances are introduced as well.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 401-421 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Personality has consequences. Measures of personality have contemporaneous and predictive relations to a variety of important outcomes. Using the Big Five factors as heuristics for organizing the research literature, numerous consequential relations are identified. Personality dispositions are associated with happiness, physical and psychological health, spirituality, and identity at an individual level; associated with the quality of relationships with peers, family, and romantic others at an interpersonal level; and associated with occupational choice, satisfaction, and performance, as well as community involvement, criminal activity, and political ideology at a social institutional level.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 529-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003Đ??2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological (behavior on the Web is the focus of study), and (c) novel (methodologically innovations unique to Web-based research). Among other findings, our review indicated that 21% of APA journals published at least one article that reported on Web-based research, most Web-based psychological research uses experimental methods, a surprising number use college student samples, and deception in Web-based research is not uncommon. Strengths and weaknesses of Web-based psychological research in general, and our sample of studies in particular, are reviewed with special attention to possible concerns about sampling and the use of deception.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 65-100 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This review summarizes recent information concerning the pharmacological and toxicological significance of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO, EC 1.14.13.8). The human FMO oxygenates nucleophilic heteroatom-containing chemicals and drugs and generally converts them into harmless, polar, readily excreted metabolites. Sometimes, however, FMO bioactivates chemicals into reactive materials that can cause toxicity. Most of the interindividual differences of FMO are due to genetic variability and allelic variation, and splicing variants may contribute to interindividual and interethnic variability observed for FMO-mediated metabolism. In contrast to cytochrome P450 (CYP), FMO is not easily induced nor readily inhibited, and potential adverse drug-drug interactions are minimized for drugs prominently metabolized by FMO. These properties may provide advantages in drug design and discovery, and by incorporating FMO detoxication pathways into drug candidates, more drug-like materials may be forthcoming. Although exhaustive examples are not available, physiological factors can influence FMO function, and this may have implications for the clinical significance of FMO and a role in human disease.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 189-213 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The proteasome, a multicatalytic proteinase complex, is responsible for the majority of intracellular protein degradation. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the proteasome possess in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity, and bortezomib, the first such agent to undergo clinical testing, has significant efficacy against multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Preclinical studies demonstrate that proteasome inhibition potentiates the activity of other cancer therapeutics, in part by downregulating chemoresistance pathways. Early clinical studies of bortezomib-based combinations, showing encouraging activity, support this observation. Molecular characterization of resistance to proteasome inhibitors has revealed novel therapeutic targets for sensitizing malignancies to these agents, such as the heat shock pathway. Below, we review the pharmacologic, preclinical, and clinical data that have paved the way for the use of proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy; outline strategies aimed at enhancing the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors; and review other potential targets in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway for the treatment of cancer.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 411-449 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many biological functions of heme oxygenase (HO), such as cytoprotection against oxidative stress, vasodilation, neurotransmission in the central or peripheral nervous systems, and anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, or anti-proliferative potential, have been attributed to its enzymatic byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), although roles for biliverdin/bilirubin and iron have also been proposed. In addition to these well-characterized effects, recent findings reveal that HO-derived CO may act as an oxygen sensor and circadian modulator of heme biosynthesis. In lymphocytes, CO may participate in regulatory T cell function. A number of the known signaling effects of CO depend on stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase and/or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, modulation of caveolin-1 status may serve as an essential component of certain aspects of CO action, such as growth control. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the beneficial or detrimental effects of endogenous CO with an emphasis on the signaling pathways and downstream targets that trigger the action of this gas.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 451-480 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Retinoic acid (RA) is involved in vertebrate morphogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. The use of in vitro systems initially led to the identification of nuclear receptor RXR/RAR heterodimers as possible transducers of the RA signal. To unveil the physiological functions of RARs and RXRs, genetic and pharmacological studies have been performed in the mouse. Together, their results demonstrate that (a) RXR/RAR heterodimers in which RXR is either transcriptionally active or silent are involved in the transduction of the RA signal during prenatal development, (b) specific RXRʼ̛/RAR heterodimers are required at many distinct stages during early embryogenesis and organogenesis, (c) the physiological role of RA and its receptors cannot be extrapolated from teratogenesis studies using retinoids in excess. Additional cell typeĐ??restricted and temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis is required to determine the functions of RARs and RXRs during postnatal life.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 387-412 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tallgrass prairie (TGP) arthropods are diverse and abundant, yet they remain poorly documented and there is still much to be learned regarding their ecological roles. Fire and grazing interact in complex ways in TGP, resulting in a shifting mosaic of resource quantity and quality for primary consumers. Accordingly, the impacts of arthropod herbivores and detritivores are expected to vary spatially and temporally. Herbivores generally do not control primary production. Rather, groups such as grasshoppers have subtle effects on plant communities, and their most significant impacts are often on forbs, which represent the bulk of plant diversity in TGP. Belowground herbivores and detritivores influence root dynamics and rhizosphere nutrient cycling, and above- and belowground groups interact through plant responses and detrital pathways. Large-bodied taxa, such as cicadas, can also redistribute significant quantities of materials during adult emergences. Predatory arthropods are the least studied in terms of ecological significance, but there is evidence that top-down processes are important in TGP.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 557-580 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tick pheromones that regulate assembly, attraction/aggregation/attachment, and mating behavior have been described. Most of the compounds regulating these behaviors are purines, substituted phenols, or cholesteryl esters. Other pheromonal compounds include organic acids, hematin, or ecdysteroids. Novel devices have been developed that combine the specific compounds comprising these pheromones with an acaricide. When applied to tick-infested vegetation or directly to the body surfaces of livestock or companion animals, these devices are effective for tick control. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of tick pheromones. In addition, this review also presents examples illustrating how devices using tick pheromones can offer effective alternatives to conventional methods for achieving tick control.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 467-494 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Track and cladistic biogeographic analyses based on insect taxa are used as a framework to interpret patterns of the Latin American and Caribbean entomofauna by identifying biogeographic areas on the basis of endemicity and arranging them hierarchically in a system of regions, subregions, dominions, and provinces. The Nearctic region, inhabited by Holarctic insect taxa, comprises five provinces: California, Baja California, Sonora, Mexican Plateau, and Tamaulipas. The Mexican transition zone comprises five provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Balsas Basin, and Sierra Madre del Sur. The Neotropical region, which harbors many insect taxa with close relatives in the tropical areas of the Old World, comprises four subregions: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana. The South American transition zone comprises five provinces: North Andean Paramo, Coastal Peruvian Desert, Puna, Atacama, Prepuna, and Monte. The Andean region, which harbors insect taxa with close relatives in the Austral continents, comprises three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic, and Patagonian.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 113-135 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insect odor and taste receptors are highly sensitive detectors of food, mates, and oviposition sites. Following the identification of the first insect odor and taste receptors in Drosophila melanogaster, these receptors were identified in a number of other insects, including the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae; the silk moth, Bombyx mori; and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. The chemical specificities of many of the D. melanogaster receptors, as well as a few of the A. gambiae and B. mori receptors, have now been determined either by analysis of deletion mutants or by ectopic expression in in vivo or heterologous expression systems. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of odor and taste coding in insects.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 67-89 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 525-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tachinidae are one of the most diverse and ecologically important families in the order Diptera. As parasitoids, they are important natural enemies in most terrestrial ecological communities, particularly as natural enemies of larval Lepidoptera. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, relatively little is known about the evolution and ecology of tachinids, and what is known tends to be widely dispersed in specialized reports, journals, or texts. In this review we synthesize information on the evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology of tachinids and discuss promising directions for future research involving tachinids. We provide an overview of the phylogenetic history and geographic diversity of tachinids, examine the evolution of oviposition strategies and host associations, review known mechanisms of host location, and discuss recent studies dealing with the ecological interactions between tachinids and their hosts. In doing so, we highlight ways in which investigation of these parasitoids provides insight into such topics as biogeographic patterns of diversity, the evolution of ecological specialization, the tritrophic context of enemy-herbivore interactions, and the role of host location behavior in shaping host range.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 91-111 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plant diseases caused by, or associated with, phytoplasmas occur in hundreds of commercial and native plants, causing minor to extensive damage. Insect vectors, primarily leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids, have been identified for relatively few phytoplasma diseases, limiting the capacity of managers to make informed decisions to protect crops and endangered indigenous plants. In the past two decades our knowledge of insect vectorĐ??phytoplasma interactions has increased dramatically, allowing researchers to make more accurate predictions about the nature and epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases. These better-characterized systems also may provide clues to the identity of insect vectors of other phytoplasma-associated diseases. We review the literature addressing the ecology of insect vectors, phytoplasma-insect ecological and molecular interactions, vector movement and dispersal, and possible management strategies with an emphasis on research from the past 20 years.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 209-232 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The past decade has produced an explosion of new information on the development, neuroanatomy, and possible functions of the mushroom bodies. This review provides a concise, contemporary overview of the structure of the mushroom bodies. Two topics are highlighted: the volume plasticity of mushroom body neuropils evident in the brains of some adult insects and a possible essential role for the ?? lobe in olfactory memory.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 233-258 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Parasitoid wasps have evolved a wide spectrum of developmental interactions with hosts. In this review we synthesize and interpret results from the phylogenetic, ecological, physiological, and molecular literature to identify factors that have influenced the evolution of parasitoid developmental strategies. We first discuss the origins and radiation of the parasitoid lifestyle in the Hymenoptera. We then summarize how parasitoid developmental strategies are affected by ecological interactions and assess the inventory of physiological and molecular traits parasitoids use to successfully exploit hosts. Last, we discuss how certain parasitoid virulence genes have evolved and how these changes potentially affect parasitoid-host interactions. The combination of phylogenetic data with comparative and functional genomics offers new avenues for understanding the evolution of biological diversity in this group of insects.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 187-208 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Phytophagous insects and their natural enemies make up one of the largest and most diverse groups of organisms on earth. Ecological processes, in particular negative indirect effects mediated by shared natural enemies (apparent competition), may be important in structuring phytophagous insect communities. The potential for indirect interactions can be assessed by analyzing the trophic structure of insect communities, and we claim that quantitative food webs are particularly well suited for this task. We review the experimental evidence for both short-term and long-term apparent competition in phytophagous insect communities and discuss the possible interactions between apparent competition and intraguild predation or shared mutualists. There is increasing evidence for the importance of trait-mediated as well as density-mediated indirect effects. We conclude that there is a need for large-scale experiments manipulating communities in their entirety and a greater integration of community and chemical ecology.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 609-634 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: More than 5000 introductions of about 2000 species of exotic arthropod agents for control of arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands during the past 120 years rarely have resulted in negative environmental effects. Yet, risks of environmental effects caused by releases of exotics are of growing concern. Twenty countries have implemented regulations for release of biological control agents. Soon, the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM3) will become the standard for all biological control introductions worldwide, but this standard does not provide methods by which to assess environmental risks. This review summarizes documented nontarget effects and discusses the development and application of comprehensive and quick-scan environmental risk assessment methods.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 663-689 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plant-mediated interactions between pathogenic microorganisms and arthropod herbivores occur when arthropod infestation or pathogen infection changes the shared host plant in ways that affect a subsequent attacker of the opposite type. Interest in such "tripartite" interactions has increased as the ecological and plant physiological framework for understanding and contextualizing them has developed. The outcomes of plant-mediated interactions are variable, and only a few provisional patterns can be identified at present. However, these interactions can have important consequences not only for individual pathogens and herbivores, but also for the population dynamics of both types of organisms in managed and natural ecosystems. Research has focused on the role of two plant response pathways in mediating tripartite interactions, one involving jasmonic acid and the other salicylic acid. Further studies of plant-mediated interactions will facilitate an understanding of how plants coordinate and integrate their defenses against multiple biotic threats.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 163-185 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tremendous strides have been made regarding our understanding of how host plant chemistry influences the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies. While most work has focused on plant chemistry effects on host location and acceptance by natural enemies, an increasing number of studies examine negative effects. The tritrophic role of plant chemistry is central to several aspects of trophic phenomena including top-down versus bottom-up control of herbivores, enemy-free space and host choice, and theories of plant defense. Furthermore, tritrophic effects of plant chemistry are important in assessing the degree of compatibility between biological control and plant resistance approaches to pest control. Additional research is needed to understand the physiological effects of plant chemistry on parasitoids. Explicit tests are required to determine whether natural enemies can act as selective forces on plant defense. Finally, further studies of natural systems are crucial to understanding the evolution of multitrophic relationships.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 441-465 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cannibalism among generalist predators has implications for the dynamics of terrestrial food webs. Spiders are common, ubiquitous arthropod generalist predators in most natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, the relationship of spider cannibalism to food limitation, competition, and population regulation has direct bearing on basic ecological theory and applications such as biological control. This review first briefly treats the different types of spider cannibalism and then focuses in more depth on evidence relating cannibalism to population dynamics and food web interactions to address the following questions: Is cannibalism in spiders a foraging strategy that helps to overcome the effects of a limited supply of calories and/or nutrients? Does cannibalism in spiders reduce competition for prey? Is cannibalism a significant density-dependent factor in spider population dynamics? Does cannibalism dampen spider-initiated trophic cascades?
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 259-284 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Throughout its long evolutionary history, the Dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) has acquired a variety of functions in insects. The enzyme (DDC) catalyzes the production of the neural transmitters dopamine and serotonin. Not surprisingly, evidence of the enzyme's involvement in the behavior of insects is beginning to accumulate. In addition, DDC plays a role in wound healing, parasite defense, pigmentation, and cuticle hardening. A high degree of sequence conservation has allowed comparisons of the Ddc-coding regions from various insects, facilitating a number of recent studies on insect systematics. This review outlines the diverse functions of Ddc and illustrates how studies of this model system address many questions on insect neurobiology, developmental biology, and systematics.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 25-44 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These compounds are well known for their important actions in mammalian physiology and disease. Recent work has revealed the presence and biological actions of eicosanoids in insects and many other invertebrate animals. In insects, eicosanoids mediate cellular immunity to microbial and metazoan challenge. Notably, some infectious organisms secrete factors responsible for impairing host insect immune reactions by inhibiting biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids also act in insect reproductive biology, in ion transport physiology, and in fever response to infection as well as in protein exocytosis in tick salivary glands. Aside from ongoing actions in homeostasis, certain eicosanoid actions occur at crucial points in insect life histories, such as during infectious challenge and important events in reproduction.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 331-357 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Invertebrate pathogens and their hosts are taxonomically diverse. Despite this, there is one unifying concept relevant to all such parasitic associations: Both pathogen and host adapt to maximize their own reproductive output and ultimate fitness. The strategies adopted by pathogens and hosts to achieve this goal are almost as diverse as the organisms themselves, but studies examining such relationships have traditionally concentrated only on aspects of host physiology. Here we review examples of host-altered behavior and consider these within a broad ecological and evolutionary context. Research on pathogen-induced and host-mediated behavioral changes demonstrates the range of altered behaviors exhibited by invertebrates including behaviorally induced fever, elevation seeking, reduced or increased activity, reduced response to semiochemicals, and changes in reproductive behavior. These interactions are sometimes quite bizarre, intricate, and of great scientific interest.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 581-608 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 45-66 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 495-523 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Aquatic insects and other benthic invertebrates are the most widely used organisms in freshwater biomonitoring of human impact. Because of the high monetary investment in freshwater management, decisions are often based on biomonitoring results, and a critical and comparative review of different approaches is required. We used 12 criteria that should be fulfilled by an "ideal" biomonitoring tool, addressing the rationale, implementation, and performance of a method. After illustrating how the century-old but still widely used Saprobian system does not meet these criteria, we apply them to nine recent approaches that range from the suborganismal to the ecosystem level. Although significant progress has been made in the field, no recent approach meets all 12 criteria. Given that the use of biomonitoring information has important financial consequences, we suggest that societies and governments prioritize how these criteria should be ranked.
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    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 1-24 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) exist in insects and are encoded by multigene families that are expressed in the brain and other tissues. Upon secretion, these peptides likely serve as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors, but to date, few direct functions have been demonstrated. In Drosophila melanogaster, molecular genetic studies have revealed elements of a conserved insulin signaling pathway, and as in other animal models, it appears to play a key role in metabolism, growth, reproduction, and aging. This review offers (a) an integrated summary of the efforts to characterize the distribution of ILPs in insects and to define this pathway and its functions in Drosophila and (b) a few considerations for future studies of ILP endocrinology in insects.
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