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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: by Youngmin Kim, Yong Suk Cho, Dohern Kym, Jaechul Yoon, Haejun Yim, Jun Hur, Wook Chun Background Diagnosing acute kidney injury quickly is imperative since it is known as an independent risk factor for mortality in burn patients. We evaluated the diagnostic power of creatinine, cystatin, serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at different time periods and observed the changes from baseline for each biomarker. Methods This was a prospective observation study from January 2015 to February 2016. A total of 84 patients were enrolled consecutively. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were measured at admission, 7 th , 14 th , 21 st , and 28 th days after admission. All samples were collected until acute kidney injury developed. Results Acute kidney injury developed in 35 patients. The mean age was 49.6 years with a male predominance. The median urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was the lowest (11.6 ng/dL) at admission, and the highest at 85.5 ng/dL on day 7. Mean creatinine level was the highest (0.88 mg/dL) at admission and the median creatinine level was the lowest (0.56 mg/dL) on the 14 th day. The area under the curve of creatinine levels was the highest with 0.857 during the 1 st week. The area under the curve of urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was the highest with 0.803 during the 5 th week. Conclusions Within 1 week of acute kidney injury, creatinine level was the optimal biomarker for diagnosis while urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin showed better diagnostic performance following the 4- week period.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT01226A, Paper Sugiarto ., Tomoko Tagami, Keisuke Kawamoto, Yoshihito Hayashi Four kinds of cobalt-polyoxomolybdenum clusters were synthesized by a combination of polyoxomolybdates and a Co-tacn (tacn = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane) complex. The heterometallic polynuclear clusters were obtained by the reaction of Na 2 MoO 4 ... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1363: Walking and Walkability in Pre-Set and Self-Defined Neighborhoods: A Mental Mapping Study in Older Adults International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071363 Authors: Malte Bödeker Neighborhood walkability contributes to older adults’ walking. However, associations vary depending on the neighborhood definition applied as well as between objective and perceived walkability measures. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively assess walkability indices for commonly used pedestrian network buffers and perceived neighborhood areas. A total of 97 adults aged ≥65 years answered a written physical activity questionnaire and 69 respondents participated in face-to-face interviews that involved mental mapping, i.e., to draw perceived neighborhood delineations on paper maps. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to compare the contribution of walkability indices for pre-set buffers and self-defined neighborhoods to older adults’ walking after adjusting for covariates. Results show that older adults’ self-defined neighborhoods are significantly larger, less home-centered, and more walkable than commonly used buffers. Furthermore, the variance accounted for in neighborhood walking increased from 35.9% to 40.4% (ΔR2 = 0.046; p = 0.029), when the walkability index was calculated for self-defined neighborhoods rather than pre-set buffers. Therefore, the study supports that geometric differences between pre-set buffers and older adults’ spatial ideas of perceived neighborhoods have a significant influence on estimated walkability effects and that exposure areas should be matched with the spatial dimension of outcome variables in future research.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 6
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1358: A Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Using Biomonitoring Data in Order to Assess the Contribution of Drinking Water for the Achievement of an Optimal Fluoride Dose for Dental Health in Children International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071358 Authors: Keven J. Jean Nancy Wassef Fabien Gagnon Mathieu Valcke Due to an optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water advised for caries prevention purposes, the population is now exposed to multiple sources of fluoride. The availability of population biomonitoring data currently allow us to evaluate the magnitude of this exposure. The objective of this work was, therefore, to use such data in order to estimate whether community water fluoridation still represents a significant contribution toward achieving a suggested daily optimal fluoride (external) intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Therefore, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for fluoride published in the literature was used and adapted in Excel for a typical 4-year-old and 8-year-old child. Biomonitoring data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey among people living in provinces with very different drinking water fluoridation coverage (Quebec, 2.5%; Ontario, 70% of the population) were analyzed using this adapted model. Absorbed doses for the 4-year-old and 8-year-old children were, respectively, 0.03 mg/kg/day and 0.02 mg/kg/day in Quebec and of 0.06 mg/kg/day and 0.05 mg/kg/day in Ontario. These results show that community water fluoridation contributes to increased fluoride intake among children, which leads to reaching, and in some cases even exceeding, the suggested optimal absorbed dose of 0.04 mg/kg/day, which corresponds to the suggested optimal fluoride intake mentioned above. In conclusion, this study constitutes an incentive to further explore the multiple sources of fluoride intake and suggests that a new balance between them including drinking water should be examined in accordance with the age-related physiological differences that influence fluoride metabolism.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1354: Socio-Cultural and Environmental Factors that Influence Weight-Related Behaviors: Focus Group Results from African-American Girls and Their Mothers International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071354 Authors: Daheia J. Barr-Anderson Alexis W. Adams-Wynn Olubunmi Orekoya Sofiya Alhassan African-American girls experience higher rates of obesity than other youth and are more likely to live in environments that may inhibit healthy lifestyles. Focus groups with African-American girls (14.2 ± 2.36 years) and their mothers were conducted to explore socio-cultural and physical factors within the home, neighborhood, and school environments that influence physical activity (PA) and food choices (i.e., availability and accessibility). Being active at home was dependent on availability of unstructured PA, possibility of activity with family/friends/pet, structured sports in the community, and perceived safety of neighborhood. Girls reported unhealthy foods and excessive snacking as issues at home while citing choice of school meals vs. vending machine items and easy accessibility to fast food restaurants as concerns at school. Learning more about the PA and food environments is a fundamental step to develop effective and innovative, environmental strategies to address unhealthy weight-related behaviors in this population.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 71 Author(s): Mayara Condé Rocha Murça This paper discusses the air traffic flow management problem under the new operating paradigm of collaborative rerouting. A route and slot allocation model that incorporates flight operator's disutility cost of rerouting to avoid an impacted airspace is proposed to optimally schedule flights into multiple flow constrained areas. In order to evaluate the benefits of a combined rerouting/ground holding control mechanism and assess the impacts of accounting for airline preferences on individual and aggregate system delays, the model is applied to a realistic case of flow management into LaGuardia Airport under capacity constraints caused by convective weather conditions in the transition airspace. The results show that incorporating rerouting as a control action has the potential to reduce flight delays considerably if compared to traditional ground holding based mechanisms. Moreover, the specific flight operators' inputs regarding route preference and cost of rerouting and the route network characteristics have major contributions to individual and system level efficiency. Finally, efficiency-fairness trade-offs are discussed for the multi-resource allocation process based on different fairness schemes.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 9
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Lab Chip , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8LC00227D, Paper Cong Wang, Keon Ah Lee, Eunpyo Choi, Keun-Young Lee, Seung-Yop Lee, Kwang Hwan Jung, Jungyul Park In this study, a new strategy for improving the radionuclide bio-decontamination (RBD) activity of microalgae by screening a better strain with high potential of biomineral production has been proposed. A... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1473-0197
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-0189
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1105: Comparison of Tensile and Compressive Properties of Carbon/Glass Interlayer and Intralayer Hybrid Composites Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11071105 Authors: Weili Wu Qingtao Wang Wei Li Tensile and compressive properties of interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The tensile modulus and compression modulus of interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites are the same under the same mixed ratio, the tensile strength is much superior to the compression strength, and while the tensile modulus and strength increase along with the carbon fiber content, the compression values change slightly. The influence of stacking structures on the tensile and compressive strengths is opposite to the ratio of T/C (tensile/compression) strength for interlayer hybrid composites, and while the tensile and compression strengths with glass fiber sandwiching carbon fiber can reach the maximum value, the ratio of T/C strength is minimum. For structures with carbon fiber sandwiching glass fiber, or with asymmetric structures, the tensile and compressive strengths are at a low value. For intralayer hybrid structures, while the carbon/glass (C/G) dispersion degree is high, the tensile and compression strengths are low. The experimental tensile and compressive strengths for interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites are greater than the theoretical values, which demonstrates that strength conforms well to the positive hybrid effect. The tensile fracture strain is greater than the compression fracture strain for hybrid composites, with both of them basically maintained at the same level.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 11
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1101: Thickness Characterization Toolbox for Transparent Protective Coatings on Polymer Substrates Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11071101 Authors: Matthias Van Zele Jonathan Watté Jan Hasselmeyer Hannes Rijckaert Yannick Vercammen Steven Verstuyft Davy Deduytsche Damien P. Debecker Claude Poleunis Isabel Van Driessche Klaartje De Buysser The thickness characterization of transparent protective coatings on functional, transparent materials is often problematic. In this paper, a toolbox to determine the thicknesses of a transparent coating on functional window films is presented. The toolbox consists of a combination of secondary ion mass spectrometry and profilometry and can be transferred to other transparent polymeric materials. A coating was deposited on designed model samples, which were characterized with cross-sectional views in transmission and in scanning/transmission electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The toolbox was then used to assess the thicknesses of the protective coatings on the pilot-scale window films. This coating was synthesized using straightforward sol-gel alkoxide chemistry. The kinetics of the condensation are studied in order to obtain a precursor that allows fast drying and complete condensation after simple heat treatment. The shelf life of this precursor solution was investigated in order to verify its accordance to industrial requirements. Deposition was performed successfully at low temperatures below 100 °C, which makes deposition on polymeric foils possible. By using roll-to-roll coating, the findings of this paper are easily transferrable to industrial scale. The coating was tested for scratch resistance and adhesion. Values for the emissivity (ε) of the films were recorded to justify the use of the films obtained as infrared reflective window films. In this work, it is shown that the toolbox measures similar thicknesses to those measured by electron microscopy and can be used to set a required thickness for protective coatings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 12
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Minerals
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Minerals, Vol. 8, Pages 276: Near Real-Time Classification of Iron Ore Lithology by Applying Fuzzy Inference Systems to Petrophysical Downhole Data Minerals doi: 10.3390/min8070276 Authors: Maria C. Kitzig Anton Kepic Ashley Grant Fluctuating commodity prices have repeatedly put the mining industry under pressure to increase productiveness and efficiency of their operations. Current procedures often rely heavily on manual analysis and interpretation although new technologies and analytical procedures are available to automate workflows. Grade control is one such issue where the laboratory assay turn-around times cannot beat the shovel. We propose that for iron ore deposits in the Pilbara geophysical downhole logging may provide the necessary and sufficient information about rock formation properties, circumventing any need for real-time elemental analysis entirely. This study provides an example where petrophysical downhole data is automatically classified using a neuro-adaptive learning algorithm to differentiate between different rock types of iron ore deposits and for grade estimation. We exploit a rarely used ability in a spectral gamma-gamma density tool to gather both density and iron content with a single geophysical measurement. This inaccurate data is then put into a neural fuzzy inference system to classify the rock into different grades and waste lithologies, with success rates nearly equal to those from laboratory geochemistry. The steps outlined in this study may be used to produce a workflow for current logging tools and future logging-while-drilling technologies for real-time iron ore grade estimation and lithological classification.
    Electronic ISSN: 2075-163X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Very large tunneling magnetoresistance in layered magnetic semiconductor CrI 3 Very large tunneling magnetoresistance in layered magnetic semiconductor CrI〈sub〉3〈/sub〉, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04953-8 Layered van der Waals compounds offer opportunities to visit new physical phenomena in two dimensional materials. Here the authors report large tunneling magnetoresistance through exfoliated CrI3 crystals and attribute its evolution to the multiple transitions to different magnetic states.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The origin and remolding of genomic islands of differentiation in the European sea bass The origin and remolding of genomic islands of differentiation in the European sea bass, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04963-6 The speciation process tends to generate ‘genomic islands’ of increased divergence. Here, the authors use haplotype–resolved whole-genome sequences of European sea bass lineages to infer divergence history and show that linked selection generated genomic islands that resist introgression at secondary contact.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    In: Physics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: A proposed upgrade for proton accelerators used for cancer treatment could enable doctors to use the machines to image tumors as well as to treat them. [Physics] Published Thu Jun 28, 2018
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-0748
    Topics: Physics
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  • 16
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by Daniel Munro, Dario Ghersi, Mona Singh A major goal of cancer genomics is to identify somatic mutations that play a role in tumor initiation or progression. Somatic mutations within transcription factors are of particular interest, as gene expression dysregulation is widespread in cancers. The substantial gene expression variation evident across tumors suggests that numerous regulatory factors are likely to be involved and that somatic mutations within them may not occur at high frequencies across patient cohorts, thereby complicating efforts to uncover which ones are cancer-relevant. Here we analyze somatic mutations within the largest family of human transcription factors, namely those that bind DNA via Cys2His2 zinc finger domains. Specifically, to hone in on important mutations within these genes, we aggregated somatic mutations across all of them by their positions within Cys2His2 zinc finger domains. Remarkably, we found that for three classes of cancers profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)—Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma, Colon and Rectal Adenocarcinomas, and Skin Cutaneous Melanoma—two specific, functionally important positions within zinc finger domains are mutated significantly more often than expected by chance, with alterations in 18%, 10% and 43% of tumors, respectively. Numerous zinc finger genes are affected, with those containing Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) repressor domains preferentially targeted by these mutations. Further, the genes with these mutations also have high overall missense mutation rates, are expressed at levels comparable to those of known cancer genes, and together have biological process annotations that are consistent with roles in cancers. Altogether, we introduce evidence broadly implicating mutations within a diverse set of zinc finger proteins as relevant for cancer, and propose that they contribute to the widespread transcriptional dysregulation observed in cancer cells.
    Print ISSN: 1553-734X
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7358
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 17
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by Mercè Borràs Sans, Miguel Pérez-Fontán, Montserrat Martinez-Alonso, Auxiliadora Bajo, Àngels Betriu, José M. Valdivielso, Elvira Fernández, on behalf of NEFRONA INVESTIGATORS
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 18
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by The PLOS ONE Editors
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 19
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by Sharon Nyari, Shahneaz Ali Khan, Galit Rawlinson, Courtney A. Waugh, Andrew Potter, Volker Gerdts, Peter Timms Chlamydia pecorum is a mucosal infection, which causes debilitating disease of the urinary tract, reproductive tract and ocular sites of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ). While antibiotics are available for treatment, they are detrimental to the koalas’ gastrointestinal tract microflora leaving the implementation of a vaccine as an ideal option for the long-term management of koala populations. We have previously reported on the successes of an anti-chlamydial recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) vaccine however, recombinant protein based vaccines are not ideal candidates for scale up from the research level to small-medium production level for wider usage. Peptide based vaccines are a promising area for vaccine development, because peptides are stable, cost effective and easily produced. In this current study, we assessed, for the first time, the immune responses to a synthetic peptide based anti-chlamydial vaccine in koalas. Five healthy male koalas were vaccinated with two synthetic peptides derived from C . pecorum MOMP and another five healthy male koalas were vaccinated with full length recombinant C . pecorum MOMP (genotype G). Systemic (IgG) and mucosal (IgA) antibodies were quantified and pre-vaccination levels compared to post-vaccination levels (12 and 26 weeks). MOMP-peptide vaccinated koalas produced Chlamydia -specific IgG and IgA antibodies, which were able to recognise not only the genotype used in the vaccination, but also MOMPs from several other koala C . pecorum genotypes. In addition, IgA antibodies induced at the ocular site not only recognised recombinant MOMP protein but also, whole native chlamydial elementary bodies. Interestingly, some MOMP-peptide vaccinated koalas showed a stronger and more sustained vaccine-induced mucosal IgA antibody response than observed in MOMP-protein vaccinated koalas. These results demonstrate that a synthetic MOMP peptide based vaccine is capable of inducing a Chlamydia- specific antibody response in koalas and is a promising candidate for future vaccine development.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 20
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by Jiunn-Horng Kang, Li-Ting Kao, Herng-Ching Lin, Ta-Jung Wang, Tsung-Yeh Yang Whether statins and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) / angiotensin receptor blockors (ARBs) are associated with reduced risks of infection events is still inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia among patients who had received treatment with ACEIs/ARBs and/or statins using a population-based dataset. This study included 19,281 patients as cases who were hospitalized for pneumonia and 19,281 controls. We used a logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for having previously used statins or an ACEI/ ARB between patients who were hospitalized for pneumonia treatment and controls. We found there were significant associations between hospitalization for pneumonia and statin-only users ( p
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 21
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: by Siyabonga P. Khoza, Nigel J. Crowther, Sindeep Bhana Background Infection with, and treatment of HIV is associated with effects on glycaemia and renal function. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare glycaemic control and albuminuria in HIV-positive and HIV-negative type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods Diabetic patients with and without HIV infection were recruited from a diabetic clinic at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Data was collected on weight, height, HbA1c, fasting glucose, urine albumin:creatinine ratio, HIV status, CD4 counts, viral load and concomitant therapies. Multivariable regression analysis was used to isolate the determinants of fasting glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors for albuminuria. Results Data were collected from 106 HIV-positive and 214 HIV-negative diabetics. All HIV infected subjects were receiving anti-retroviral therapy. The determinants of fasting glucose levels (log) were HIV infection (β = 0.04, p = 0.01) and use of anti-hypertensive agents (β = 0.07, p = 0.0006), whilst for HbA1c levels (log) they were HIV infection (β = -0.03, p = 0.03), BMI (β = 0.004, p = 0.0005), statin use (β = 0.04, p = 0.002) and glucose levels (β = 0.01, p
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 22
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2038: On the Determination of Uncertainty and Limit of Detection in Label-Free Biosensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072038 Authors: Álvaro Lavín Jesús de Vicente Miguel Holgado María F. Laguna Rafael Casquel Beatriz Santamaría María Victoria Maigler Ana L. Hernández Yolanda Ramírez A significant amount of noteworthy articles reviewing different label-free biosensors are being published in the last years. Most of the times, the comparison among the different biosensors is limited by the procedure used of calculating the limit of detection and the measurement uncertainty. This article clarifies and establishes a simple procedure to determine the calibration function and the uncertainty of the concentration measured at any point of the measuring interval of a generic label-free biosensor. The value of the limit of detection arises naturally from this model as the limit at which uncertainty tends when the concentration tends to zero. The need to provide additional information, such as the measurement interval and its linearity, among others, on the analytical systems and biosensor in addition to the detection limit is pointed out. Finally, the model is applied to curves that are typically obtained in immunoassays and a discussion is made on the application validity of the model and its limitations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 23
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2037: An Exception Handling Approach for Privacy-Preserving Service Recommendation Failure in a Cloud Environment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072037 Authors: Lianyong Qi Shunmei Meng Xuyun Zhang Ruili Wang Xiaolong Xu Zhili Zhou Wanchun Dou Service recommendation has become an effective way to quickly extract insightful information from massive data. However, in the cloud environment, the quality of service (QoS) data used to make recommendation decisions are often monitored by distributed sensors and stored in different cloud platforms. In this situation, integrating these distributed data (monitored by remote sensors) across different platforms while guaranteeing user privacy is an important but challenging task, for the successful service recommendation in the cloud environment. Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is a promising way to achieve the abovementioned data integration and privacy-preservation goals, while current LSH-based recommendation studies seldom consider the possible recommendation failures and hence reduce the robustness of recommender systems significantly. In view of this challenge, we develop a new LSH variant, named converse LSH, and then suggest an exception handling approach for recommendation failures based on the converse LSH technique. Finally, we conduct several simulated experiments based on the well-known dataset, i.e., Movielens to prove the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 24
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Soft Matter , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SM00952J, Paper Panagiotis Chrysinas, George Pashos, Nikolaos Vourdas, George Kokkoris, Vassilis Stathopoulos, Andreas Boudouvis We study the actuation of droplets on porous substrates by air that permeates through pores. Air pockets are created between the droplets and the substrate which, eventually, incite the droplets... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1744-683X
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-6848
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 25
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2180: An Improved Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Evaluating Spatial Accessibility to Urban Emergency Shelters Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072180 Authors: Xiaomeng Zhu Zhijun Tong Xingpeng Liu Xiangqian Li Pengda Lin Tong Wang As an important component of urban disaster prevention and mitigation systems, the balance and equity of emergency shelter distribution can be measured based on spatial accessibility utilizing the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. However, there are some issues in previous studies on emergency shelter accessibility evaluated by the 2SFCA method: (1) the high discretization of population distribution data and the travel cost being measured base on Euclidean distance; (2) ignoring the difference between shelter and population catchment sizes. To address these issues, we propose an improved 2SFCA method that computes the shelter and population catchments respectively to evaluate the emergency shelter accessibility in Changchun, China. We compare the proposed improved 2SFCA method to the original 2SFCA method. The results indicate that the catchment size and shelter accessibility calculated by the proposed method are more realistic and objective. The improved 2SFCA method is applicable method for evaluating the shelter accessibility and can provide advice for the planning and management of emergency shelters in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1026: Coherence Change-Detection with Sentinel-1 for Natural and Anthropogenic Disaster Monitoring in Urban Areas Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10071026 Authors: Prosper Washaya Timo Balz Bahaa Mohamadi Rapid, reliable, and continuous information is an essential component in disaster monitoring and management. Remote sensing data could be a solution, but often cannot provide continuous data due to an absence of global coverage and weather and daylight dependency. To overcome these challenges, this study makes use of weather and day/light independent Sentinel-1 data with a global coverage to monitor localized effects of different types of disasters using the Coherence Change-Detection (CCD) technique. Coherence maps were generated from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and used to classify areas of change and no change in six study areas. These sites are located in Syria, Puerto Rico, California, and Iran. The study areas were divided into street blocks, and the standard deviation was calculated for the coherence images for each street block over entire image stacks. The study areas were classified by land-use type to reveal the spatial variation in coherence loss after a disaster. While temporal decorrelation exhibits a general loss in coherence over time, disaster occurrence, however, indicates a significant loss in coherence after an event. The variations of each street block from the average coherence for the entire image stack, as measured by a high standard deviation after a particular disaster, is an indication of disaster induced building damage.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Evaluating the Contribution of North American Zoos and Aquariums to Endangered Species Recovery Evaluating the Contribution of North American Zoos and Aquariums to Endangered Species Recovery, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-27806-2 Evaluating the Contribution of North American Zoos and Aquariums to Endangered Species Recovery
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Risk of Infection and Sepsis in Pediatric Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to Hospital Following Major Trauma Risk of Infection and Sepsis in Pediatric Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to Hospital Following Major Trauma, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28189-0 Risk of Infection and Sepsis in Pediatric Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to Hospital Following Major Trauma
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 29
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1094: Optimization of the Iron Ore Direct Reduction Process through Multiscale Process Modeling Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11071094 Authors: Rami Béchara Hamzeh Hamadeh Olivier Mirgaux Fabrice Patisson Iron ore direct reduction is an attractive alternative steelmaking process in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation. To simulate the process and explore possible optimization, we developed a systemic, multiscale process model. The reduction of the iron ore pellets is described using a specific grain model, reflecting the transformations from hematite to iron. The shaft furnace is modeled as a set of interconnected one-dimensional zones into which the principal chemical reactions (3-step reduction, methane reforming, Boudouard and water gas shift) are accounted for with their kinetics. The previous models are finally integrated in a global, plant-scale, model using the Aspen Plus software. The reformer, scrubber, and heat exchanger are included. Results at the shaft furnace scale enlighten the role of the different zones according to the physico-chemical phenomena occurring. At the plant scale, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model to investigate new operating conditions leading to lower CO2 emissions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1091: Hybrid Metasurface Based Tunable Near-Perfect Absorber and Plasmonic Sensor Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11071091 Authors: Ahmmed A. Rifat Mohsen Rahmani Lei Xu Andrey E. Miroshnichenko We propose a hybrid metasurface-based perfect absorber which shows the near-unity absorbance and facilities to work as a refractive index sensor. We have used the gold mirror to prevent the transmission and used the amorphous silicon (a-Si) nanodisk arrays on top of the gold mirror which helps to excite the surface plasmon by scattering light through it at the normal incident. We numerically investigated the guiding performance. The proposed absorber is polarization independent and shows a maximum absorption of 99.8% at a 932 nm wavelength in the air medium. Considering the real applications, by varying the environments refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.41, the proposed absorber can maintain absorption at more than 99.7%, with a red shift of the resonant wavelength. Due to impedance matching of the electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed absorber shows near-unity absorbance over the refractive indices range of 1.33 to 1.41, with a zero-reflectance property at a certain wavelength. This feature could be utilized as a plasmonic sensor in detecting the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The proposed plasmonic sensor shows an average sensitivity of 325 nm/RIU and a maximum sensitivity of 350 nm/RIU over the sensing range of 1.33 to 1.41. The proposed metadevice possesses potential applications in solar photovoltaic and photodetectors, as well as in organic and bio-chemical detection.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 31
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Minerals
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Minerals, Vol. 8, Pages 273: Recovery of Residual Silver-Bearing Minerals from Low-Grade Tailings by Froth Flotation: The Case of Zgounder Mine, Morocco Minerals doi: 10.3390/min8070273 Authors: Boujemaa Drif Yassine Taha Rachid Hakkou Mostafa Benzaazoua The need to explore more complex and low-grade silver ores and to develop novel and cost-effective processes to recover silver from waste is becoming an important challenge. This paper aims to characterize old, low-grade, silver tailings generated by the former Zgounder silver mine, located in Morocco. Understanding the mineralogical composition, particularly the silver deportment, was critical to allow the recovery of silver from these tailings. More than 88 samples of low grade tailings were sampled and characterized using chemical and mineralogical techniques. Froth flotation was used to recover silver bearing minerals using a combination of different collectors (dithiophosphate, dialkyl dithiophosphinates, Aero 7518, Aero 7640, alkyl dithiophosphates and potassium butyl-xanthate). The main goal was to optimize the flotation process at a laboratory scale through the testing of different parameters, such as collectors and frother types and dosage, activators and sulphidizing agents, and pH conditions. The characterization results showed that silver content varied between 30 and 440 ppm with an overall average content of 148 ppm. Silver occurs mainly in the form of native silver as well as in association with sulphides, such as acanthite and pyrite. Minor amounts of sphalerite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and hematite were identified. The flotation results showed the following optimum conditions: particle size of 63 µm, conditioning pH of 8.5, a combination of butyl-xanthate and dithiophosphate as collectors at a dosage of 80 g/t each, a concentration of 200 g/t of the activating agent (CuSO4), 30 g/t of methyl isobutyl carbonyl (MIBC) frother and a duration time of 8 min with slow kinetics. With these optimal conditions, it was possible to achieve a maximum silver recovery yield of 84% with 1745 ppm Ag grade to be cyanided. Moreover, the environmental behavior of the final clean tailings was demonstrated to be inert using Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching tests.
    Electronic ISSN: 2075-163X
    Topics: Geosciences
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    MDPI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Agriculture, Vol. 8, Pages 95: Can Parentage Analysis Facilitate Breeding Activities in Root and Tuber Crops? Agriculture doi: 10.3390/agriculture8070095 Authors: Prince Emmanuel Norman Asrat Asfaw Pangirayi Bernard Tongoona Agyemang Danquah Eric Yirenkyi Danquah David De Koeyer Robert Asiedu Controlled pollination in root and tuber crops is challenging. Complex ploidy, cross-incompatibility, erratic flowering patterns, outcrossing, etc., limit the efficiency of breeding progress in these crops. Half-sib breeding that involves random pollination among parents is a viable method to harness genetic gain in outcrossing crops that are problematic for performing planned and controlled pollination. The authenticity of resulting progenies from the half-sib breeding is essential to monitor the selection gain in the breeding program. Parentage analysis facilitated by molecular markers is among the available handy tools for crop breeders to maximize genetic gain in a breeding program. It can help to resolve the identity of half-sib progenies and reconstruct the pedigree in the outcrossing crops. This paper reviews the potential benefits of parentage analysis in breeding selected outcrossing root and tuber crops. It assesses how paternity analysis facilitates breeding activities and the ways it improves genetic gain in the root and tuber breeding programs. Conscious use of complementary techniques in the root and tuber breeding programs can increase the selection gain by reducing the long breeding cycle and cost, as well as reliable exploitation of the heritable variation in the desired direction.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-0472
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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    MDPI
    In: Agronomy
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Agronomy, Vol. 8, Pages 100: Impacts of Trace Element Addition on Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) Agronomy Agronomy doi: 10.3390/agronomy8070100 Authors: Md. Moshiul Islam Md. Razaul Karim Md. Moinul Hosain Oliver Tahmina Akter Urmi Md. Ashraf Hossain M. Moynul Haque Adequate supply of micronutrients is important for the proper growth and yield of lentil, particularly in poorly fertile soil. This study was carried out to understand the effects of zinc (Zn), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo) on the growth and yield of lentil, and how these elements can help manage soil fertility issues. In this regard, the morpho-physiological traits of lentils (BARI Masur-7) were collected from two experiments receiving the same treatments carried out during consecutive rabi seasons of 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. The experiments were laid out with a randomized complete block design having eight treatments, and was replicated thrice. The treatments were T1 (Control), T2 (Zn2.0 kg ha−1), T3 (B1.5 kg ha−1), T4 (Mo1.0 kg ha−1), T5 (Zn2.0B1.5 kg ha−1), T6 (Zn2.0Mo1.0 kg ha−1), T7 (B1.5Mo1.0 kg ha−1), and T8 (Zn2.0B1.5Mo1.0 kg ha−1). The results revealed that the application of micronutrients either singly or in combination had significant effects on the plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight, and the seed yield of lentil. The maximum seed production was, however, observed in plots receiving treatment T8, i.e., the combined application of Zn, B, and Mo. Agronomic biofortification also had significantly increased protein content of lentil seeds while affecting the macro and micronutrient content of lentil seed. These results suggest that any micronutrient deficiencies might lead to a yield loss of lentil, and such a scenario could be avoided by a combined application of micronutrients at a proportionate level.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Publication date: December 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 86 Author(s): SeakWeng Vong, Chenyang Shi, Dongdong Liu In this paper, we establish new weighted integral inequalities by considering polynomials which are orthogonal in a weighted sense. These inequalities generalize some results established recently. They are applied to study exponential stability of some time-delay systems under the framework of linear matrix inequalities. Numerical tests are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the derived stability conditions.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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    Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MPDI)
    In: Cancers
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 219: Role of p53 in the Regulation of the Inflammatory Tumor Microenvironment and Tumor Suppression Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers10070219 Authors: Ikuno Uehara Nobuyuki Tanaka p53 has functional roles in tumor suppression as a guardian of the genome, surveillant of oncogenic cell transformation, and as recently demonstrated, a regulator of intracellular metabolism. Accumulating evidence has shown that the tumor microenvironment, accompanied by inflammation and tissue remodeling, is important for cancer proliferation, metastasis, and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that self-renew and generate the diverse cells comprising the tumor. Furthermore, p53 has been demonstrated to inhibit inflammatory responses, and functional loss of p53 causes excessive inflammatory reactions. Moreover, the generation and maintenance of CSCs are supported by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Considering that the functions of p53 inhibit reprogramming of somatic cells to stem cells, p53 may have a major role in the inflammatory microenvironment as a tumor suppressor. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the roles of p53 in regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment, tumor microenvironment, and tumor suppression.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-6694
    Topics: Medicine
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Nogo-A inactivation improves visual plasticity and recovery after retinal injury Nogo-A inactivation improves visual plasticity and recovery after retinal injury, Published online: 27 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41419-018-0780-x Nogo-A inactivation improves visual plasticity and recovery after retinal injury
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC04424D, Communication Jun Maruyama, Taiji Amano, Satoshi Inoue, Yasuji Muramatsu, Noriko Yoshizawa, Eric Gullikson Metal-containing carbonaceous two-dimensional lattice was formed on a graphene plane by sublimation, deposition, and pyrolysis of Fe phthalocyanine (Pc). The formation and growth of the FePc-derived -conjugated planar system were... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC02718H, Communication Misaki Kinoshita, Yuxi Lin, Itoh Dai, Masaki Okumura, Natalia Markova, John E Ladbury, Fabio Sterpone, Young-Ho Lee Understanding of amyloid aggregation in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics is still limited. We herein examined the mechanism of [small beta]2-microglobulin amyloidogenesis using our unique method of isothermal titration calorimetry-based thermodynamic... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SC00092A, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Zheng Ma, Zhiwei Lin, Candace M. Lawrence, Igor V Rubtsov, Panayiotis Antoniou, Spiros S. Skourtis, Peng Zhang, David N Beratan A UV-IR-Vis 3-pulse study of infra-red induced changes to electron transfer (ET) rates in a donor-bridge-acceptor species finds that charge-separation rates are slowed, while charge-recombination rates are accelerated as a... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: CrystEngComm , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8CE00716K, Paper Jie Xiong, Jie Yu, Yufeng Zhang, Wenpeng Xia, Shanshan Hu, Yanfei Zhang, Jun Yang The obtained products show controlled phases and abundant morphologies with the increase of fluoride ion concentration. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 1466-8033
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8DT01947A, Paper Michael Rauch, Gerard Parkin Insertion of CS 2 into the Mg-H bond of [Tism Pr i Benz ]MgH affords [Tism Pr i Benz ]Mg([small kappa] 2 -S 2 CH), the first structurally characterized magnesium dithioformate compound. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT02134A, Communication Li Li, E Liu, Jessica Cheng, Guoqi Zhang Catalytic hydroboration of ketones with pinacolborane was achieved by a 2D iron(II) coordination polymer (CP) of a divergent 4,2[prime or minute];6[prime or minute],4[prime or minute][prime or minute]-terpyridine(tpy) derivative under mild conditions with high efficiency. This solid iron catalyst... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2221: Woody Encroachment as a Social-Ecological Regime Shift Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072221 Authors: Linda Luvuno Reinette Biggs Nicola Stevens Karen Esler African savannas are increasingly affected by woody encroachment, an increase in the density of woody plants. Woody encroachment often occurs unexpectedly, is difficult to reverse, and has significant economic, cultural and ecological implications. The process of woody encroachment represents a so-called regime shift that results from feedback loops that link vegetation and variables such as fire, grazing and water availability. Much of the work on woody encroachment has focused on the direct drivers of the process, such as the role of fire or grazing in inhibiting or promoting encroachment. However, little work has been done on how ecological changes may provide feedback to affect some of the underlying social processes driving woody encroachment. In this paper, we build on the ecological literature on encroachment to present a qualitative systems analysis of woody encroachment as a social-ecological regime shift. Our analysis highlights the underlying indirect role of human population growth, and we distinguish the key social-ecological processes underlying woody encroachment in arid versus mesic African savannas. The analysis we present helps synthesize the impacts of encroachment, the drivers and feedbacks that play a key role and identify potential social and ecological leverage points to prevent or reverse the woody encroachment process.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2217: Does Firm Performance Influence Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting of Chinese Listed Companies? Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072217 Authors: Muhammad Safdar Sial Chunmei Zheng Nguyen Vinh Khuong Tehmina Khan Muhammad Usman This study aims to investigate whether firm performance influences corporate social responsibility reporting of Chinese listed companies. We have used the sample of all A-share listed firms on Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges for the period 2008 to 2015. The authors used pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression as a baseline methodology. To control the possible problem of endogeneity we use one year lagged and two-stage least squares regression. We find that firm performance has a statistically significant impact on CSR reporting. Moreover, we see that firms with high performance are more likely to report CSR activities than low-performance firms. Additionally, five of the control variables (board size, CEO power, SOE, firm size, and Big4) have some influence on CSR reporting. These findings hold for a set of robustness tests. Our results have implications for the development of CSR reporting in developing countries like China. Our research suggests that, in China, companies with better financial performance undertake more CSR reporting. The paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the effect of firm performance on CSR reporting of Chinese listed companies. Additionally, this paper enriches the current literature on CSR reporting and highlights the importance of a firm’s financial performance for better environmental performance and reporting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2212: Is the Maker Movement Contributing to Sustainability? Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072212 Authors: Jeremy Millard Marie N. Sorivelle Sarah Deljanin Elisabeth Unterfrauner Christian Voigt ICT has already revolutionized content creation and communications. In principle, today, everybody with Internet access, the right skills and equipment can produce digital content composed of virtual “bits” and make it instantly available across the globe. The same is now happening to manufacturing for everyone with access to tools like 3D printers. This inter-changeability of bits and atoms is being called the maker movement, which started as a community-based, socially-driven bottom-up movement but is today also impacting mainstream manufacturing through increased efficiencies, distributed local production and the circular economy. The maker movement thus has significant promise for increasing social, economic and environmental sustainability, but is it currently living up to this potential? This paper reports on work undertaken by the European-funded MAKE-IT project has examined this question through detailed qualitative and quantitative empirical research, including ten in-depth case studies across Europe and a detailed examination of 42 maker initiatives at Europe’s foremost city-based maker faire, supplemented by extensive secondary research. Despite the maker movement’s short history, the overall results provide sound evidence of its important though variable contribution to sustainability thus far. In addition, there is a strong gender dimension showing that females are underrepresented both as users and leaders of maker initiatives, whilst female leaders tend to achieve much higher sustainability impacts than their male counterparts. There is also clear evidence that maker initiatives in close collaboration with each other and other actors in city- and region-wide ecosystems are much more successful in achieving sustainability impacts than others.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2208: The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Commitment: The Sequential Mediating Effect of Meaningfulness of Work and Perceived Organizational Support Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072208 Authors: Byung-Jik Kim Mohammad Nurunnabi Tae-Hyun Kim Se-Youn Jung Although many scholars have investigated the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization, there has been relatively minimal research regarding the CSR’s impacts on employees as well as the underlying mechanisms of it. Considering the research gaps, in the present research, we examine how CSR practices influence attitudes of employees. In particular, we hypothesize that perceived CSR would enhance organizational commitment (OC) of employees through the sequential mediation of meaningfulness of work (MOW) and perceived organizational support (POS). In order to empirically test this, we utilized two-wave time-lagged survey data from 378 employees who work for companies in South Korea. The results show that MOW and POS sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived CSR and OC. The findings suggest that CSR practices could be an active investment which enhances important attitudes of employees, instead of merely being a cost or obligation for firms.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2206: Striving towards the Deployment of Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS): A Review of Research Priorities and Assessment Needs Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072206 Authors: Vassilis Stavrakas Niki-Artemis Spyridaki Alexandros Flamos Assessing the performance or the implications of climate change mitigation options (CCMOs) is instrumental in achieving research and innovation efficiency in the field of climate change and becomes more imperative considering the Paris Agreement (‘the Agreement’). Many climate scientists already believe that meeting the Agreement’s goals and stabilizing “well-below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels” signals the deployment of currently undetermined and contentious mitigation technologies, such as bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). BECCS is considered one of the most promising negative emissions technologies (NETs) with many scenarios already exhibiting its mitigation potential. However, stakeholders and policymakers remain skeptical about widespread reliance on BECCS questioning its unproven credibility. In this article, we aim at identifying research priorities and assessment needs to intensify the further deployment of BECCS, considering relevant technology associations’ and platforms’ perspectives and insights raised by scientific literature. The main outcome of our study is a list of 10 research priorities along with more specific assessment needs for each priority area. We also focus attention on several implications for potential end-users involved in the field of policy and practice. Overall, our work seeks to bridge the gap between market/industry and academia and to assist policymakers to make better-informed decisions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 63 Author(s): Anil Padhra It is widely known that emissions from aircraft engines, Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and ground handling equipment contribute to air pollution at airports. During the aircraft turnaround process, the main source of emissions is the APU. The use of the APU can be significantly reduced if the aircraft stand is equipped to supply external electrical power and pre-conditioned air to the cabin. This paper analyses the actual duration of APU and external power usage during intraday aircraft turnarounds at 125 airports during June 2015. The data is derived from flight data recording units of more than 200 short-haul, narrow-body jet aircraft, conducting some 25,195 aircraft turnarounds and thus provides the most detailed assessment of aircraft power usage available. A common practice is for the APU to be running for a short period on arrival at the stand (arrival-cycle) and then again for a short period prior to departure (departure-cycle). It is identified in this study that departure-cycle emissions are three times greater than arrival-cycle emissions. These emissions could be reduced if more accurate forecasts of departure times are available to flight crew. The provision of external ground power is found to reduce emissions by up to 47.6%. However, the study also highlights that when the source of external power is a diesel-fuelled mobile Ground Power Unit (GPU), there is a net doubling in emissions of hydrocarbons. APU usage is also observed to vary with outside air temperature (OAT) leading to possible increases in emissions of up to 6%.
    Print ISSN: 1361-9209
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2340
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Elsevier
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 58 Author(s): Wei Yan, Wang Xiang, S.C. Wong, Xuedong Yan, Y.C. Li, Wei Hao Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage is a major contributing factor to road crashes. This study compares the effects of conversational cognitive tasks using hands-free cellular phone on driving performance under three distraction conditions: (1) no distraction (no cellular conversation), (2) normal conversation (non-emotional cellular conversation), and (3) seven-level mathematical calculations. A car-following scenario was implemented using a driving simulator. Thirty young drivers with an average age of 24.1 years maintained a constant speed and distance between the subject vehicle and a leading vehicle on the driving simulator, and then respond to the leading vehicle’s emergency stop. The driving performances were assessed by collecting and statistically analyzing several variables of maneuver stability: the drivers’ brake reaction times, driving speed fluctuation, car-following distance undulation, and car-following time-headway undulation. The results revealed that normal conversation on a hands-free cellular phone impaired driving performance. The degree of impairment caused by normal calculation was equivalent to the distraction caused by Level 3 mathematical calculations according to the seven-level calculation baseline. The calculation difficulty of Level 3 is one double-digit figure plus a single-digit figure, and non-carry addition mental arithmetic is required, e.g., 44 + 4. The results indicated that an increase in the level of complexity of the calculation task was associated with an increase in brake reaction time. The seven-level calculation-task baseline could be applied to measure additional distraction effects on driving performance for further comparison.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 50
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 863: Research on Optimal Water Allocation Based on Water Rights Trade under the Principle of Water Demand Management: A Case Study in Bayannur City, China Water doi: 10.3390/w10070863 Authors: Lizhen Wang Yuefei Huang Yong Zhao Haihong Li Fan He Jiaqi Zhai Yongnan Zhu Qingming Wang Shan Jiang In water shortage regions, water rights trading would be much useful for increasing water use inefficiency through changing users’ water demand. In this study, a water optimal allocation modelling system is proposed by considering water rights trading and other governmental policies such as water prices, water savings and industrial policies. An agent-based model was developed to describe the behaviors and goals of individual agents using complex adaptive system theory, information transfers, and functional mechanisms between agents. The developed model was applied to Bayannur City, which suffers from severe water shortages. The water prices for different industries, the water rights transaction price, and the behaviors of various agents in 2020 were forecasted. The results reveal that the water resources optimal allocation model applied in this study can help realize the reasonable allocation of regional water resources under limited water supply. It is also valuable to guide the government in making water resources allocation policies and provide a practical reference for the formulation and adjustment of a water market transaction price.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 860: Simulation of Rain Garden Effects in Urbanized Area Based on Mike Flood Water doi: 10.3390/w10070860 Authors: Jiake Li Bei Zhang Yajiao Li Huaien Li An urban storm and surface water pollution model (MIKE FLOOD) was used to assess the impact of rain gardens on water quantity and quality for an urban area in Xi’an. After the rain garden measures were added, the results show that: (1) In the case where the total proportion of rain gardens was 2%, the overflow reduction rate was 6.74% to 65.23%, the number of overflow points reduction rate was 1.79% to 65.63%, the overload pipes reduction rate was 0% to 11.15%, the runoff reduction rate was 1.93% to 9.69%; (2) Under different rainfall conditions, the load reduction rate of suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 2.36% to 30.35%, 2.37% to 30.11%, 2.34% to 30.08%, and 2.32% to 31.35%, respectively; (3) The submersion ranges of different submerged depths and submerged durations were reduced by 0.30% to 64.18% and 7.12% to 100%, respectively. The statistics of the automatic modeling and intelligent analysis system (AMIAS) showed that the rain garden regulation range of the waterlogging risk area was 0.78% to 100%. The rain garden has a good control effect on urban storm runoff in terms of water volume and water quality, but as the rainfall recurrence interval increases, the control effect will decrease.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 52
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018 Source: Weather and Climate Extremes Author(s): David L. Gobbett, Uday Nidumolu, Steven Crimp Frosts and extreme minimum temperature events cause significant damage to grapevines. In the Victorian vine growing regions of Australia, potentially causing complete wipe-out of a season's grape production, and millions of dollars of losses. Frost is an important risk to be managed by viticulturalists, and is likely to change under future climatic conditions with impacts on existing wine-grape growing regions. This case-study applies high spatial resolution analysis of minimum night-time temperatures to explore the impact of current and future frost risks. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) are used to model high-resolution (30 m grid) minimum temperatures for a topographically diverse region in the Yarra Valley wine region in southeastern Australia. Remotely sensed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) night-time temperatures, elevation, terrain indices and meteorological station data were used to develop the model of minimum night-time temperatures. The model is formally validated against independent vineyard minimum temperature records (R 2  = 0.68) as well as current distribution of viticulture land-use, which was compared with viticulturists' perceptions of a frost-line in the region. Historical temperature records were then adjusted to produce high-resolution maps of frost occurrence under a hot-dry future climate scenario, and a warm-wet scenario, for the years 2030 and 2050. All the future climate scenarios project down-elevation movement of the frost line of between 10 m and 30 m depending on scenarios. This work has implications for viticulturists who might plan to expand growing areas to lower elevations, or might consider changing to different grape varieties. The method developed here could be applied to other regions or used to explore other future climate scenarios.
    Electronic ISSN: 2212-0947
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 53
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    In: Agronomy
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Agronomy, Vol. 8, Pages 105: A Comparative Study on Poaceae and Leguminosae Forage Crops for Aided Phytostabilization in Trace-Element-Contaminated Soil Agronomy doi: 10.3390/agronomy8070105 Authors: Min-Suk Kim Hyun-Gi Min Sang-Hwan Lee Jeong-Gyu Kim When applying an aided phytostabilization in trace-element-contaminated agricultural soil, the cultivation of forage crops instead of edible crops can reduce the trace elements transfer to humans while minimizing the income loss of farmers. The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of the type of forage crops at the “family” level (Poaceae and Leguminosae) on aided phytostabilization using physical (water stable aggregation), chemical (Mehlich-3 extraction), and biological assessments (dehydrogenase activity). Pig manure and acid mine drainage sludge were used as soil amendments, and four plant species (Loliummultiflorum Lam. var. italicum and Secalecereale L. [Poaceae representatives], Viciavillosa Roth, and Trifoliumpratense L. [Leguminosae representatives]) were cultivated after amendment treatments. Chemical assessment showed that the reduction in bioavailability of trace elements was partly observed in legume crops. The positive effects of plant cultivation were determined through physical assessment. The effectiveness of pig manure as an organic amendment was determined by biological assessment. In some treatments, the synergistic effect of the incorporation of chemical stabilization with both plant families was observed but it was difficult to identify a clear distinction between the two families. The translocation of trace elements from root to shoot was low in all plants, indicating that the cultivation of the plants used in this study is safe with regards to the spread of trace elements into the environment. The results suggest that forage crop cultivation in contaminated agricultural soil could ameliorate soil quality after chemical stabilization.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
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  • 54
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Atmosphere, Vol. 9, Pages 246: Simulation of Severe Dust Events over Egypt Using Tuned Dust Schemes in Weather Research Forecast (WRF-Chem) Atmosphere doi: 10.3390/atmos9070246 Authors: Muhammed Eltahan Mohammed Shokr Atef O. Sherif Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to simulate selected severe dust storm events over Egypt in terms of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). Two severe events, which occurred on 22 January 2004 and 31 March 2013, are examined. The analysis includes three dust emission schemes: Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), GOCART with Air Force Weather Agency (GOCART-AFWA), and GOCART with University of Cologne (GOCART-UOC). Each scheme was tested by adjusting coefficients related to the dust flux. The AOD and Single scattering albedo (SSA) from the model were compared against the same parameters derived from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The grid spacing for both of the data sets is 10 km. Results from the March 2013 event were also compared against point measurements from an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Cairo. Using WRF with built-in coefficients, all schemes resulted in underestimating AOD. After tuning the coefficients, it was possible to bring the model results closer to the observations from satellite and AERONET. Each severe event required a different tuning, depending on the origin and composition of the dust storm. Sensitivity analysis for each case is performed to identify the scheme that best simulates the given events based on spatial error distribution. A novel comparison of eigenvalue structures for images of both for AOD and SSA from model and MODIS was used. After tuning, the adjusted coefficient GOCART scheme is found to simulate AOD best across the country in both events. However, the results for the 2004 event from GOCART-UOC were closest to MODIS AOD over Cairo (within 5% bias). On the other hand, GOCART-AFWA produced nearest estimate of AOD for the 2013 event when compared to AERONET measurements (within 7% bias). For both of the events, SSA from GOCART and GOCART-AFWA schemes were found to be comparable to MODIS measurements with accuracy that was close to 98%. The accuracy from GOCART-UOC was around 93%.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4433
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 55
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC04358B, Communication qikun sun, Kai Zhang, zhenzhen zhang, liangliang tang, Zongliang Xie, Zhenguo Chi, Shanfeng Xue, Haichang Zhang, Wenjun Yang Multicolor mechanoluminescence(ML) is first realized by using the stable organic blue ML emitter N-henylcarbazole as host matrix. It is claimed that a good ML host should have a moderate melting... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 56
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SC01568F, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Hairong Lyu, Yangjian Quan, Zuowei Xie A novel one-pot strategy for efficient and facile synthesis of C,B-substituted carborane-fused N-polyheterocycles is reported. Rhodium catalyzed cascade cyclization of carboranyl N-arylimines with vinyl ketones enables such effective construction of... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 57
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SC01889H, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Hendrik Zipse, Marta Marin-Luna, Benjamin Poelloth, Fabian L. Zott Relative rates for the reaction of secondary alcohols carrying large aromatic moieties with silyl chlorides carrying equally large substituents have been determined in organic solvents. Introducing thoroughly matching pairs of... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
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  • 58
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2056: Sensitivity Enhancement in Surface Plasmon Resonance Biochemical Sensor Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Graphene Heterostructure Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072056 Authors: Xiang Zhao Tianye Huang Perry Shum Ping Xu Wu Pan Huang Jianxing Pan Yiheng Wu Zhuo Cheng In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is proposed to improve the biosensor’s sensitivity. In this sensor, different kinds of two-dimensional TMDCs are coated on both surfaces of metal film. By optimizing the structural parameters, the angular sensitivity can reach as high as 315.5 Deg/RIU with 7-layers WS2 and 36 nm Al thin film, which is 3.3 times of the conventional structure based on single Al thin film. We also obtain maximum phase sensitivity (3.85 × 106 Deg/RIU) with bilayer WS2 and 35 nm Al thin film. The phase sensitivity can be further improved by employing Ag and removing air layer. The proposed configuration is of great potential for biochemical sensing.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 59
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2052: A Plug-and-Play Human-Centered Virtual TEDS Architecture for the Web of Things Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072052 Authors: Dixys L. Hernández-Rojas Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés Paula Fraga-Lamas Carlos J. Escudero This article presents a Virtual Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (VTEDS)-based framework for the development of intelligent sensor nodes with plug-and-play capabilities in order to contribute to the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) toward the Web of Things (WoT). It makes use of new lightweight protocols that allow sensors to self-describe, auto-calibrate, and auto-register. Such protocols enable the development of novel IoT solutions while guaranteeing low latency, low power consumption, and the required Quality of Service (QoS). Thanks to the developed human-centered tools, it is possible to configure and modify dynamically IoT device firmware, managing the active transducers and their communication protocols in an easy and intuitive way, without requiring any prior programming knowledge. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, it was tested when using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Ethernet-based smart sensors in different scenarios. Specifically, user experience was quantified empirically (i.e., how fast the system shows collected data to a user was measured). The obtained results show that the proposed VTED architecture is very fast, with some smart sensors (located in Europe) able to self-register and self-configure in a remote cloud (in South America) in less than 3 s and to display data to remote users in less than 2 s.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 60
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Soft Matter , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SM01098F, Paper Matthew Wehrman, Seth Lindberg, Kelly M Schultz Multiple particle tracking microrheology (MPT) is a powerful tool for quantitatively characterizing rheological properties of soft matter. Traditionally, MPT uses a single particle size to characterize rheological properties. But in... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1744-683X
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-6848
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 61
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Soft Matter , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SM00222C, Paper Pritha Dolai, Aditi Simha, Shradha Mishra We study binary mixtures of small active and big passive athermal particles interacting via soft repulsive forces on a frictional substrate. Athermal self propelled particles are known to phase separate... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1744-683X
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-6848
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2205: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Private R&D and Firm Performance: Does Ownership Matter in China’s Manufacturing Industry? Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072205 Authors: Zhenji Jin Yue Shang Jian Xu Government subsidies as a policy instrument are used to alleviate market failure in research and development (R&D) activities. We aim to understand the influence of government subsidies on enterprises’ R&D investment and performance. We are also interested in examining how the attributes of enterprise ownership act as a moderating variable for the relationship between government subsidies, R&D investment, and firm performance. We use firm-level data on China’s manufacturing listed companies from 2011 to 2015. The results show that receiving government subsidies improves private R&D investment and firm performance, and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) can obtain more subsidies than private-owned enterprises (POEs). However, the impact of government subsidies on private R&D investment is stronger in POEs than in SOEs of China. In additional analyses, we also examine this relationship by industry, region, subsidy intensity, and R&D intensity. This study has important policy implications for regulators to improve the effectiveness of government subsidies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 63
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2201: An Empirical Study on the Innovation Sharing Express Box: Collaborative Consumption and the Overlay Network Design Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072201 Authors: Aijun Liu Xiaohui Ji Sang-Bing Tsai Hui Lu Gang Du Feng Li Guodong Li Jiangtao Wang Sharing express boxes is an effective disposal method for obsolete express packages. Its appearance also represents an unstoppable trend in the development of green logistics. This paper takes the sharing express box as research object and conducts two-stage research. In the first stage, the collaborative consumption theory and calculus are used to analyze the economic benefits that sharing express boxes bring to operators, that is, to demonstrate the feasibility of this business model from an economic perspective. In the second stage, the design of the overlay network is studied from the management science perspective. Firstly, an optimal coverage model is established considering the characteristics of the sharing express box, and cleaning costs, relocation costs, etc. are all integrated into the model. Secondly, the genetic algorithm is used to solve the model. A numerical example is described to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. In addition, sensitivity analysis investigates the effect of hub coverage change on the results. Finally, the theoretical guidance gained from this paper can be beneficial to the sustainable development of sharing express boxes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2194: Analyzing Transfer Commuting Attitudes Using a Market Segmentation Approach Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072194 Authors: Jiao Ye Jun Chen Hua Bai Yifan Yue Commuting by transfer in the public transit network is a green travel choice compared to private cars which should be encouraged when direct transit lines cannot take the commuters to their destinations. Therefore, transfer commuting attitudes are important for finding appropriate ways to attract more transfer commuters. Firstly, since attitudes are usually unobserved, a combined revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) survey was conducted in Nanjing, China to obtain the observed attitudinal variables. Then the market segmentation approach including the factor analysis, the structural equation modelling (SEM) model and the K-means clustering method was used to identify the underlying attitudinal factors and variables and analyze the interrelationship between them. Six segments were identified by four key factors including the willingness to transfer, the sensitivity to time, the need for flexibility and the desire for comfort. The sensitivity to time is the most important factor for commuters influencing their willingness to transfer. The socio-economic features of each segment were also analyzed and compared. The result shows that socio-economic features have a great impact on the willingness to transfer. Corresponding policy and strategy implications to increase transfer commuting proportion were finally proposed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2191: Pathways to Equitable and Sustainable Education through the Inclusion of Roma Students in Learning Mathematics Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072191 Authors: Javier Díez-Palomar Ainhoa Flecha Fernández de Sanmamed Rocío García-Carrión Silvia Molina-Roldán Education is a key feature in the development of an agenda for a sustainable world. Education usually is associated with developing a responsible and ethical citizenship, aware of the main challenges for a sustainable development. Mathematics used to play a role as gatekeeper to achieve good educational performance. This article explores six case studies of Roma developing successful learning stories in learning mathematics. We identify five main characteristics in their educational trajectories that may explain Roma students’ success in the school. This article moves forward previous studies characterizing Roma cultural features of mathematics learning, reporting stereotypes towards Roma in school. We conclude that in order to promote educational inclusion, successful stories may inform effective educational programs that, ultimately, may lead towards a sustainable education, including students from the most disadvantaged groups, as in the case of the Roma people.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 66
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 6 Author(s): Kazuko Shichijo, Toshihiro Takatsuji, Manabu Fukumoto, Masahiro Nakashima, Mutsumi M. Matsuyama, Ichiro Sekine Background Radiation doses received by Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has been evaluated from data related only to external exposure because there was no reliable evidence for internal exposure in atomic bomb victims. However, we assumed that the contribution of internal exposure cannot be ruled out. Methods Autoradiography was carried out with the 70-year old paraffin-embedded specimens taken from Nagasaki atomic bomb victims who died within 5 months after the bombing. After exposure to photo emulsion for 6 months alpha-tracks were revealed in the specimens. We confirmed the alpha-tracks were emitted from deposited plutonium (Pu) in reference to the track length of the 8.787 MeV alpha-particle of thorium series from Polonium-212. Radioactivity concentration of Pu was obtained by counting alpha-tracks. The absorbed dose of each cell nucleus penetrated by an alpha-particle was estimated by calculating the absorbed energy from the particle. Results Using old paraffin embedded sections processed about 70 years ago, we demonstrated for the first time that conditions in the aftermath of the bombing led to internal exposure to alpha-particles emitted from Pu, the fissile material of the Nagasaki atomic bomb. Dose rate of internal exposure was higher in the victims exposed outdoors than those indoors. Radioactivity concentration was relatively uniform among organs examined in a victim. Conclusion Pu was deposited in the bodies of the Nagasaki A-bomb victims presumably via various routes. Organ dose from Pu of the Nagasaki A-bomb victims studied was during their surviving period, which is lower compared with external exposure. However, the impact to the individual cell nucleus by a single alpha-particle might not be negligible, It would be meaningful; to analyze the relationship of the impact of internal exposure at the cellular level and organ dose. The 70-year old pathological specimens utilized in our study are an invaluable source for understanding internal radiation exposure and are crucial in elucidating experimentally unreproducible phenomena.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 67
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications Author(s): F. Azarpanah, A.A. Hesari, A.R. Salehi, A. Taherifar An almost real maximal ideal M of C ( X ) is a maximal ideal that is either fixed or Z [ M ] contains a free z -filter which is closed under countable intersection. Using these maximal ideals, we first construct a space λX which is weakly Lindelöf containing X as a dense subspace on which every f ∈ C ( X ) with Lindelöf cozero-set can be extended (when this is the case, we say that X is C L -embedded). Next, using this space, we present the largest Lindelöf subspace Λ X of βX in which X is C L -embedded. If X is locally Lindelöf, λX coincides with Λ X and it turns out in this case that Λ X ( = λ X ) is the smallest Lindelöf subspace of βX with compact remainder. Using the structure of Λ X , we also give the smallest realcompact subspace ϒ X of βX with compact remainder. Finally the relations between the spaces υX , λX , ϒ X , Λ X and βX are investigated and we apply the structures of these spaces to characterize some intersections of free maximal ideals of C ( X ) .
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 68
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 58 Author(s): Gabriele Prati, Víctor Marín Puchades, Marco De Angelis, Luca Pietrantoni, Federico Fraboni, Nicolò Decarli, Anna Guerra, Davide Dardari In this study, users’ acceptance of an on-bike system that warns about potential collisions with motorized vehicles as well as its influence on cyclists’ behavior was evaluated. Twenty-five participants took part in a field study that consisted of three different experimental tasks. All participants also completed a follow-up questionnaire at the completion of the three-task series to elicit information about the acceptance of the on-bike system. In the experiment phase, participants were asked to ride the bicycle throughout a circuit and to interact with a car at an intersection. Participants completed three laps of the circuit. The first lap involved no interaction with the car and served the purpose of habituation. In the second and third laps participants experienced a conflict with an incoming car at an intersection. In the second lap, the on-bike device was not activated, while in the third lap, participants received a warning message signaling the imminent conflict with the car. We compared the difference in user’s behavior between the second lap (conflict with a car without the warning of the on-bike system) and the third lap (conflict with a car with the warning of the on-bike system). Results showed that, when entering the crossroad, participants were more likely to decrease their speed in case of warning of the on-bike system. Further, the on-bike system was relatively well accepted by the participants. In particular, participants did not report negative emotions when using the system, while they trusted it and believed that using such technology would be free from effort. Participants were willing to spend on average 57.83 € for the system. This study highlights the potential of the on-bike system for promoting bicycle safety.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 69
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 58 Author(s): Anae Sobhani, Bilal Farooq A novel head-mounted virtual immersive/interactive reality environment (VIRE) is utilized to evaluate the behaviour of participants in three pedestrian road crossing conditions while 1) not distracted, 2) distracted with a smartphone, and 3) distracted with a smartphone with a virtually implemented safety measure on the road. Forty-two volunteers participated in our research who completed thirty successful (complete crossing) trials in blocks of ten trials for each crossing condition. For the two distracted conditions, pedestrians are engaged in a maze-solving game on a virtual smartphone, while at the same time checking the traffic for a safe crossing gap. For the proposed safety measure, smart flashing and color changing LED lights are simulated on the crosswalk to warn the distracted pedestrian who initiates crossing. Surrogate safety measures as well as speed information and distraction attributes such as direction and orientation of participant’s head were collected and evaluated by employing a Multinomial Logit (MNL) model. Results from the model indicate that females have more dangerous crossing behaviour especially in distracted conditions; however, the smart LED treatment reduces this negative impact. Moreover, the number of times and the percentage of duration the head was facing the smartphone during a trial and a waiting time respectively increase the possibility of unsafe crossings; though, the proposed treatment reduces the safety crossing rate. Hence, our study shows that the smart LED light safety treatment indeed improves the safety of distracted pedestrians and enhances the successful crossing rate.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
    Published by Elsevier
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 853: Hybrid Models Combining EMD/EEMD and ARIMA for Long-Term Streamflow Forecasting Water doi: 10.3390/w10070853 Authors: Zhi-Yu Wang Jun Qiu Fang-Fang Li Long-term streamflow forecast is of great significance for water resource application and management. However, accurate monthly streamflow forecasting is challenging due to its non-stationarity and uncertainty. Time series analysis methods have been proved to perform well in stationary time series forecasting, which can be derived from decomposition of the non-stationary sequence. As common decomposition methods in time domain, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) are selected to decompose the components with different time-scale characteristics in the original hydrological time series in this study. The derived components are proved to be stationary by the stationarity test. Thus, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, a simple and effective time series analysis method, is used to forecast the components. A hybrid EMD/EEMD-ARIMA model is proposed in this study for long-term streamflow forecasting, which is applied to the upper stream of the Yellow River. The original daily streamflow time series of six years at the Tangnaihai station are firstly decomposed by EMD/EEMD into several stationary or simple non-stationary sub-series to explore detailed data information with different time scales. ARIMA models with appropriate parameters are then established for each subsequence to forecast the stream flow of the next year. Predicted ten-day and monthly stream flow is finally obtained combing the predictions of all the components. The EMD-ARIMA hybrid model performs best in forecasting high and moderate value of streamflow and fits best with the observation compared with EEMD-ARIMA and ARIMA models. The results not only verify the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid EMD/EEMD-ARIMA model in exploiting comprehensive information to improve the prediction but also indicate that the EMD-ARIMA model with end points disposal performs the best and can be used for long-term hydrological forecasting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 71
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 852: Role of Low-Impact Development in Generation and Control of Urban Diffuse Pollution in a Pilot Sponge City: A Paired-Catchment Study Water doi: 10.3390/w10070852 Authors: Hongtao Zhao Changliang Zou Jiang Zhao Xuyong Li Low-impact development (LID) is increasingly recognized as one of the most important stormwater source controls on a small scale. However, few studies have reported how LID practices affect the generation and control of urban diffuse pollution at the scale of urban drainage units. In this study, paired conventional and LID drainage units (CDU and LDU) were used to distinguish the role of LID practices in urban sediment accumulation and release at a residential drainage units scale (about 1–2 ha). The urban sediment dynamic build-up process, amounts per unit to equilibrium, amount and percentage of urban sediment washed-off by rainfall, pollutant concentrations during rainfall-runoff processes, and discharge water volume and pollution load from drainage units were all notably different between the paired drainage units. These results indicated that (1) LID practices have a combined effect on urban sediments accumulation and release on a drainage unit scale via reduction of the source area, changes in microtopography and formation of a greater sink area; (2) landscape alterations with LID practices within a small catchment reduced and disconnected areas with impervious surfaces, subsequently reducing the kinetic energy of wash-off and transport for urban sediment; (3) LID practices exerted notable hydrological responses and water quality responses at a micro urban catchment scale by reducing the first flush load and entire process discharge load. The results presented herein will facilitate optimal design for reliable treatment performance and assessment of the effectiveness of LID practices on an urban drainage units scale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 72
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    MDPI
    In: Agronomy
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Agronomy, Vol. 8, Pages 103: Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Family in Chenopodium quinoa Willd Agronomy doi: 10.3390/agronomy8070103 Authors: Gongbo Tashi Haoshuang Zhan Guangwei Xing Xi Chang Hong Zhang Xioajun Nie Wanquan Ji Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) is one of the conserved gene families in plants, playing a crucial role in growth and development, as well as in response to diverse stresses. Although it has been systematically studied in many species, little is known about the Hsf gene family in Chenopodium quinoa, especially those involved in the regulatory network of stress processes. In this study, we identified 23 Hsf genes in quinoa (CqHsfs) through a genome-wide search method based on the latest available genome information. Phylogenetic analysis classified them into three groups, and group A was further divided into nine subgroups, which was supported by conserved domain organizations. Gene structure and multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that all of the CqHsfs possessed a similar structure organization and were highly conserved in BDB domain. Interaction network analysis identified 13 CqHsfs involved in the network pathway to regulate diverse biological processes. Expression profiles of these CqHsfs were further investigated using the RNA-seq data, and tissue-specific and stress-responsive candidates were identified. Finally, four heat-responsive CqHsfs were selected to validate their expression level through semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. This study reported the organization, structure, and expression profiles of the Hsf gene family in quinoa, which will contributes to further functional analysis, and helps to better understand the roles and regulatory mechanism of heat shock factors playing in quinoa and beyond.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 73
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 93: Layered Graphs: Applications and Algorithms Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11070093 Authors: Bhadrachalam Chitturi Srijith Balachander Sandeep Satheesh Krithic Puthiyoppil The computation of distances between strings has applications in molecular biology, music theory and pattern recognition. One such measure, called short reversal distance, has applications in evolutionary distance computation. It has been shown that this problem can be reduced to the computation of a maximum independent set on the corresponding graph that is constructed from the given input strings. The constructed graphs primarily fall into a class that we call layered graphs. In a layered graph, each layer refers to a subgraph containing, at most, some k vertices. The inter-layer edges are restricted to the vertices in adjacent layers. We study the MIS, MVC, MDS, MCV and MCD problems on layered graphs where MIS computes the maximum independent set; MVC computes the minimum vertex cover; MDS computes the minimum dominating set; MCV computes the minimum connected vertex cover; and MCD computes the minimum connected dominating set. The MIS, MVC and MDS are computed in polynomial time if k=Θ(log|V|). MCV and MCD are computed polynomial time if k=O((log|V|)α), where α<1. If k=Θ((log|V|)1+ϵ), for ϵ>0, then MIS, MVC and MDS are computed in quasi-polynomial time. If k=Θ(log|V|), then MCV and MCD are computed in quasi-polynomial time.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 74
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: GABA promotes survival and axonal regeneration in identifiable descending neurons after spinal cord injury in larval lampreys GABA promotes survival and axonal regeneration in identifiable descending neurons after spinal cord injury in larval lampreys, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41419-018-0704-9 GABA promotes survival and axonal regeneration in identifiable descending neurons after spinal cord injury in larval lampreys
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 75
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC03144D, Communication Jompol Thongpaen, thibault E. schmid, Loic Toupet, Vincent Dorcet, Marc Mauduit, Olivier Basle Cp*Rh(NHC) complexes with bulky chiral bidentate NHC-carboxylate ligands were efficiently synthesized and fully characterized including solid-state structures. The new complexes demonstrated high selectivity in the pyridine-directed ortho-C-H borylation of arenes... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 76
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Robert Landewé, Joachim Sieper, Philip Mease, Robert D Inman, Robert G Lambert, Atul Deodhar, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Marina Magrey, Uta Kiltz, Xin Wang, Mei Li, Sheng Zhong, Nael M Mostafa, Apinya Lertratanakul, Aileen L Pangan, Jaclyn K Anderson Background Success of treatment withdrawal in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who are in remission remains unknown. The ABILITY-3 study explored the ability to withdraw adalimumab treatment in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who achieved sustained clinical remission after open-label treatment with adalimumab. Methods ABILITY-3 was a multicentre, two-period study done in 107 sites in 20 countries. We enrolled adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, fulfilling Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria but not the modified New York radiologic criterion, who had objective evidence of active inflammation, active disease, and inadequate response to at least two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients who achieved Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) inactive disease (〈1·3) with open-label adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously every other week for 28 weeks) at weeks 16, 20, 24, and 28 were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive voice or web response system to 40-week, double-blind treatment with adalimumab (continuation) or placebo (withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who did not experience a flare (defined as ASDAS ≥2·1 at two consecutive visits) during the double-blind period. Patients who flared were rescued with open-label adalimumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT01808118 . Findings Between June 27, 2013, and October 22, 2015, 673 patients were enrolled to the study. The trial completed on April 14, 2017. Of 673 enrolled patients, 305 (45%) achieved sustained remission and were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment (152 patients to adalimumab and 153 to placebo). A greater proportion of patients continuing adalimumab than those receiving placebo did not experience a flare (107 [70%] of 152 patients vs 72 [47%] of 153 patients; p〈0·0001) up to and including week 68. Among 673 patients receiving adalimumab at any time, 516 (77%) patients reported an adverse event and 28 (4%) experienced a serious adverse event. The most common adverse events in both the adalimumab and placebo groups were nasopharyngitis (25 [16%] vs 20 [13%]), upper respiratory tract infection (20 [13%] vs 12 [8%]), and worsening of axial spondyloarthritis (ten [7%] vs 21 [14%]). Interpretation In patients with active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who achieved sustained remission with adalimumab, continued therapy was associated with significantly fewer patients flaring than was treatment withdrawal. Funding AbbVie.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 77
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    Royal Society
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The photodegradation of benzothiazole (BTH) in wastewater with the coexistence of iron oxides and oxalic acid under UV light irradiation was investigated. Results revealed that an effective heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like system could be set up for BTH abatement in wastewater under UV irradiation without additional H 2 O 2 , and 88.1% BTH was removed with the addition of 2.0 mmol l –1 oxalic acid and 0.2 g l –1 α-Fe 2 O 3 using a 500 W high-pressure mercury lamp (365 nm). The degradation of BTH in the photo-Fenton-like system followed the first-order kinetic model. The photoproduction of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in different systems was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of transformation products by using liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry provided information about six transformation products formed during the photodegradation of BTH. Further insight was obtained by monitoring concentrations of the sulfate ion (SO42–) and nitrate ion (NO3–) , which demonstrated that the intermediate products of BTH could be decomposed ultimately. Based on the results, the potential photodegradation pathway of BTH was also proposed.
    Keywords: environmental chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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