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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Nirupama Krishnamurthi, Joseph Francis, Stephan D. Fihn, Craig S. Meyer, Mary A. Whooley
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Nesrine Akkari, Anne-Sarah Ganske, Ana Komerički, Brian Metscher We present high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) to enhance the standard morphological description of a recently described centipede, Eupolybothrus liburnicus Akkari, Komerički, Weigand, Edgecombe and Stoev, 2017. The 3D images of the holotype and paratype specimens are considered here as cybertypes for the species–a universal and virtual representation of the type material. This ‘avatar’ of the holotype is the first published male centipede cybertype. The microtomographic data of both types revealed further characters of systematic value and allowed us to hypothesise on the function of some of the male secondary structures and the mating behaviour of the species. Additionally, we compared part of the female reproductive system of E . liburnicus to species from the same genus, including E . cavernicolus Stoev & Komerički 2013, its closest congener. The high-resolution 3D image data have been uploaded to an open repository (MorphoSource.org) to serve in any subsequent study on the species and genus, as we believe this would catalyse biosystematic research on this and other arthropod groups.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Narges Alipanah, Leah Jarlsberg, Cecily Miller, Nguyen Nhat Linh, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Payam Nahid Background Incomplete adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases the risk of delayed culture conversion with continued transmission in the community, as well as treatment failure, relapse, and development or amplification of drug resistance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adherence interventions, including directly observed therapy (DOT), to determine which approaches lead to improved TB treatment outcomes. Methods and findings We systematically reviewed Medline as well as the references of published review articles for relevant studies of adherence to multidrug treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB through February 3, 2018. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as well as prospective and retrospective cohort studies (CSs) with an internal or external control group that evaluated any adherence intervention and conducted a meta-analysis of their impact on TB treatment outcomes. Our search identified 7,729 articles, of which 129 met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Seven adherence categories were identified, including DOT offered by different providers and at various locations, reminders and tracers, incentives and enablers, patient education, digital technologies (short message services [SMSs] via mobile phones and video-observed therapy [VOT]), staff education, and combinations of these interventions. When compared with DOT alone, self-administered therapy (SAT) was associated with lower rates of treatment success (CS: risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.73–0.89; RCT: RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.98), adherence (CS: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75–0.93), and sputum smear conversion (RCT: RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.98) as well as higher rates of development of drug resistance (CS: RR 4.19, 95% CI 2.34–7.49). When compared to DOT provided by healthcare providers, DOT provided by family members was associated with a lower rate of adherence (CS: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.94). DOT delivery in the community versus at the clinic was associated with a higher rate of treatment success (CS: RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15) and sputum conversion at the end of two months (CS: RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02–1.08) as well as lower rates of treatment failure (CS: RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33–0.95) and loss to follow-up (CS: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.98). Medication monitors improved adherence and treatment success and VOT was comparable with DOT. SMS reminders led to a higher treatment completion rate in one RCT and were associated with higher rates of cure and sputum conversion when used in combination with medication monitors. TB treatment outcomes improved when patient education, healthcare provider education, incentives and enablers, psychological interventions, reminders and tracers, or mobile digital technologies were employed. Our findings are limited by the heterogeneity of the included studies and lack of standardized research methodology on adherence interventions. Conclusion TB treatment outcomes are improved with the use of adherence interventions, such as patient education and counseling, incentives and enablers, psychological interventions, reminders and tracers, and digital health technologies. Trained healthcare providers as well as community delivery provides patient-centered DOT options that both enhance adherence and improve treatment outcomes as compared to unsupervised, SAT alone.
    Print ISSN: 1549-1277
    Electronic ISSN: 1549-1676
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Matthew Mattingly, Kristin Weineck, Jennifer Costa, Robin L. Cooper Optogenetics offers a unique method to regulate the activity of select neural circuits. However, the electrophysiological consequences of targeted optogenetic manipulation upon the entire circuit remain poorly understood. Analysis of the sensory-CNS-motor circuit in Drosophil a larvae expressing eHpHR and ChR2-XXL revealed unexpected patterns of excitability. Optical stimulation of motor neurons targeted to express eNpHR resulted in inhibition followed by excitation of body wall contraction with repetitive stimulation in intact larvae. In situ preparations with direct electrophysiological measures showed an increased responsiveness to excitatory synaptic activity induced by sensory stimulation within a functional neural circuit. To ensure proper function of eNpHR and ChR2-XXL they were expressed in body wall muscle and direct electrophysiological measurements were obtained. Under eNpHR induced hyperpolarization the muscle remained excitable with increased amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic synaptic potentials. Theoretical models to explain the observations are presented. This study aids in increasing the understanding of the varied possible influences with light activated proteins within intact neural circuits.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Maximilian B. Maier, Tobias Schweiger, Christian A. Lenz, Rudi F. Vogel The effect of high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the inactivation of spores of non-proteolytic type E Clostridium botulinum TMW 2.990 was investigated at high pressures (300 to 600 MPa) and elevated temperatures (80 to 100 °C) in four low-acid foods (steamed sole, green peas with ham, vegetable soup, braised veal) and imidazole phosphate buffer (IPB). In addition, corresponding conventional thermal treatments at ambient pressure were performed to expose possible synergisms of pressure and temperature on spore inactivation. In general, spore count reduction was more efficient by combining pressure and temperatures 〈 100 °C and the overall process duration could be shortened due to accelerated heating rates (adiabatic effect). Processing at 90 °C and 600 MPa resulted in inactivation below the detection limit after 5 min in all foods except steamed sole. Traditional thermal processing of spores at 90 °C for 10 min, on the other hand, did not result in an estimated 6-log reduction. Additional HPT treatments in steamed sole and IPB did not reveal pronounced food matrix dependent protective effects. Here, varying pressure levels did not appear to be the driving force for spore count reduction in steamed sole at any temperature. By applying a Weibull distribution on destruction kinetics of isobaric/isothermal holding times, 6D-values were calculated. Compression and decompression phase (1 s pressure holding time) had a considerable impact on spore count reduction (max. -2.9 log units) in both, foods and buffer. Hence, compression and decompression phases should directly be included into the total lethal effect of HPT treatments to avoid prolonged holding times and overprocessing.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Andreas Finkelmeyer, Jiabao He, Laura Maclachlan, Andrew M. Blamire, Julia L. Newton Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and similar disorders. These symptoms may relate to individual differences in intracranial compliance and cerebral blood perfusion. The present study used phase-contrast, quantitative flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine intracranial compliance based on arterial inflow, venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid flow along the spinal canal into and out of the cranial cavity. Flow-sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (FAIR) Arterial Spin Labelling was used to measure cerebral blood perfusion at rest. Forty patients with CFS and 10 age and gender matched controls were scanned. Severity of symptoms of OI was determined from self-report using the Autonomic Symptom Profile. CFS patients reported significantly higher levels of OI (p 〈 .001). Within the patient group, higher severity of OI symptoms were associated with lower intracranial compliance (r = -.346, p = .033) and higher resting perfusion (r = .337, p = .038). In both groups intracranial compliance was negatively correlated with cerebral perfusion. There were no significant differences between the groups in intracranial compliance or perfusion. In patients with CFS, low intracranial compliance and high resting cerebral perfusion appear to be associated with an increased severity of symptoms of OI. This may signify alterations in the ability of the cerebral vasculature to cope with changes to systemic blood pressure due to orthostatic stress, but this may not be specific to CFS.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Liwei Li, Fei Gao, Hao Zheng, Yifeng Jiang, Wu Tong, Yanjun Zhou, Guangzhi Tong MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level and are capable of mRNA silencing by binding to target sites exhibiting high degrees of complementarity. Therefore, cloning host miRNA-recognition sequences into the genome of RNA viruses represents a rational strategy for manipulating viral replication. Here, we performed deep sequencing to obtain small-RNA (sRNA)-expression profiles from in vitro -cultured MARC-145 cells post infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and chose six candidate miRNAs of different abundance (miR-21, miR-140-3p, miR-185, miR-26a, miR-505, and miR-199a) for further study. Based on the full-length cDNA clone p7USC, we constructed a number of PRRSV mutants that provided complementary base-pairing target sites for the miRNAs in 3′ untranslated regions. Our results showed that all low- and moderate- abundant miRNA-target mutants showed similar growth properties, whereas the highest-abundant miRNA-target mutant blocked both viral transcription and replication. Discontinuous mutations in high-abundant miRNA-target sites subsequently recovered viral viability and propagation. These results demonstrated the copy number of endogenous miRNAs and the extent of sRNA complementarity were key factors to silence potential mRNA expression/translation, thereby determining PRRSV viability. Interestingly, the mutant containing miR-140-target sites (v140-t) showed strong suppression of viral replication from P1 to P3 in vitro , as shown by virus titer, plaque morphology, and qRT-PCR assays. To assess genetic stability, sequencing of v140-t (P1, P3, P5 and P10) revealed spontaneous mutations preferentially located among several nucleotides near the 3′ end of the insertion region and corresponding to the “seed region” of miR-140-3p, explaining the induced viral repression and the direction of virus evolution. This approach provided a general silencing strategy for limiting PRRSV replication by endogenous miRNAs in MARC-145 cells.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Amy Vincent, Sarah Bright, Donald M. Peebles, Mariya Hristova Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia is standard clinical care for moderate hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury, however it reduces the risk of death and disability only by 11% and 40% of the treated infants still develop disabilities. Thus it is necessary to develop supplementary therapies to complement therapeutic hypothermia in the treatment of neonatal HIE. The modified Rice-Vannucci model of HI in the neonatal mouse is well developed and widely applied with different periods of hypothermia used as neuroprotective strategy in combination with other agents. However, different studies use different periods, time of initiation and duration of hypothermia following HI, with subsequent varying degrees of neuroprotection. So far most rodent data is obtained using exposure to 5-6h of therapeutic hypothermia. Our aim was to compare the effect of exposure to three different short periods of hypothermia (1h, 1.5h and 2h) following HI insult in the postnatal day 7 C57/Bl6 mouse, and to determine the shortest period providing neuroprotection. Our data suggests that 1h and 1.5h of hypothermia delayed by 20min following a 60min exposure to 8%O 2 do not prove neuroprotective. However, 2h of hypothermia significantly reduced tissue loss, TUNEL+ cell death and microglia and astroglia activation. We also observed improved functional outcome 7 days after HI. We suggest that the minimal period of cooling necessary to provide moderate short term neuroprotection and appropriate for the development and testing of combined treatment is 2h.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 11
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Lijun Fan, Bill Lukin, Jingzhou Zhao, Jiandong Sun, Kaeleen Dingle, Rhonda Purtill, Sam Tapp, Xiang-Yu Hou Background This study aims to examine the costs associated with a Hospital in the Nursing Home (HiNH) program in Queensland Australia directed at patients from residential aged care facilities (RACFs) with emergency care needs. Methods A cost analysis was undertaken comparing the costs under the HiNH program and the current practice, in parallel with a pre-post controlled study design. The study was conducted in two Queensland public hospitals: the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital (intervention hospital) and the Logan Hospital (control hospital). Main outcome measures were the associated incremental costs or savings concerning the HiNH program provision and the acute hospital care utilisation over one year after intervention. Results The initial deterministic analysis calculated the total induced mean costs associated with providing the HiNH program over one year as AU$488,116, and the total induced savings relating to acute hospital care service utilisation of AU$8,659,788. The total net costs to the health service providers were thus calculated at -AU$8,171,671 per annum. Results from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis (based on 10,000 simulations) showed the mean and median annual net costs associated with the HiNH program implementation were -AU$8,444,512 and–AU$8,202,676, and a standard deviation of 2,955,346. There was 95% certainty that the values of net costs would fall within the range from -AU$15,018,055 to -AU$3,358,820. Conclusions The costs relating to implementing the HiNH program appear to be much less than the savings in terms of associated decreases in acute hospital service utilisation. The HiNH service model is likely to have the cost-saving potential while improving the emergency care provision for RACF residents.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 12
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Justin Knox, Stephen M. Arpadi, Shuaib Kauchali, Murray Craib, Jane D. Kvalsvig, Myra Taylor, Fatimatou Bah, Claude Mellins, Leslie L. Davidson Background While neurodevelopmental abnormalities are common in children with HIV infection, their detection can be challenging in settings with limited availability of health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the ability to identify developmental disability among HIV positive and HIV negative children living in South Africa with an internationally used screen. Methods and findings This analysis uses a sample of 1,330 4–6 year old children and 1,231 of their caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, including administration of the Ten Questions (TQ) screen, a standardized medical history and physical examination conducted by a medical doctor, with hearing and vision screening, psychological assessment for cognition and language delay, and voluntary HIV testing. There was a high prevalence of disability among the sample. Compared to HIV negative children, HIV positive children were more likely to screen positive on at least one TQ item (59.3 vs 42.8%, p = 0.01), be delayed in sitting, standing or walking (OR 3.89, 95% CI = 2.1–7.2) and have difficulty walking or weakness in the arms or legs (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 0.8–9.37). By medical doctor assessment, HIV positive children were more likely to be diagnosed with gross motor disability (OR = 3.5, 95%CI = 1.3–9.2) and hearing disability (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.2–5.3). By independent psychological assessment, HIV positive children were more likely to have cognitive delay (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2–3.9) and language delay (OR = 4.3, 95%CI = 2.2–8.4). Among HIV positive children, the sensitivity and specificity of the TQ for serious disability (vs. no disability) was 100% and 51.2%, respectively. Among HIV-negative children, the sensitivity and specificity of the TQ for serious disability (vs. no disability) was 90.2% and 63.9%, respectively. Conclusions In this first report of the use of the TQ screen in the isiZulu language, it was found to have high sensitivity for detecting serious developmental disabilities in children, especially HIV positive children. The performance of the TQ in this sample indicates utility for making best use of limited neurodevelopmental resources by screening HIV positive children.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 13
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: by Alison Dougall, Francisca Martinez Pereira, Gustavo Molina, Caroline Eschevins, Blánaid Daly, Denise Faulks Introduction Persons unable to access oral health care in the conventional primary health care setting suffer from inequalities in oral health, particularly in terms of unmet dental need. The International Classification of Functioning, disability and health (ICF) is designed to look beyond medical diagnosis and to describe individuals or populations in terms of their ability to function and participate in a social environment. The objective of the study was to describe an adult population requiring specialist oral health care using the ICF and to identify common factors of functioning, participation and environmental context. Method The ICF Checklist for Oral Health was completed for 246 participants from five specialist dental services in five countries (mean age 36 ±16.44 years; 16–92). ‘Developmental disability’ and ‘Medically compromised’ groups were identified (72% and 28%). Results Participants presented with oral disease (92%) and dysfunction (66% impaired chewing). 33 ICF items were affected in over 50% of participants in both groups. Impaired body functions included ‘ingestion functions’, ‘energy and drive functions’ and ‘emotional functions’. Participation was restricted for “Acquiring, keeping and terminating a job”, “Intimate relationships”, “Handling stress and psychological demands”, “Economic self-sufficiency”, “Carrying out a daily routine”, “Recreation and leisure”, “Community life” and “Looking after one’s health”. In the environment domain, “Support and relationships” and “Attitudes” were rated as facilitators. Environmental barriers reported for over 25% of the whole group were related to “Services, systems and policies” including, health, social security, general support, transportation, and labour and employment. Discussion and perspectives Common aspects of functioning, participation and environment were found amongst a heterogeneous population of adults attending specialist dental services, alongside poor oral health and function. The ICF may be used to describe populations that suffer inequality in oral health in order to develop services that effectively target those in need of additional means.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 14
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1051: The Drifting Phase of SARAL: Securing Stable Ocean Mesoscale Sampling with an Unmaintained Decaying Altitude Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10071051 Authors: Gérald Dibarboure Alain Lamy Marie-Isabelle Pujol Ghita Jettou The French/Indian altimeter project Satellite with ARGOS and AltiKa (SARAL) completed its nominal 3-year mission on the historical European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS) orbit in Spring 2016. In order to extend the lifetime of the satellite as much as possible, the agencies in charge of SARAL decided to initiate a so-called drifting phase where the satellite altitude is no longer maintained. In this paper we describe how the ocean mesoscale sampling capability of SARAL has been preserved during the drifting phase by initiating it at a specific altitude: the optimal starting point was approximately 1 km above the historical ERS/ENVIronment SATellite (ENVISAT) orbit. This strategy secured the ocean mesoscale sampling capability of SARAL drifting phase (DP) for 6 years or more. We also generalize these findings: any altimeter could follow SARAL’s drifting phase strategy if their maneuvering capability is limited. Lastly, we explain how an altimetry mission or an entire altimeter constellation could be operated without any form of altitude control: some specific altitude bands (e.g., near 1230 km) guarantee a high-quality mesoscale sampling for years or decades even if the altitude is not maintained.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 15
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1049: Effects of Dynamic Range and Sampling Rate of an Infrared Thermometer to the Accuracy of the Cloud Detection Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10071049 Authors: Hye Young Won Myoung Hwan Ahn Cloud detection using downwelling radiation measured by infrared thermometer (IRT) has been utilized for many applications. The current study investigates the effects of disparate IRT specifications, including the dynamic range and sampling rates on the performance of cloud detection, which utilizes the spectral and temporal characteristics of cloudy radiation. To analyze the effects, the detection algorithm that was prepared with and applied to the IRT data with different specifications is compared with reference data, a ceilometer, and micro-pulse lidar (MPL). The comparison results show that the low-altitude clouds are detected with a sufficient accuracy: better than 97% probability of detection (POD). This is due to the much warmer brightness temperature (Tb) of the low clouds compared with the clear sky in the atmospheric window region where the IRT measurement was made. Conversely, the high-altitude cold clouds are hard to detect with the spectral test due to the much-reduced Tb contrast between cloudy and clear sky. Thus, the algorithm performance is largely dependent on the performance of the temporal test. Since the lower measurement noise provides a better estimation of the temporal variability of clear sky Tb with less estimation uncertainty, the IRT data having a better noise performance shows a better POD value by as much as 52.2% compared with the MPL result. However, the improvement is realized only when the dynamic range of IRT covers sufficiently cold Tb, such as −100 °C.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Synthetic biology offers opportunities for experiential educational activities at the intersection of the life sciences, engineering, and design. However, implementation of hands-on biology activities in classrooms is challenging because of the need for specialized equipment and expertise to grow living cells. We present BioBits™ Bright, a shelf-stable, just-add-water synthetic biology education kit with easy visual outputs enabled by expression of fluorescent proteins in freeze-dried, cell-free reactions. We introduce activities and supporting curricula for teaching the central dogma, tunable protein expression, and design-build-test cycles and report data generated by K-12 teachers and students. We also develop inexpensive incubators and imagers, resulting in a comprehensive kit costing 〈US$100 per 30-person classroom. The user-friendly resources of this kit promise to enhance biology education both inside and outside the classroom.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Author Correction: Composition and Use of Cannabis Extracts for Childhood Epilepsy in the Australian Community Author Correction: Composition and Use of Cannabis Extracts for Childhood Epilepsy in the Australian Community, Published online: 02 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30164-8 Author Correction: Composition and Use of Cannabis Extracts for Childhood Epilepsy in the Australian Community
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Publisher Correction: Deletion of DDB1- and CUL4- associated factor-17 ( Dcaf17 ) gene causes spermatogenesis defects and male infertility in mice Publisher Correction: Deletion of DDB1- and CUL4- associated factor-17 (〈i〉Dcaf17〈/i〉) gene causes spermatogenesis defects and male infertility in mice, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29836-2 Publisher Correction: Deletion of DDB1- and CUL4- associated factor-17 ( Dcaf17 ) gene causes spermatogenesis defects and male infertility in mice
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 19
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Structural elucidation of Tsukamurella pulmonis neutral polysaccharide and its visualization in infected mouse tissues by specific monoclonal antibodies Structural elucidation of 〈i〉Tsukamurella pulmonis〈/i〉 neutral polysaccharide and its visualization in infected mouse tissues by specific monoclonal antibodies, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29864-y Structural elucidation of Tsukamurella pulmonis neutral polysaccharide and its visualization in infected mouse tissues by specific monoclonal antibodies
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Elimination of all redundant climbing fiber synapses requires granule cells in the postnatal cerebellum Elimination of all redundant climbing fiber synapses requires granule cells in the postnatal cerebellum, Published online: 03 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28398-7 Elimination of all redundant climbing fiber synapses requires granule cells in the postnatal cerebellum
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 21
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2144: Smart Vest for Respiratory Rate Monitoring of COPD Patients Based on Non-Contact Capacitive Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072144 Authors: David Naranjo-Hernández Alejandro Talaminos-Barroso Javier Reina-Tosina Laura M. Roa Gerardo Barbarov-Rostan Pilar Cejudo-Ramos Eduardo Márquez-Martín Francisco Ortega-Ruiz In this paper, a first approach to the design of a portable device for non-contact monitoring of respiratory rate by capacitive sensing is presented. The sensing system is integrated into a smart vest for an untethered, low-cost and comfortable breathing monitoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients during the rest period between respiratory rehabilitation exercises at home. To provide an extensible solution to the remote monitoring using this sensor and other devices, the design and preliminary development of an e-Health platform based on the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) paradigm is also presented. In order to validate the proposed solution, two quasi-experimental studies have been developed, comparing the estimations with respect to the golden standard. In a first study with healthy subjects, the mean value of the respiratory rate error, the standard deviation of the error and the correlation coefficient were 0.01 breaths per minute (bpm), 0.97 bpm and 0.995 (p < 0.00001), respectively. In a second study with COPD patients, the values were −0.14 bpm, 0.28 bpm and 0.9988 (p < 0.0000001), respectively. The results for the rest period show the technical and functional feasibility of the prototype and serve as a preliminary validation of the device for respiratory rate monitoring of patients with COPD.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 22
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2141: Fluorinated Metal Phthalocyanines: Interplay between Fluorination Degree, Films Orientation, and Ammonia Sensing Properties Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072141 Authors: Darya Klyamer Aleksandr Sukhikh Sergey Gromilov Pavel Krasnov Tamara Basova In this work, the sensor response of MPcFx (M = Cu, Co, Zn; x = 0, 4, 16) films toward gaseous NH3 (10–50 ppm) was studied by a chemiresistive method and compared to that of unsubstituted MPc films to reveal the effects of central metals and F-substituents on the sensing properties. A combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to elucidate the structural features of thin MPcFx films deposited by organic molecular beam deposition. It has been shown that the sensor response of MPcF4 films to ammonia is noticeably higher than that of MPc films, which is in good correlation with the values of binding energy between the metal phthalocyanine and NH3 molecules, as calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method. At the same time, in contrast to the DFT calculations, MPcF16 demonstrated the lesser sensor response compared with MPcF4, which appeared to be connected with the different structure and morphology of their films. The ZnPcF4 films were shown to exhibit a sensitivity to ammonia up to concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm, and can be used for the selective detection of ammonia in the presence of some reducing gases and volatile organic compounds. Moreover, the ZnPcF4 films can be used for the detection of NH3 in the gas mixture simulating exhaled air (N2 76%, O2 16%, H2O 5%, and CO2 3%).
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2139: Accurate Calibration of Multi-LiDAR-Multi-Camera Systems Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072139 Authors: Zoltán Pusztai Iván Eichhardt Levente Hajder As autonomous driving attracts more and more attention these days, the algorithms and sensors used for machine perception become popular in research, as well. This paper investigates the extrinsic calibration of two frequently-applied sensors: the camera and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). The calibration can be done with the help of ordinary boxes. It contains an iterative refinement step, which is proven to converge to the box in the LiDAR point cloud, and can be used for system calibration containing multiple LiDARs and cameras. For that purpose, a bundle adjustment-like minimization is also presented. The accuracy of the method is evaluated on both synthetic and real-world data, outperforming the state-of-the-art techniques. The method is general in the sense that it is both LiDAR and camera-type independent, and only the intrinsic camera parameters have to be known. Finally, a method for determining the 2D bounding box of the car chassis from LiDAR point clouds is also presented in order to determine the car body border with respect to the calibrated sensors.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 24
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2138: Forecasting of Cereal Yields in a Semi-arid Area Using the Simple Algorithm for Yield Estimation (SAFY) Agro-Meteorological Model Combined with Optical SPOT/HRV Images Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072138 Authors: Aicha Chahbi Bellakanji Mehrez Zribi Zohra Lili-Chabaane Bernard Mougenot In semi-arid areas characterized by frequent drought events, there is often a strong need for an operational grain yield forecasting system, to help decision-makers with the planning of annual imports. However, monitoring the crop canopy and production capacity of plants, especially for cereals, can be challenging. In this paper, a new approach to yield estimation by combining data from the Simple Algorithm for Yield estimation (SAFY) agro-meteorological model with optical SPOT/ High Visible Resolution (HRV) satellite data is proposed. Grain yields are then statistically estimated as a function of Leaf Area Index (LAI) during the maximum growth period between 25 March and 5 April. The LAI is retrieved from the SAFY model, and calibrated using SPOT/HRV data. This study is based on the analysis of a rich database, which was acquired over a period of two years (2010–2011, 2012–2013) at the Merguellil site in central Tunisia (North Africa) from more than 60 test fields and 20 optical satellite SPOT/HRV images. The validation and calibration of this methodology is presented, on the basis of two subsets of observations derived from the experimental database. Finally, an inversion technique is applied to estimate the overall yield of the entire studied site.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 25
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2132: Optimal Polygon Decomposition for UAV Survey Coverage Path Planning in Wind Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072132 Authors: Matthew Coombes Tom Fletcher Wen-Hua Chen Cunjia Liu In this paper, a new method for planning coverage paths for fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) aerial surveys is proposed. Instead of the more generic coverage path planning techniques presented in previous literature, this method specifically concentrates on decreasing flight time of fixed-wing aircraft surveys. This is achieved threefold: by the addition of wind to the survey flight time model, accounting for the fact fixed-wing aircraft are not constrained to flight within the polygon of the region of interest, and an intelligent method for decomposing the region into convex polygons conducive to quick flight times. It is shown that wind can make a huge difference to survey time, and that flying perpendicular can confer a flight time advantage. Small UAVs, which have very slow airspeeds, can very easily be flying in wind, which is 50% of their airspeed. This is why the technique is shown to be so effective, due to the fact that ignoring wind for small, slow, fixed-wing aircraft is a considerable oversight. Comparing this method to previous techniques using a Monte Carlo simulation on randomised polygons shows a significant reduction in flight time.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 26
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2135: Design and Implementation of a Central-Controllable and Secure Multicast System Based on Universal Identifier Network Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072135 Authors: Jianfeng Guan Xuan Liu Su Yao Zhongbai Jiang With the rapid increase of network users and services, the breadth and depth of Internet have greatly changed. The mismatch between current network requirements and original network architecture design has spurred the evolution or revolution of Internet to remedy this gap. Lots of research projects on future network architecture have been launched, in which Universal Identifier Network (UIN) architecture that is based on the identifier/location separation, access/core separation and control/forwarding separation can provide better mobility, security and reliability. On the other hand, the demand of group communication has increased due to the fine-grained network services and successive booming of new applications such as IoT (Internet of Things). Most of current multicast schemes are based on the open group model with open group membership (multicast only care the multicast group state, not the group member) and open access to send/receive multicast data, which are beneficial to multicast routing for its simplification. However, the open group membership makes the group member management difficult to be realized, and open access may result in lots of security vulnerabilities such as Denial of service (DoS), eavesdropping and masquerading, which make deployment more difficult. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Central-Controllable and Secure Multicast (CCSM) system based on the UIN architecture, and redesign the multicast service procedures including registration, join/leave, multicast routing construction and update with objective to achieve better mobility support, security, scalability and controllable. More specifically, we design a new group management scheme to perform the multicast members join/leave with authentication and a central-controllable multicast routing scheme to provide a secure way to set up multicast entries on routers. The CCSM inherits the characteristics of UIN in terms of mobility and security, and it can provide the centralized multicast routing computation and distributes the multicast routing into forwarders. We compare CCSM with Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), and the results show that CCSM reduces the multicast join delay, and performs better than PIM-SM in term of reconstruction cost under low multicast density.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 27
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2130: Wireless Passive Ultra High Frequency RFID Antenna Sensor for Surface Crack Monitoring and Quantitative Analysis Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072130 Authors: Jun Zhang Bei Huang Gary Zhang Gui Yun Tian An exponential increase in large-scale infrastructure facilitates the development of wireless passive sensors for permanent installation and in-service health monitoring. Due to their wireless, passive and cost-effective characteristics, ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) tag antenna based sensors are receiving increasing attention for structural health monitoring (SHM). This paper uses a circular patch antenna sensor with an open rectangular window for crack monitoring. The sensing mechanism is quantitatively studied in conjunction with a mode analysis, which can uncover the intrinsic principle for turning an antenna into a crack sensor. The robustness of the feature is examined when the variation of crack position associated with an aluminum sample and the antenna sensor is considered. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable sensitivity and resolution for crack characterization.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8DT02031K, Paper Alison Paul, Ian A. Fallis, Emily C. Stokes, Stephen M. King, Peter C. Griffiths Small-angle neutron scattering and contrast variation has been employed to quantify how a series of alcohols with increasing hydrophobicity exert different abilities to structure a model toluene based metallomicroemulsion – a microemulsion system stabilised with a metallosurfactant. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 29
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT02521E, Paper Chun-Wan Timothy Lo, Volodymyr Svitlyk, Dmitry Chernyshov, Yurij Mozharivskyj The Zn-Sb system contains two well-known thermoelectric materials, Zn 1-δ Sb and Zn 13-δ Sb 10 (“Zn 4 Sb 3 ”), and two other phases, Zn 9-δ Sb 7 and Zn 3-δ Sb 2 , stable only at high temperatures. The current work presents the updated... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 2018: Technological Solutions for Recycling Ash Slag from the Cao Ngan Coal Power Plant in Vietnam Energies doi: 10.3390/en11082018 Authors: Thriveni Thenepalli Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc Lai Quang Tuan Trinh Hai Son Ho Huu Hieu Dang Tran Nhu Thuy Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao Duong Thi Thanh Tam Doan Thi Ngoc Huyen Tran Tan Van Ramakrishna Chilakala Ji Whan Ahn Annually, coal-fired power plants in Vietnam discharge hundreds of thousand tons of coal ash. Most of this ash goes into the environment without treatment or any plan for the efficient reuse of this precious resource. There are many reasons for this, such as poor quality of the ash, no suitable and feasible ash treatment technology, a lack of awareness about environmental pollution and resource saving, and inappropriate sanctions and policies. This study analyzed and summarized information and data pertaining to the current status of the production, discharge, and utilization of coal ash from the Cao Ngan Power Plant (CNPP) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. In addition, the potential for applying advanced emission reduction technologies in order to recycle coal ash for cement production, as well as geographical, socio-economic, and market factors were assessed. This paper reveals the results of a preliminary assessment of carbon-mineralization technologies which seek to achieve the following three goals: (1) effectively disposing of coal ash to protect the environment and local community, (2) contributing to the nationally determined effort to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, and (3) making value-added products and bringing economic benefits to a sustainable society.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 2015: Energy-Efficient Clusters for Object Tracking Networks Energies doi: 10.3390/en11082015 Authors: Yang-Hsin Fan Smart cities have hundreds of thousands of devices for tracking data on crime, the environment, and traffic (such as data collected at crossroads and on streets). This results in higher energy usage, as they are recording information persistently and simultaneously. Moreover, a single object tracking device, on a corner at an intersection for example has a limited scope of view, so more object tracking devices are added to broaden the view. As an increasing number of object tracking devices are constructed on streets, their efficient energy consumption becomes a significant issue. This work is concerned with decreasing the energy required to power these systems, and proposes energy-efficient clusters (EECs) of object tracking systems to achieve energy savings. First, we analyze a current object tracking system to establish an equivalent model. Second, we arrange the object tracking system in a cluster structure, which facilitates the evaluation of energy costs. Third, the energy consumption is assessed as either dynamic or static, which is a more accurate system for determining energy consumption. Fourth, we analyze all possible scenarios of the object’s location and the resulting energy consumption, and derive a number of formulas for the fast computation of energy consumption. Finally, the simulation results are reported. These results show the proposed EEC is an effective way to save energy, compared with the energy consumption benchmarks of current technology.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2302: The Effect of Public Participation on Environmental Governance in China–Based on the Analysis of Pollutants Emissions Employing a Provincial Quantification Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072302 Authors: Tong Zhang Chaofan Chen For a long time, governments and enterprises have been the two main subjects for environmental governance in China. With the growing complexities of environmental issues and the improvement of public environmental awareness, public participation is gradually playing an important role in the process of China’s environmental governance. This paper aims to explore the necessity, the rationale, and the specific effect of public participation on environmental governance in China. A theoretical model is first proposed to illustrate the significance of public participation. Then, an empirical model is built to investigate the impact of public participation on pollutant emissions of the four main pollutants SO2, NOx, COD, and NH4, based on the panel data of 30 provinces from 2011 to 2015 in China. The results and main findings are: (1) public environmental complaints exert a noticeable and positive impact on the reductions of pollutants; (2) this impact varies according to different pollutants, among which reducing SO2 emissions shows the most efficiency; and (3) the impact of public participation on the reduction of pollutants shows the characteristics of hysteresis and regional difference. We find that when the rate of public participation of lagging one period increases by 1%, the reduction of SO2 is 5.03 tons per capita, 1.54 tons per capita, and 0.94 tons per capita in the region of middle, east, and west China, respectively. Therefore, the status of public participation should be strengthened and effective public participation is urgently needed in environmental governance. A systematic cooperative governance among the public, governments, and enterprises needs to be established in the long run.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2298: Effects on Willingness to Pay for Marine Conservation: Evidence from Zhejiang Province, China Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072298 Authors: Bing Yu Yuying Cai Laiqun Jin Bisheng Du The willingness to pay (WTP) for marine conservation is an important basis for the design of market-based marine protection strategies and sustainable marine environment development. Whether the individual was willing to pay and how much they would prefer to pay may be affected separately by different factors. Thus, we investigated the probability of paying for marine conservation and the payment amount to obtain evidence regarding the factors that influence the preferences of stakeholders. We considered two marine protected areas in Zhejiang Province, China, where we combined contingent valuation with logit and tobit models to measure the differences in the WTP for marine conservation between tourists and residents. The results showed that most respondents were willing to pay for marine conservation, but they were affected by different factors. The average amounts that the respondents were willing to pay were 216.20 CNY ($34.3) and 172.43 CNY ($27.4) in the Nanji Islands MPA and Putuo Islands MPA, respectively. The probability of respondents’ WTP was closely related to their individual environmental awareness, whereas the payment amount was influenced mainly by personal income. Thus, our results suggest that increasing human environmental cognition and developing differential payment schemes for the marine environment among stakeholders may promote sustainable marine protection development and management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2295: A Combined Value Focused Thinking-Soft Systems Methodology Approach to Structure Decision Support for Energy Performance Assessment of School Buildings Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10072295 Authors: Hermano Bernardo Adélio Gaspar Carlos Henggeler Antunes Several technological, social and organizational factors influence energy management in school buildings, resulting in a complex situation away from the usual engineering approach. The selection of evaluation criteria to assess the energy performance of school buildings remains one of the most challenging aspects since these should accommodate the perspectives of the potential key stakeholders. This paper presents a comprehensive problem structuring approach combining Soft Systems Methodology and Value Focused Thinking to elicit and organize the multiple aspects that influence energy efficiency of school buildings. The main aim of this work is structuring the fundamental objectives to develop a criteria tree to be considered in a multi-criteria classification model to be used by management entities for rating overall energy performance of school buildings. This methodological framework helped grasping the main issues at stake for a thorough energy performance assessment of school buildings and the need to define adequate policies for improvement.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2483: A Hydrogen Gas Sensor Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles on Alumina Substrate Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082483 Authors: Siti Amaniah Mohd Chachuli Mohd Nizar Hamidon Md. Shuhazlly Mamat Mehmet Ertugrul Nor Hapishah Abdullah High demand of semiconductor gas sensor works at low operating temperature to as low as 100 °C has led to the fabrication of gas sensor based on TiO2 nanoparticles. A sensing film of gas sensor was prepared by mixing the sensing material, TiO2 (P25) and glass powder, and B2O3 with organic binder. The sensing film was annealed at temperature of 500 °C in 30 min. The morphological and structural properties of the sensing film were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The gas sensor was exposed to hydrogen with concentration of 100–1000 ppm and was tested at different operating temperatures which are 100 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C to find the optimum operating temperature for producing the highest sensitivity. The gas sensor exhibited p-type conductivity based on decreased current when exposed to hydrogen. The gas sensor showed capability in sensing low concentration of hydrogen to as low as 100 ppm at 100 °C.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2461: Prospective Use of High-Refractive Index Materials for Single Molecule Detection in Flow Cytometry Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082461 Authors: Joshua A. Welsh Julia Kepley Ariel Rosner Peter Horak Jay A. Berzofsky Jennifer C. Jones Phenotyping extracellular vesicles (EVs), where surface receptor expression is often as low as one molecule per EV, remains problematic due to the inability of commercial flow cytometers to provide single-fluorescent molecule sensitivity. While EVs are widely considered to be of great potential as diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers, their use is currently hindered by the lack of tools available to accurately and reproducibly enumerate and phenotype them. Herein, we propose a new class of labels that leverage the biophysical properties of materials with unique complex refractive indices and demonstrate that this class of labels has the possibility of allowing single-epitope detection using conventional flow cytometry.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Soft Matter , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SM00752G, Paper Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Vincenzo Calabrese, Marcelo A. da Silva, Julien Schmitt, Juan Munoz-Garcia, Valeria Gabrielli, Janet L Scott, Jesus Angulo, Yaroslav Z. Khimyak, Karen J Edler Zwitterionic cellulose nanofibrils (ZCNF) with isoelectric point of 3.4 were obtained by grafting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils. ZCNF aqueous dispersions were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, rheology and... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1744-683X
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-6848
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2708: Research on the Disequilibrium Development of Output of Regional Innovation Based on R&D Personnel Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10082708 Authors: Xinbao Tian Jiguang Wang Regional innovation is of great significance to the sustainable development of a regional economy. However, there exists a disequilibrium development of output of regional innovation in China, which affects the imbalance of regional economic development to a certain extent. In order to explore the process and mechanism of the disequilibrium development in regional innovation, a new perspective is adopted in this paper to analyze the index of R&D (research and development) personnel, which is an important input element of regional innovation output. The regional samples, including 31 provinces in China, are divided into three parts: eastern region, central region, and western region. First, developing the tendency and speed of the disequilibrium of regional innovation output are analyzed by using σ convergent model and β convergent model, respectively, during the period of analyzing the process of the disequilibrium development. Then, the LMDI (logarithmic mean Divisia index) method is used to analyze the character of regional innovation output by using R&D personnel as an important endogenous factor during the period of analyzing the mechanism of the disequilibrium development. At last, we draw the conclusion of the study. We find that: (i) there is a gap in the absolute amount between regions in a long term, but the gap between regions is shrinking and the speed of catching up between regions is different; (ii) the efficiency of R&D personnel is the most positive effect of promoting equilibrium.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: by Huong Thi Pham, Nguyen Thi Hanh Nhiep, Thu Ngoc Minh Vu, TuAnh Ngoc Huynh, Yan Zhu, Anh Le Diep Huynh, Alolika Chakrabortti, Esteban Marcellin, Raquel Lo, Christopher B. Howard, Nidhi Bansal, Joshua J. Woodward, Zhao-Xun Liang, Mark S. Turner The broadly conserved bacterial signalling molecule cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) controls osmoresistance via its regulation of potassium (K + ) and compatible solute uptake. High levels of c-di-AMP resulting from inactivation of c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity leads to poor growth of bacteria under high osmotic conditions. To better understand how bacteria can adjust in response to excessive c-di-AMP levels and to identify signals that feed into the c-di-AMP network, we characterised genes identified in a screen for osmoresistant suppressor mutants of the high c-di-AMP Lactococcus Δ gdpP strain. Mutations were identified which increased the uptake of osmoprotectants, including gain-of-function mutations in a Kup family K + importer (KupB) and inactivation of the glycine betaine transporter transcriptional repressor BusR. The KupB mutations increased the intracellular K + level while BusR inactivation increased the glycine betaine level. In addition, BusR was found to directly bind c-di-AMP and repress expression of the glycine betaine transporter in response to elevated c-di-AMP. Interestingly, overactive KupB activity or loss of BusR triggered c-di-AMP accumulation, suggesting turgor pressure changes act as a signal for this second messenger. In another group of suppressors, overexpression of an operon encoding an EmrB family multidrug resistance protein allowed cells to lower their intracellular level of c-di-AMP through active export. Lastly evidence is provided that c-di-AMP levels in several bacteria are rapidly responsive to environmental osmolarity changes. Taken together, this work provides evidence for a model in which high c-di-AMP containing cells are dehydrated due to lower K + and compatible solute levels and that this osmoregulation system is able to sense and respond to cellular water stress.
    Print ISSN: 1553-7390
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7404
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: by The PLOS ONE Staff
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1634: Changing the Approach to Anticoagulant Therapy in Older Patients with Multimorbidity Using a Precision Medicine Approach International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081634 Authors: Angela Koverech Valeriano Soldati Vittoria Polidori Leda Marina Pomes Luana Lionetto Matilde Capi Andrea Negro Maurizio Simmaco Paolo Martelletti The ageing of the world population has resulted in an increase in the number of older patients with multimorbid conditions receiving multiple therapies. This emerging clinical scenario poses new challenges, which are mostly related to the increased incidence of adverse effects. This translates into poor clinical care, reduced cost-effectiveness of drug therapies, and social isolation of multimorbid patients due to reduced autonomy. A strategy to address these emerging challenges could involve the personalization of therapies based on the clinical, molecular, and genetic characterization of multimorbid patients. Anticoagulation therapy is a feasible model to implement personalized medicine since it generally involves older multimorbid patients receiving multiple drugs. In this study, in patients with atrial fibrillation, the use of the new generation of anticoagulation therapy, i.e., direct oral anti-coagulants (DOACs), is based on a preliminary assessment of the molecular targets of DOACS and any possible drug–drug interactions. Then, the genetic polymorphism of enzymes metabolizing DOACs is studied. After DOAC prescription, its circulating levels are measured. Clinical data are being collected to assess whether this personalized approach improves the safety and efficacy profiles of anticoagulation therapy using DOACs, thereby reducing the costs of healthcare for ageing multimorbid patients.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1631: Home- and Car-Based Rules in Foster Care Settings to Reduce Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Before and after Romanian National Clean Air Legislation International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081631 Authors: Kristie Foley Lorand Ferencz Cristian Meghea Zoltan Abram Melinda Pénzes Andrea Fogarasi-Grenczer Peter Balazs Lorand Schmidt Background: To evaluate changes in smoke free rules in the foster care system after the implementation of the Romanian national clean air law. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire among foster care employees (n = 599) was conducted in 52 foster care homes during 2014 (n = 295) and 50 homes during 2016 (n = 304). We estimated the absolute difference in the proportion of employees who stated that smoke free rules existed before and after national clean air legislation. Results: There was an absolute increase in 4 of 5 smoke free measures after the law: bans on non-cigarette tobacco products (n = 169 to 206, +10.6%), non-smoking on premises for adults (n = 142 to 202, +18.3%), and for children (n = 201 to 239, +10.3%), and no smoking in cars to transport children (n = 194 to 227, +9%). There was a significant increase in the perception of outdoor bans that prohibit employees from smoking on foster care home premises (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.14–4.38). The increase in the perception of indoor smoking bans did not change. Conclusion: The national law may have had a spillover influence by strengthening smoke free rules in unregulated spaces. Nonetheless, foster care home rules could be further enhanced, particularly in cars that transport children.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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    MDPI
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 92: Optimized Reliability Based Upgrading of Rubble Mound Breakwaters in a Changing Climate Journal of Marine Science and Engineering doi: 10.3390/jmse6030092 Authors: Panagiota Galiatsatou Christos Makris Panayotis Prinos The present work aims at presenting an approach on implementing appropriate mitigation measures for the upgrade of rubble mound breakwaters protecting harbors and/or marinas against increasing future marine hazards and related escalating exposure to downtime risks. This approach is based on the reliability analysis of the studied structure coupled with economic optimization techniques. It includes the construction of probability distribution functions for all the stochastic variables of the marine climate (waves, storm surges, and sea level rise) for present and future conditions, the suggestion of different mitigation options for upgrading, the construction of a fault tree providing a logical succession of all events that lead to port downtime for each alternative mitigation option, and conclusively, the testing of a large number of possible alternative geometries for each option. A single solution is selected from the total sample of acceptable geometries for each upgrading concept that satisfy a probabilistic constraint in order to minimize the total costs of protection. The upgrading options considered in the present work include the construction or enhancement of a crown wall on the breakwater crest, the addition of the third layer of rocks above the primary armor layer of the breakwater (combined with crest elements), the attachment of a berm on the primary armor layer, and the construction of a detached low-crested structure in front of the breakwater. The proposed methodology is applied to an indicative rubble mound breakwater with an existing superstructure. The construction of a berm on the existing primary armor layer of the studied breakwater (port of Deauville, France), seems to be advantageous in terms of optimized total costs compared to other mitigation options.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-1312
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Lab Chip , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8LC00584B, Communication Chao Li, Jiaquan Yu, Paxton Paine, Duane S. Juang, Scott M. Berry, David J. Beebe Complex cell-culture microenvironments with both spatial and temporal resolutions are enabled by double-exclusive liquid repellency and underoil sweep patterning. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1473-0197
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-0189
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1341: Semi-Continuous Reverse Membrane Bioreactor in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Citrus Waste Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11081341 Authors: Tonny Kurniawan Lukitawesa Ilma Hanifah Rachma Wikandari Ria Millati Mohammad J. Taherzadeh Claes Niklasson The presence of an antimicrobial compound called D-Limonene in citrus waste inhibits methane production from such waste in anaerobic digestion. In this work, a two-stage anaerobic digestion method is developed using reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBRs) containing cells encased in hydrophilic membranes. The purpose of encasement is to retain a high cell concentration inside the bioreactor. The effectiveness of rMBRs in reducing cell washout is evaluated. Three different system configurations, comprising rMBRs, freely suspended cells (FCs), and a combination of both (abbreviated to rMBR–FCs), are incubated at three different organic loading rates (OLRs) each, namely 0.6, 1.2, and 3.6 g COD/(L cycle). Incubation lasts for eight feeding cycles at 55 °C. Methane yield and biogas composition results show that rMBRs perform better than rMBR–FCs and FCs at all three OLRs. Volatile fatty acid profiles and H2 production show that the reactors are working properly and no upset occurs. Additionally, a short digestion time of 4 days can be achieved using the rMBR configuration in this study.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1338: Three-Dimensional Copper Foil-Powder Sintering Current Collector for a Silicon-Based Anode Lithium-Ion Battery Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11081338 Authors: Jin Long Huilong Liu Yingxi Xie Weijin Tang Ting Fu Yong Tang Longsheng Lu Xinrui Ding Xingxian Tang In this work, we propose a facile method for manufacturing a three-dimensional copper foil-powder sintering current collector (CFSCC) for a silicon-based anode lithium-ion battery. We found that the CFSCC is suitable as a silicon-based paste electrode, and the paste-like electrodes are commonly used in industrial production. Compared with flat current collectors, the CFSCC better constrained the silicon volume change during the charging-discharging process. The capacitance of electrodes with CFSCC remained as high as 92.2% of its second cycle after 40 cycles, whereas that of electrodes with a flat current collector only remained at 50%.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Mathematics, Vol. 6, Pages 133: The Effect of Prudence on the Optimal Allocation in Possibilistic and Mixed Models Mathematics doi: 10.3390/math6080133 Authors: Irina Georgescu In this paper, several portfolio choice models are studied: a purely possibilistic model in which the return of the risky is a fuzzy number, and four models in which the background risk appears in addition to the investment risk. In these four models, risk is a bidimensional vector whose components are random variables or fuzzy numbers. Approximate formulas of the optimal allocation are obtained for all models, expressed in terms of some probabilistic or possibilistic moments, depending on the indicators of the investor preferences (risk aversion, prudence).
    Electronic ISSN: 2227-7390
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Sensor-regulator and RNAi based bifunctional dynamic control network for engineered microbial synthesis Sensor-regulator and RNAi based bifunctional dynamic control network for engineered microbial synthesis, Published online: 02 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05466-0 Engineering dynamic control can improve microbial production of target chemicals. Here, the authors design a sensor-regulator and RNAi based bifunctional dynamic control network that can simultaneously and independently turn up and down cellular metabolism for engineered muconic acid production in E. coli.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 309: Interval Fuzzy Segments Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10080309 Authors: Lambert Jorba Romà Adillon In this paper, we bring together two concepts related to uncertainty and vagueness: fuzzy numbers and intervals. With them, we build a new structure whose elements we call interval fuzzy segments. We have undertaken this based on the conviction that the fuzzy numbers are a correct representation of the real numbers under situations of indeterminacy. We also believe that if it makes sense to consider the set of real numbers between two real bounds, then it also makes sense to consider the set of all the fuzzy numbers between two fuzzy number bounds. In this way, we extend the concept of real interval to the concept of interval fuzzy segment defined by two fuzzy bounds and a transition mapping that leads from the lower fuzzy bound to the upper fuzzy bound and this transition mapping generates the set of all the fuzzy numbers comprised between those fuzzy bounds. At the same time, this transition mapping brings the concept of interval fuzzy segment closer to the concept of line segment.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 305: Evaluation of a Third-Party Logistics (3PL) Provider Using a Rough SWARA–WASPAS Model Based on a New Rough Dombi Agregator Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10080305 Authors: Siniša Sremac Željko Stević Dragan Pamučar Miloš Arsić Bojan Matić For companies active in various sectors, the implementation of transport services and other logistics activities has become one of the key factors of efficiency in the total supply chain. Logistics outsourcing is becoming more and more important, and there is an increasing number of third party logistics providers. In this paper, logistics providers were evaluated using the Rough SWARA (Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis) and Rough WASPAS (Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment) models. The significance of the eight criteria on the basis of which evaluation was carried out was determined using the Rough SWARA method. In order to allow for a more precise consensus in group decision-making, the Rough Dombi aggregator was developed in order to determine the initial rough matrix of multi-criteria decision-making. A total of 10 logistics providers dealing with the transport of dangerous goods for chemical industry companies were evaluated using the Rough WASPAS approach. The obtained results demonstrate that the first logistics provider is also the best one, a conclusion confirmed by a sensitivity analysis comprised of three parts. In the first part, parameter ρ was altered through 10 scenarios in which only alternatives four and five change their ranks. In the second part of the sensitivity analysis, a calculation was performed using the following approaches: Rough SAW (Simple Additive Weighting), Rough EDAS (Evaluation Based on Distance from Average Solution), Rough MABAC (MultiAttributive Border Approximation Area Comparison), and Rough TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). They showed a high correlation of ranks determined by applying Spearman’s correlation coefficient in the third part of the sensitivity analysis.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 51
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Relationship between white matter integrity and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics Relationship between white matter integrity and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0174-y Relationship between white matter integrity and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3188
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Male increase in brain gene expression variability is linked to genetic risk for schizophrenia Male increase in brain gene expression variability is linked to genetic risk for schizophrenia, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0200-0 Male increase in brain gene expression variability is linked to genetic risk for schizophrenia
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3188
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: by Luisa M. R. Napolitano, Arin Marchesi, Alex Rodriguez, Matteo De March, Silvia Onesti, Alessandro Laio, Vincent Torre Several channels, ranging from TRP receptors to Gap junctions, allow the exchange of small organic solute across cell membrane. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism of their permeation. Cyclic Nucleotide Gated (CNG) channels, despite their homology with K + channels and in contrast with them, allow the passage of larger methylated and ethylated ammonium ions like dimethylammonium (DMA) and ethylammonium (EA). We combined electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations to examine how DMA interacts with the pore and permeates through it. Due to the presence of hydrophobic groups, DMA enters easily in the channel and, unlike the alkali cations, does not need to cross any barrier. We also show that while the crystal structure is consistent with the presence of a single DMA ion at full occupancy, the channel is able to conduct a sizable current of DMA ions only when two ions are present inside the channel. Moreover, the second DMA ion dramatically changes the free energy landscape, destabilizing the crystallographic binding site and lowering by almost 25 kJ/mol the binding affinity between DMA and the channel. Based on the results of the simulation the experimental electron density maps can be re-interpreted with the presence of a second ion at lower occupancy. In this mechanism the flexibility of the channel plays a key role, extending the classical multi-ion permeation paradigm in which conductance is enhanced by the plain interaction between the ions.
    Print ISSN: 1553-734X
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7358
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT02056F, Paper Yang Ling, Min Zhang, Xiaokai Li, Jing Zheng, Jingli Xu A highly efficient bifunctional metallic nickel nanoparticles (NPs) is highly desired for practical applications of catalysis and adsorption. However, the low surface area as well as the aggregation often leads... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT00836A, Paper Xiuli Wang, Ying Xiong, Guo Cheng Liu, Hongyan Lin, Xiang Wang In this work, four new NiII coordination polymers (CP) based on a bi-methylene-bridged semi-rigid bis-pyridyl-bis-amide ligand and various polycarboxylates, namely, [Ni(4-bmbpd)(H2O)4][round bullet, filled](TPD) (1), [Ni2(4-bmbpd)2(1,3-BDC)2(H2O)4][round bullet, filled]5H2O (2), [Ni2(4-bmbpd)2(MIP)2(H2O)2][round bullet, filled]3H2O (3) and [Ni3(4-bmbpd)3(BTC)2(H2O)4][round bullet, filled]4H2O (4) [4-bmbpd... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
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  • 56
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Praveen Kumar Balne, Rupesh Agrawal, Veonice Bijin AU, Bernett Lee, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu, Mukesh Agrawal, Raja Narayanan, John Connolly In this report the data was obtained from a prospective case-control study with a sample size of sixteen patients with exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD) due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and eighteen patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and fifty controls (cataract patients without any other ocular diseases). Luminex bead based multiplex assay with a panel of 41 analytes was used to study the cytokine levels in plasma and aqueous humor.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Yong-Jin Noh, Ji-Ho Jeong, Seok-In Na In this data article, we present the influences of the solvent, concentration, and spin rates of 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2’,3’-d’]-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b’]dithiophene) (ITIC) material on the performances of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The device parameters such as open-circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) were measured with Keithley 2400 source meter unit under 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5 G). The data in this article describe the optimization of ITIC-based PSCs and are directly related to our research article “Non-fullerene-based small molecules as an efficient n-type electron transporting layers in inverted organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells” (Noh et al., Submitted for publication) [1] .
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    Topics: Biology
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: by Akira Ehara In Japan, all citizens are covered by the national insurance system. Children’s medical expenses are subsidized by local government co-payments. This removed most economic barriers to visiting medical facilities, geographical obstacles to pediatric medical services remain, including distance to medical facilities and transportation time. However, information on geographic accessibility of pediatric inpatient services is scarce. In this study, I calculated the proportion of children resident in areas accessible to pediatric inpatient service providers within 30 and 60 minutes by automobile. Calculations were based on addresses of hospitals that met criteria for high reimbursement for secondary and tertiary pediatric inpatient services, data for residential blocks, and data for the average velocity of an automobile. In total, 88.0% of children lived within 30 minutes of these hospitals and 95.2% of children lived within 60 minutes. The percentage of children with such access was higher in regions with high population density (e.g., Kanto and Kinki) compared with regions with low population density (e.g., Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Shikoku). Furthermore, regions with high population density also had high rates of children that lived within reach of hospitals with at least five full-time pediatricians.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: by Sunwoo Kim, Yuri Lee This study investigated the underlying reasons women desire to be beautiful in South Korean, Chinese, and Japanese cultures by proposing a new concept called human beauty value (HBV). This exploratory qualitative study includes a literature review in related disciplines and the results from ten focus group interviews. Based on the interviews, this study proposes four dimensions of HBV (i.e., superiority, self-development, individuality, and authenticity) and a hierarchical process among the antecedents (i.e., social comparison, social competition, and social norms), the pursuit of HBV, and the consequences (i.e., emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral aspects). Participants from each culture revealed a unique hierarchical process of HBV that reflects both cultural universality and specificity. The results of this study lead to new knowledge about East Asian women’s identities and perceptions of beauty. In addition, the proposed concept, HBV, can broaden the academic lens for beauty-related disciplines.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: by Yong Shen, Saisai Wang, Fangfang Sun, Gang Zheng, Tingting Wu, Yushen Du, Suzhan Zhang, Jing Qian, Ren Sun Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is known to negatively regulate murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68 or γHV-68) replication. This process involves the suppression of the viral gene replication and transcription activator (RTA) promoter, as well as activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1). Notably, this effect is gradually attenuated during MHV-68 infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), which raised the possibility that the virus may utilize a mechanism that counteracts the antiviral effect of IFN-γ. By identifying the cellular factors that negatively regulate JAK-STAT1 signaling, we revealed that the infection of BMMs by MHV-68 induces the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and that depletion of SOCS1 restores the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on virus replication. Moreover, we demonstrated that the expression of SOCS1 was induced as a result of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling cascade. In conclusion, we report that TLR3-TRAF-NF-κB signaling pathway play a role in the induction of SOCS1 that counteracts the antiviral effect of IFN-γ during MHV-68 infection. This process is cell type-specific: it is functional in macrophages, but not in epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Our study reveals a mechanism that balances the immune responses and the escape of a gamma-herpesvirus in some antigen-presenting cells.
    Print ISSN: 1553-7366
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7374
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1222: Systematic Comparison of Power Line Classification Methods from ALS and MLS Point Cloud Data Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10081222 Authors: Yanjun Wang Qi Chen Lin Liu Xiong Li Arun Kumar Sangaiah Kai Li Power lines classification is important for electric power management and geographical objects extraction using LiDAR (light detection and ranging) point cloud data. Many supervised classification approaches have been introduced for the extraction of features such as ground, trees, and buildings, and several studies have been conducted to evaluate the framework and performance of such supervised classification methods in power lines applications. However, these studies did not systematically investigate all of the relevant factors affecting the classification results, including the segmentation scale, feature selection, classifier variety, and scene complexity. In this study, we examined these factors systematically using airborne laser scanning and mobile laser scanning point cloud data. Our results indicated that random forest and neural network were highly suitable for power lines classification in forest, suburban, and urban areas in terms of the precision, recall, and quality rates of the classification results. In contrast to some previous studies, random forest yielded the best results, while Naïve Bayes was the worst classifier in most cases. Random forest was the more robust classifier with or without feature selection for various LiDAR point cloud data. Furthermore, the classification accuracies were directly related to the selection of the local neighborhood, classifier, and feature set. Finally, it was suggested that random forest should be considered in most cases for power line classification.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1220: Correction: Shao, Z.; et al. A Benchmark Dataset for Performance Evaluation of Multi-Label Remote Sensing Image Retrieval. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 964 Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10081220 Authors: Zhenfeng Shao Ke Yang Weixun Zhou In our paper [1], we presented a dense labeling dataset that can be used for not only single-label and multi-label remote sensing image retrieval but also pixel-based problems such as semantic segmentation.[...]
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 1216: UAV Multispectral Imagery Can Complement Satellite Data for Monitoring Forest Health Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10081216 Authors: Jonathan P. Dash Grant D. Pearse Michael S. Watt The development of methods that can accurately detect physiological stress in forest trees caused by biotic or abiotic factors is vital for ensuring productive forest systems that can meet the demands of the Earth’s population. The emergence of new sensors and platforms presents opportunities to augment traditional practices by combining remotely-sensed data products to provide enhanced information on forest condition. We tested the sensitivity of multispectral imagery collected from time-series unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite imagery to detect herbicide-induced stress in a carefully controlled experiment carried out in a mature Pinus radiata D. Don plantation. The results revealed that both data sources were sensitive to physiological stress in the study trees. The UAV data were more sensitive to changes at a finer spatial resolution and could detect stress down to the level of individual trees. The satellite data tested could only detect physiological stress in clusters of four or more trees. Resampling the UAV imagery to the same spatial resolution as the satellite imagery revealed that the differences in sensitivity were not solely the result of spatial resolution. Instead, vegetation indices suited to the sensor characteristics of each platform were required to optimise the detection of physiological stress from each data source. Our results define both the spatial detection threshold and the optimum vegetation indices required to implement monitoring of this forest type. A comparison between time-series datasets of different spectral indices showed that the two sensors are compatible and can be used to deliver an enhanced method for monitoring physiological stress in forest trees at various scales. We found that the higher resolution UAV imagery was more sensitive to fine-scale instances of herbicide induced physiological stress than the RapidEye imagery. Although less sensitive to smaller phenomena the satellite imagery was found to be very useful for observing trends in physiological stress over larger areas.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Reciprocal Perspective for Improved Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Reciprocal Perspective for Improved Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction, Published online: 03 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30044-1 Reciprocal Perspective for Improved Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Learning the meaning of new stimuli increases the cross-correlated activity of prefrontal neurons Learning the meaning of new stimuli increases the cross-correlated activity of prefrontal neurons, Published online: 03 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29862-0 Learning the meaning of new stimuli increases the cross-correlated activity of prefrontal neurons
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2550: Remote Cell Growth Sensing Using Self-Sustained Bio-Oscillations Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082550 Authors: Pablo Pérez Gloria Huertas Alberto Olmo Andrés Maldonado-Jacobi Juan A. Serrano María E. Martín Paula Daza Alberto Yúfera A smart sensor system for cell culture real-time supervision is proposed, allowing for a significant reduction in human effort applied to this type of assay. The approach converts the cell culture under test into a suitable “biological” oscillator. The system enables the remote acquisition and management of the “biological” oscillation signals through a secure web interface. The indirectly observed biological properties are cell growth and cell number, which are straightforwardly related to the measured bio-oscillation signal parameters, i.e., frequency and amplitude. The sensor extracts the information without complex circuitry for acquisition and measurement, taking advantage of the microcontroller features. A discrete prototype for sensing and remote monitoring is presented along with the experimental results obtained from the performed measurements, achieving the expected performance and outcomes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2547: Event-Based Communication and Finite-Time Consensus Control of Mobile Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082547 Authors: Yu Hu Qiang Lu Yanzhu Hu This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by designing a cooperative control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed cooperative control scheme includes three main modules: a wireless communication module, a direction decision module, and a motion control module. In the wireless communication module, an event-based communication rule is proposed, which means that mobile sensor nodes do not send their positions, velocities, and the data of environmental attributes to the other sensor nodes in real-time for the coordination and control of mobile sensor networks. Due to using the event-based communication rule, the communication bandwidth can be saved. In the direction decision module, a radial basis function network is used to model the monitored environment and is updated in terms of the sampled environmental data and the environmental data from the other sensor nodes by the wireless communication module. The updated environment model is used to guide the mobile sensor network to move towards the region of interest in order to efficiently model the distribution map of environmental attributes, such as temperature, salinity, and pH values for the monitored environment. In the motion control module, a finite-time consensus control approach is proposed to enable the sensor nodes to quickly change their movement directions in light of the gradient information from the environment model. As a result of using the event-based communication rule in the wireless communication module, the proposed control approach can also lower the updating times of the control signal. In particular, the proposed cooperative control scheme is still efficient under the directed wireless communication situation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed cooperative control scheme is illustrated for the problem of environmental monitoring.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2544: Hierarchical Lateral Control Scheme for Autonomous Vehicle with Uneven Time Delays Induced by Vision Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082544 Authors: Qi Liu Yahui Liu Congzhi Liu Baiming Chen Wenhao Zhang Liang Li Xuewu Ji Vision-based sensors are widely used in lateral control of autonomous vehicles, but the large computational cost of the visual algorithms often induces uneven time delays. In this paper, a hierarchical vision-based lateral control scheme is proposed, where the upper controller is designed by robust H∞-based linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm to compensate sensor-induced delays, and the lower controller is based on logic threshold method, in order to achieve strong convergence of the steering angle. Firstly, the vehicle lateral model is built, and the nonlinear uncertainties induced by time delays are linearized with Taylor expansion. Secondly, the state space of the system is augmented to describe such uncertainties with polytopic inclusions, which is controlled by an H∞-based LQR controller with a low cost of online computation. Then, a lower controller is designed for the control of the steering motor. According to the results of the vehicle experiment as well as the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiment, the proposed control scheme shows good performance in vehicle’s lateral control task, and exhibits better robustness compared with a conventional LQR controller. The proposed control scheme provides a feasible solution for the lateral control of autonomous driving.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 69
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2541: Recording Heart Rate Variability of Dairy Cows to the Cloud—Why Smartphones Provide Smart Solutions Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082541 Authors: Maren Wierig Leonard P. Mandtler Peter Rottmann Viktor Stroh Ute Müller Wolfgang Büscher Lutz Plümer In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest in animal protection and welfare issues. Heart rate variability (HRV) measurement with portable heart rate monitors on cows has established itself as a suitable method for assessing physiological states. However, more forward-looking technologies, already successfully applied to evaluate HRV data, are pushing the market. This study examines the validity and usability of collecting HRV data by exchanging the Polar watch V800 as a receiving unit of the data compared to a custom smartphone application on cows. Therefore, both receivers tap one signal sent by the Polar H7 transmitter simultaneously. Furthermore, there is a lack of suitable methods for the preparation and calculation of HRV parameters, especially for livestock. A method is presented for calculating more robust time domain HRV parameters via median formation. The comparisons of the respective simultaneous recordings were conducted after artifact correction for time domain HRV parameters. High correlations (r = 0.82–0.98) for cows as well as for control data set in human being (r = 0.98–0.99) were found. The utilization of smart devices and the robust method to determine time domain HRV parameters may be suitable to generate valid HRV data on cows in field-based settings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2538: A New Variational Bayesian Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Cooperative Navigation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082538 Authors: Sun Zhang Wang Gao To solve the problem of unknown state noises and uncertain measurement noises inherent in underwater cooperative navigation, a new Variational Bayesian (VB)-based Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (VBAEKF) for master–slave Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) is proposed in this paper. The Inverse Wishart (IW) distribution is used to model the predicted error covariance and measurement noise covariance matrix. The state, together with the predicted error covariance and measurement noise covariance matrix, can be adaptively estimated based on VB approximation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a lake trial, which shows the advantage of the proposed algorithm.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 565: Collective Motion of Repulsive Brownian Particles in Single-File Diffusion with and without Overtaking Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20080565 Authors: Takeshi Ooshida Susumu Goto Michio Otsuki Subdiffusion is commonly observed in liquids with high density or in restricted geometries, as the particles are constantly pushed back by their neighbors. Since this “cage effect” emerges from many-body dynamics involving spatiotemporally correlated motions, the slow diffusion should be understood not simply as a one-body problem but as a part of collective dynamics, described in terms of space–time correlations. Such collective dynamics are illustrated here by calculations of the two-particle displacement correlation in a system of repulsive Brownian particles confined in a (quasi-)one-dimensional channel, whose subdiffusive behavior is known as the single-file diffusion (SFD). The analytical calculation is formulated in terms of the Lagrangian correlation of density fluctuations. In addition, numerical solutions to the Langevin equation with large but finite interaction potential are studied to clarify the effect of overtaking. In the limiting case of the ideal SFD without overtaking, correlated motion with a diffusively growing length scale is observed. By allowing the particles to overtake each other, the short-range correlation is destroyed, but the long-range weak correlation remains almost intact. These results describe nested space–time structure of cages, whereby smaller cages are enclosed in larger cages with longer lifetimes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 471: Incorporating Insect and Wind Disturbances in a Natural Disturbance-Based Management Framework for the Boreal Forest Forests doi: 10.3390/f9080471 Authors: Louis De Grandpré Kaysandra Waldron Mathieu Bouchard Sylvie Gauthier Marilou Beaudet Jean-Claude Ruel Christian Hébert Daniel D. Kneeshaw Natural disturbances are fundamental to forest ecosystem dynamics and have been used for two decades to improve forest management, notably in the boreal forest. Initially based on fire regimes, there is now a need to extend the concept to include other types of disturbances as they can greatly contribute to forest dynamics in some regions of the boreal zone. Here we review the main descriptors—that is, the severity, specificity, spatial and temporal descriptors and legacies, of windthrow and spruce bud worm outbreak disturbance regimes in boreal forests—in order to facilitate incorporating them into a natural disturbance-based forest management framework. We also describe the biological legacies that are generated by these disturbances. Temporal and spatial descriptors characterising both disturbance types are generally variable in time and space. This makes them difficult to reproduce in an ecosystem management framework. However, severity and specificity descriptors may provide a template upon which policies for maintaining post harvesting and salvage logging biological legacies can be based. In a context in which management mainly targets mature and old-growth stages, integrating insect and wind disturbances in a management framework is an important goal, as these disturbances contribute to creating heterogeneity in mature and old-growth forest characteristics.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 73
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Green Chem. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8GC01180J, Communication Vaibhav Pramod Charpe, Aniket Hande, Arunachalam Sagadevan, Kuo Chu Hwang Visible light mediated copper catalysed denitrogenative oxidative coupling of 2-hydrazino pyridines with terminal alkynes to form 2-(alkyl/arylethynyl) pyridines in the presence of O2 at room temperature was reported with 42... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1463-9262
    Electronic ISSN: 1463-9270
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1639: Sexual Function of Postmenopausal Women Addicted to Alcohol International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081639 Authors: Anna Jenczura Mariola Czajkowska Agnieszka Skrzypulec-Frankel Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop Introduction: Alcoholism impairs female sexual functions (decreased sex drive, reduced vaginal fluid, difficulty to experience orgasm). Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of perimenopausal period and sexual life of female alcoholics. Methods: 97 women at the age of 40–60 years were qualified with a diagnosed history of alcoholism (studied group). For the control group, 92 women at the age of 40–60 without a history of alcoholism were qualified. Questionnaires assessing female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index—FSFI), the severity of perimenopausal symptoms (Menopause Rating Scale—MRS) and the degree of alcohol addiction (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test—MAST) were obtained from each participant. Main outcome measures: To assess the sexual function of perimenopausal women addicted to alcohol. Results: The studied and control groups were significantly different (p = 0.00) in terms of severity of menopausal symptoms (MRS). The research showed lower quality of sexual life (FSFI) of women from the studied group. Conclusions: Population of women with diagnosed alcohol dependence enter the menopausal stage at the similar age as the population of female non-drinkers. The time of alcohol abuse is an important factor having an impact on both the course of menopause and the dynamics of the perimenopause period, leading to symptom escalation. The population of female alcoholics shows a decrease in sexual activity and the prevalence of sexual disorders.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1636: Effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on Child Cognitive, Behavioral, and Motor Development International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081636 Authors: Elizabeth A. Gibson Eva Laura Siegel Folake Eniola Julie Beth Herbstman Pam Factor-Litvak Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants are environmental chemicals that cross the placenta during pregnancy and have shown evidence of neurotoxicity. As the in utero period is a sensitive developmental window, such exposure may result in adverse childhood outcomes. Associations between in utero PBDE exposure and neurodevelopment are found in animal models and increasingly in human population studies. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence of the association between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and motor, cognitive, and behavioral development in infants and children. Published work suggests a negative association between PBDE concentrations and neurodevelopment despite varying PBDE congeners measured, bio-specimen matrix used, timing of the biological sampling, geographic location of study population, specific developmental tests used, age of children at time of testing, and statistical methodologies. This review includes 16 published studies that measured PBDE exposure in maternal blood during pregnancy or in cord blood at delivery and performed validated motor, cognitive, and/or behavioral testing at one or more time during childhood. We evaluate possible mediation through PBDE-induced perturbations in thyroid function and effect measure modification by child sex. While the majority of studies support an adverse association between PBDEs and neurodevelopment, additional research is required to understand the mechanism of action, possibly through the perturbations in thyroid function either in the pregnant woman or in the child, and the role of biologically relevant effect modifiers such as sex.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1633: From Office Environmental Stressors to Work Performance: The Role of Work Patterns International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081633 Authors: Aida Soriano Malgorzata W. Kozusznik Jose M. Peiró Background: Different studies have shown a relationship between office environmental stressors and performance. However, studying environmental stress in the workplace requires analyzing more specific patterns to generate knowledge about the type of employees who are more or less vulnerable to environmental stressors. The present study analyzes the mediating role of health symptoms and negative emotions in the relationship between stressors and performance in different work patterns (task complexity and interactivity). Methods: There were 83 office workers (n = 603 time points) that took part in a diary study with multilevel design. Results: The appraisal of the environmental stressors is positively related to health-related symptoms, which in turn increase negative emotions, and then decrease the performance of workers who perform complex tasks and interact frequently with other people at work. This mediation is not significant when office workers do not interact frequently with other people at work and/or perform simple, rather than complex tasks. Conclusions: Work patterns play an important role when studying the mediating role of health-related symptoms and negative emotions in the relationship between the appraisal of environmental stressors and performance in office workers. In other words, employees in the ‘interactive and complex’ pattern are more vulnerable to the negative effects of office stressors on performance.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: IJGI, Vol. 7, Pages 312: CS Projects Involving Geoinformatics: A Survey of Implementation Approaches ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information doi: 10.3390/ijgi7080312 Authors: Laura Criscuolo Gloria Bordogna Paola Carrara Monica Pepe In the last decade, citizen science (CS) has seen a renewed interest from both traditional science and the lay public as testified by a wide number of initiatives, projects, and dedicated technological applications. One of the main reasons for this renewed interest lies in the fact that the ways in which citizen science projects are designed and managed have been significantly improved by the recent advancements in information and communications technologies (ICT), especially in the field of geoinformatics. In this research work, we investigate currently active citizen science projects that involve geoinformation to understand how geoinformatics is actually employed. To achieve this, we define eight activities typically carried out during the implementation of a CS initiative as well as a series of approaches for each activity, in order to pinpoint distinct strategies within the different projects. To this end, a representative set of ongoing CS initiatives is selected and surveyed. The results show how CS projects address the various activities, and report which strategies and technologies from geoinformatics are massively or marginally used. The quantitative results are presented, supported by examples and descriptions. Finally, cues and critical issues coming from the research are discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2220-9964
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Lab Chip , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8LC00496J, Paper J. M. Robert Rickel, Adam J. Dixon, Alexander L. Klibanov, John A. Hossack An integrated micro Coulter particle counter in a flow focusing microfluidic device for electrical detection and sizing of microbubbles. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1473-0197
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-0189
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 1343: Thermodynamic Analysis of Ti3O5Nanoparticles Formed in Melt and Their Effects on Ferritic Steel Microstructure Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11081343 Authors: Yanlin Wang Meng Zhou Xiaolu Pang Xiaohua Chen Zidong Wang Alex A. Volinsky Hao Tang Based on the Wagner’s formalism combined with mass conservation, a thermodynamic analysis method has been developed previously. This method enables the calculation of the equilibrium matrix composition, precipitate composition and precipitate total molar fraction for TixOy(s) in molten metal, which can be determined at any appropriate temperature. In this present study, the Ti3O5 phase precipitation and the quantitative relationship between the addition of Ti, O and Ti3O5 in the molten steel were studied using the thermodynamic model. Using the combined multipoint dispersion supply method, electromagnetic stirring and well-dispersed 5-nm Ti3O5 nanoparticles were fabricated in the ferrite matrix of the as-cast high-strength steel with 0.05 wt % Ti—0.002 wt % O. The as-cast microstructure was improved by the homogeneously dispersed Ti3O5 nanoparticles through heterogeneous nucleation and grain refinement.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2522: A High-Level Control Algorithm Based on sEMG Signalling for an Elbow Joint SMA Exoskeleton Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082522 Authors: Dorin Copaci David Serrano Luis Moreno Dolores Blanco A high-level control algorithm capable of generating position and torque references from surface electromyography signals (sEMG) was designed. It was applied to a shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated exoskeleton used in active rehabilitation therapies for elbow joints. The sEMG signals are filtered and normalized according to data collected online during the first seconds of a therapy session. The control algorithm uses the sEMG signals to promote active participation of patients during the therapy session. In order to generate the reference position pattern with good precision, the sEMG normalized signal is compared with a pressure sensor signal to detect the intention of each movement. The algorithm was tested in simulations and with healthy people for control of an elbow exoskeleton in flexion–extension movements. The results indicate that sEMG signals from elbow muscles, in combination with pressure sensors that measure arm–exoskeleton interaction, can be used as inputs for the control algorithm, which adapts the reference for exoskeleton movements according to a patient’s intention.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Soft Matter , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SM00551F, Paper Xinlu Zhou, Kongshuang Zhao Effect of grafting density of poly(ethylene oxide) and dodecyl groups on conformation of poly(acrylic acid) in solution was clarified by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy over a frequency range from 40Hz to... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1744-683X