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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 735: Critical Issues Affecting Groundwater Quality Governance and Management in the United States Water doi: 10.3390/w10060735 Authors: Jacob D. Petersen-Perlman Sharon B. Megdal Andrea K. Gerlak Mike Wireman Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran Robert G. Varady Groundwater is increasingly important for meeting water demand across the United States (U.S.). Forward thinking governance and effective management are necessary for its sustainable use. In the U.S., state governments are primarily responsible for groundwater governance (i.e., making laws, policies, and regulations) and management (i.e., implementation of laws, policies, and regulations). This decentralized system results in diverse strategies and practices. We surveyed a water quality professional from each state to better understand commonalities and differences across states. These professionals identify a wide assortment of groundwater issues and concerns, including quality and quantity impairment, staffing and budget issues, private well vulnerability, and overdraft. Respondents indicate contamination problems from natural and anthropogenic sources. Most respondents report that their states have significantly changed groundwater quality policy during the past 30 years. While most states have multiple funding sources for water quality programs, program budgets have decreased in the last decade, thereby hindering effective implementation of new policies. Over half of respondents indicate that water-quality/water-level monitoring and increased groundwater pumping will require more attention over the next decade. Several respondents anticipate groundwater regulation changes in the next five years. We discuss how our findings align with current groundwater uses in the U.S.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 734: Decision Support for the Design and Operation of Variable Speed Pumps in Water Supply Systems Water doi: 10.3390/w10060734 Authors: Dimitri Nowak Helene Krieg Michael Bortz Christian Geil Axel Knapp Harald Roclawski Martin Böhle The design and operation of water supply systems is a multicriteria task; the energy efficiency should be minimized while, at the same time, respecting technical requirements, such as the balanced operation of available pumps. On one hand, the overall system can be improved by the use of variable speed pumps. They increase the number of operating options. On the other hand, they add more complexity to the operation problem. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties associated with speed control and propose a decision support system to overcome them.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 733: Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Novel Residence Time Distribution Analysis in Mixing at Cross-Junctions Water doi: 10.3390/w10060733 Authors: Daniel Hernández-Cervantes Xitlali Delgado-Galván José L. Nava P. Amparo López-Jiménez Mario Rosales Jesús Mora Rodríguez In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at cross-junctions is “complete and instantaneous”. Several authors have questioned this model. In this paper, experimental tests are developed while using Copper Sulphate as tracer at different operating conditions, like those of real water distribution networks, in order to obtain the Residence Time Distribution and its behavior in the mixing as a novel analysis for the cross-junctions. Validation tests are developed in Computational Fluid Dynamics, following the k-ε turbulence model. It is verified that the mixing phenomenon is dominated by convection, analyzing variation of Turbulent Schmidt Number vs. experimental tests. Having more accurate mixing models will improve the water quality simulations to have an appropriate control for chlorine and possible contaminants in water distribution networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
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    MDPI
    In: Agronomy
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Agronomy, Vol. 8, Pages 90: Seed Yield and Water Productivity of Irrigated Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) under Semiarid Climate and High Elevation Agronomy doi: 10.3390/agronomy8060090 Authors: Koffi Djaman Michael O’Neill Curtis Owen Daniel Smeal Margaret West Dallen Begay Sangamesh V. Angadi Komlan Koudahe Samuel Allen Kevin Lombard Canola is a cash crop produced for its highly-valued seed, and as a protein source for animal feed. While winter canola is produced mainly in the high plains, it is expanding to new environments, and is greatly incorporated into crop systems with advantages in terms of increasing crop yield and improving soil health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate eight winter canola genotypes for seed yield, and to determine their water productivity under semiarid climates and high elevations in the Four Corners region at Farmington, New Mexico. A field experiment was conducted at the New Mexico State Agricultural Science Center at Farmington for five growing seasons. Eight genotypes of winter canola (Baldur, Flash, Safran, Sitro, Virginia, Visby, Wichita, and Sumner) were arranged into the randomized complete block design. The field was fully irrigated with a center pivot irrigation system. Results showed that winter canola seed yield was dependent on genotype, varying from 2393 to 5717 kg/ha. The highest yield was achieved by Sitro, and the lowest yield by Sumner. There was inter-annual variation in canola nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE), and crop water-use efficiency (CWUE). NUE varied from 12.9 to 50.4 kg seed/kg N, with the highest NUE achieved by Sitro, and the lowest by Sumner. IWUE varied from 0.34 to 0.80 kg/m3, and canola CWUE from 0.28 to 0.69 kg/m3. The highest water productivity was achieved by Sitro. The results of this study showed full assessment of canola production under the semiarid climate in the Four Corners region, and could improve crop productivity and profitability.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 7
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8CC01491D, Feature Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Annika Rocker, Nadia R. Roan, Jay Kant Yadav, Marcus Fandrich, Jan Munch Amyloids in semen enhance HIV infection and promote clearance of defect sperm. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC03396J, Communication Sonu Gupta, Nisha Chandna, Pooja Dubey, Ajai kumar Singh, Nidhi Jain Copper chalcogenide nanoparticles (Cu7S4) supported on graphene oxide (GO) have been synthesized for the first time from Cu2S, and used as highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidative ortho-selective C-H aminomethylation... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8CC02872A, Communication Qian-Qian Chen, Chun-Chao Hou, Chuan-Jun Wang, Xiao Yang, Rui Shi, Yong Chen Electrocatalytic water splitting with a low initial voltage of 1.41 V was achieved by using Ir-doped NiFe-LDH as a bifunctional catalyst. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC03752C, Communication Quan Zhang, Zehui Yang, Jun Yang, Xinxin Yu, Ying Ling, Yunfeng Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Hansong Cheng Ruthenium dissolution is an inevitable issue for anodic electrocatalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Carbon nitride (C3N4) decoration derived from carbonization of melamine simultaneously promoted PtRu electrocatalyst's stability and... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 11
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC03725F, Communication Yuan-Jun Tong, Lu-Dan Yu, Lu-Lu Wu, Shu-Ping Cao, Ru-Ping Liang, Li Zhang, Xing-Hua Xia, Jianding Qiu A novel dual-emission fluorescence ratiometric probe of luminol-Tb-GMP CPNPs for highly sensitive and selectivie detection of ALP and As(V) has been constructed based on stimulus responsive of luminol. Since luminol... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 12
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8SC00148K, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Andreas Mayr, Gunter Klambauer, Thomas Unterthiner, Marvin Steijaert, Jorg K. Wegner, Hugo Ceulemans, Djork-Arne Clevert, Sepp Hochreiter The to date largest comparative study of nine state-of-the-art drug target prediction methods finds that deep learning outperforms all other competitors. The results are based on a benchmark of 1300 assays and half a million compounds. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 13
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: CrystEngComm , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CE00576A, Paper Paulraj Gnanasekar, Dharmaraj Periyanagounder, Anbarasan Nallathambi, Sadhasivam Subramani, Manivel P, Jeganathan Kulandaivel Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ), a graphene analogue, is emerging as an exciting material for future nanoelectronics due to their unique electronic transport properties. Here we report the large scale and homogeneous... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 1466-8033
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 14
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SC00742J, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Safak Bulut, Sviatlana Valery Siankevich, Antoine Philippe van Muyden, Duncan Alexander, Georgios Savoglidis, Jiaguang Zhang, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, Ning Yan, Paul Dyson Bimetallic Ru-Ni and Rh-Ni nanocatalysts coated with a phase transfer agent efficiently cleave aryl ether C-O linkages in water in the presence of hydrogen. For dimeric substrates with weaker C-O... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 15
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Commun. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8CC03586E, Communication Tao Yang, Qin Yin, Guoxian Gu, Xumu Zhang Asymmetric reductive amination for the synthesis of both chiral tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) and tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) has been realized with an Ir/ZhaoPhos catalytic system via a one-pot N-Boc deprotection/intramolecular asymmetric reductive amination... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1359-7345
    Electronic ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 16
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8SC01981A, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Huimin Wang, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoqing Liu, Xiang Zhou, Fuan Wang Nucleic acid circuits have shown promising potential for amplified detection of biomarkers with interest in biologically important engineering applications. In this work, by properly integrating two signal amplification approaches, catalytic... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
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  • 17
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Chem. Sci. , 2018, Advance Article DOI : 10.1039/C8SC01353E, Edge Article Open Access   This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Victor M. Chernyshev, Oleg V. Khazipov, Maxim A. Shevchenko, Andrey Yu. Chernenko, Alexander V. Astakhov, Dmitry B. Eremin, Dmitry V. Pasyukov, Alexey S. Kashin, Valentine P. Ananikov Usual oxygen bases decompose M/NHC complexes to give "NHC-free" metal species and azolones. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2041-6520
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-6539
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 101 Author(s): Hugh Boyes, Bil Hallaq, Joe Cunningham, Tim Watson Historically, Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) were largely isolated from conventional digital networks such as enterprise ICT environments. Where connectivity was required, a zoned architecture was adopted, with firewalls and/or demilitarized zones used to protect the core control system components. The adoption and deployment of ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) technologies is leading to architectural changes to IACS, including greater connectivity to industrial systems. This paper reviews what is meant by Industrial IoT (IIoT) and relationships to concepts such as cyber-physical systems and Industry 4.0. The paper develops a definition of IIoT and analyses related partial IoT taxonomies. It develops an analysis framework for IIoT that can be used to enumerate and characterise IIoT devices when studying system architectures and analysing security threats and vulnerabilities. The paper concludes by identifying some gaps in the literature.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 98 Author(s): Wouter Lefever, El-Houssaine Aghezzaf, Khaled Hadj-Hamou, Bernard Penz The Inventory-Routing Problem with Transshipment (IRPT) is an extension of the Inventory-Routing Problem (IRP), in which not only the supplier can deliver goods to the retailers, but also transshipments between retailers or between the supplier and a retailer are possible. In this paper, we investigate the branch-and-cut (B&C) formulation of the IRPT and propose four different types of improvements for it. We first develop two new sets of valid inequalities for the problem which greatly strengthen the linear relaxation of the problem. We then improve the bounds on the continuous delivery variables and use these improved bounds to tighten the inventory management constraints. Next, we reformulate the routing component of the problem by exploiting the possible presence of direct shipments in the optimal solution. Finally, we prove that some integer and continuous variables can be eliminated out of the mathematical formulation. Experimental results demonstrate that these improvements drastically reduce the computational burden for solving the IRPT to optimality. On a large set of benchmark instances our proposed branch-and-cut algorithm, which integrates these improvements, outperforms the current best results in the literature. In addition, we are able to find the optimal solutions for two instances whose optimal solution was not known until now.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 20
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT01717D, Paper Kevin M Szkop, Diya Zhu, Lauren Longobardi, Julien Heck, Douglas W Stephan Phosphine oxidation by MesCNO is rapid, however, an FLP strategy intercepts the 1,3 addition products including [MesC(R3P)NOB(C6F5)3] (R = Ph 1, o-tol 2), [MesC(Mes2PH)NOB(C6F5)3] 3 (MesC(NOB(C6F5)3)Ph2P)2(CH2)n (n = 2: 4,... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Arunkumar Naik Bukke, Fathima Nazneen Hadi, K. Suresh Babu, P. Chandramati shankar This article contains data on in vitro cytotoxicity activity of chloroform, methanolic and water extracts of leaf and heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. a medicinal plant against Breast cancer (MCF-7) and Lung cancer (A-549) cells. This data shows that Brazilin A, a natural bioactive compound in heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. induced cell death in breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The therapeutic property was further proved by docking the Brazilin A molecule against BCL-2 protein (an apoptotic inhibitor) using auto dock tools.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Olorunfemi Adebisi Onakoya, Chinonye Love Moses, Maxwell Ayodele Olokundun, Uchechukwu Emena Okorie, Fatai Alani Lawal This study presents a data-set on the influence of managerial incentives on bank performance in selected Deposit Money Banks (DMB) in Nigeria. The use of managerial incentives to align interests of the principal and agent is advocated by agency theorists, but the peculiarity of the banking industry in terms of the role of regulation, capital structure, opacity and complexity of its transactions among others presents a different proposition in corporate governance research. The data collected over a longitudinal period between 2006 and 2016, provide information on specific managerial incentives and financial performance measures. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as correlation, and panel regression analysis estimates are presented. When analysed, the data can be a pointer in determining the unique managerial incentives predictors that could enhance a bank׳s performance.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Shaolei Xiong, Jaya Krishnan, Robert Peuß, Nicolas Rohner Cavefish populations of Astyanax mexicanus have increased body fat compared to surface fish populations of the same species when fed ad libitum in the laboratory. We have previously shown that some cavefish populations display hyperphagia (elevated appetite) to increase food consumption, fat deposition and starvation resistance. However, not all cavefish populations display hyperphagia, yet all previously tested cavefish display elevated body fat levels. Here we have extended this analysis by focusing on visceral fat acquisition in three independently derived cavefish populations. We show that cavefish from two independently derived cavefish populations (Pachón and Tinaja) display increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) due to hypertrophy of visceral adipocytes while Molino cavefish display hypertrophy but only slightly elevated VAT levels compared to surface fish. Furthermore, we show that Pachón and Tinaja cavefish develop increased VAT even when food intake is matched to surface fish, suggesting appetite independent mechanisms. We show that in the Pachón population, the differences in the visceral fat in adults correlates with changes in the timing of visceral development, making a developmental contribution likely. Visceral fat development in surface fish starts between 10 and 11 dpf, while in Pachón cavefish, visceral fat cells become visible as early as 8 dpf and develop significantly higher amounts of lipid droplets before surface fish start visceral fat accumulation. We further show that this developmental difference is unique to the Pachón cavefish population, while the Tinaja cavefish population - which displays hyperphagia - starts to develop visceral fat similar to surface fish. We suggest the differences in early adipogenesis in the Pachón population as an additional strategy of increased fat gain in cavefish to adapt to food scarcity.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 24
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: by Chelsea Virgile, Pricila Hauk, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Gregory F. Payne, William E. Bentley Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as ‘smart’ devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body’s immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release. Bacteria naturally move towards a variety of molecular cues (e.g., nutrients) in the process of chemotaxis. In this work, we engineered bacteria to recognize and move towards hydrogen peroxide, a non-native chemoattractant and potential toxin. Our system exploits oxyRS , the native oxidative stress regulon of E . coli . We first demonstrated H 2 O 2 -mediated upregulation motility regulator, CheZ. Using transwell assays, we showed a two-fold increase in net motility towards H 2 O 2 . Then, using a 2D cell tracking system, we quantified bacterial motility descriptors including velocity, % running (of tumble/run motions), and a dynamic net directionality towards the molecular cue. In CheZ mutants, we found that increased H 2 O 2 concentration (0–200 μM) and induction time resulted in increased running speeds, ultimately reaching the native E . coli wild-type speed of ~22 μm/s with a ~45–65% ratio of running to tumbling. Finally, using a microfluidic device with stable H 2 O 2 gradients, we characterized responses and the potential for “programmed” directionality towards H 2 O 2 in quiescent fluids. Overall, the synthetic biology framework and tracking analysis in this work will provide a framework for investigating controlled motility of E . coli and other ‘smart’ probiotics for signal-directed treatment.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 25
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    In: PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: by Ana Caroline N. Botelho, Juliana G. Oliveira, Andreia P. Damasco, Késia T. B. Santos, Ana Flávia M. Ferreira, Gabriel T. Rocha, Penélope S. Marinho, Rita B. G. Bornia, Tatiana C. A. Pinto, Marco A. Américo, Sergio E. L. Fracalanzza, Lúcia M. Teixeira Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. In the present study, 3,647 pregnant women living in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for GBS anogenital colonization, over a period of 8 years (2008–2015). GBS was detected in 956 (26.2%) of them, and presence of vaginal discharge was the only trait associated with a higher risk for GBS colonization. Serotypes Ia (257; 37.3%) and II (137; 19.9%) were the most frequent among 689 (72.1% of the total) GBS isolates evaluated, followed by NT isolates (84; 12.1%), serotype Ib (77; 11.1%), V (63; 9.1%), III (47; 6.8%) and IV (24; 3.5%). Estimated coverage of major serotype-based GBS vaccines currently under clinical trials would vary from 65.2% to 84.3%. All 689 isolates tested were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Resistance to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline was observed in 5% (35), 2% (14), 14% (97), 5% (35) and 86% (592) of the isolates, respectively. No significant fluctuations in colonization rates, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were observed throughout the period of time investigated. The culture-based approach for IAP recommendation showed to be the best choice for the population investigated when compared to the risk-based, since the first did not increase the number of pregnant women submitted to antibiotic therapy and covered a larger number of women who were actually colonized by GBS. The fact the not all isolates were available for additional characterization, and serotype IX antiserum was not available for testing represent limitations of this study. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this is the largest investigation on GBS carriage among pregnant women in Brazil up to date, and results are useful for improving GBS prevention and treatment strategies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 26
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): A. Moreno, A. Riverola, D. Chemisana A solar concentrating photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) module with cell immersion in dielectric liquid has been modelled and energetically simulated. The concentrator focuses radiation linearly by using a cylindrical shape optics made of polymethyl methacrylate. The geometric concentration is 12 suns with an optical efficiency of 76.14%. The dielectric fluid, deionized water, flows through the concentrator case fulfilling a double function: to concentrate and to cool the PV cells. The concentrator is designed to be superimposed in front of the windows in a 2-storey family house with 4-person occupancy. The system is modelled to partially cover thermal and electrical demands utilizing a radiant floor and a reversible air-air heat pump for space heating and cooling (SH&C) and an electrical circuit which combines direct consumption and battery storage. The system topology has been simulated for three locations (Lisbon, Barcelona and Genoa). Results indicate an appropriate performance of the system analyzed with DHW solar fractions in a range from around 61% to above 75%. The lowest corresponds to Genoa and the highest to Lisbon and Barcelona. Regarding SH&C solar fractions are also quite adequate with values ranging from 38.3% (Genoa) to above 60% (68.8% in Lisbon and 62.4% in Barcelona). Finally, SFs for electrical loads take a value of 44.09% in the case of Lisbon, 38.9% for Barcelona and 23.51% for Genoa.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source: Space Policy Author(s): Fengna Xu, Jinyuan Su The international community's negotiation of the prevention of an arms race in outer space (PAROS) has been stalled for two decades. A breakthrough is needed to secure international peace and security. On 24 December 2017, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 72/250 entitled “Further practical measures for the prevention of an arms race in outer space”. The new resolution highlights several developments, compared with previous resolutions on PAROS. This paper discusses its new elements, with an emphasis on the objective of building “a community of shared future for mankind” (CSFM) and practical measure for achieving this objective, especially the establishment of a group of governmental experts (GGE) on PAROS. It is proposed that the international community should start cooperation on areas of mutual concern, to sow seeds for broader cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space.
    Print ISSN: 0265-9646
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-338X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Political Science
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1535: The Causal Effects of Trade and Technology Transfer on Human Capital and Economic Growth in the United Arab Emirates Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051535 Authors: Athanasia S. Kalaitzi This research empirically investigates the causality between trade, technology, human capital and economic growth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over the period 1980–2016. To investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables, this study performs the Johansen cointegration test, while the direction of the short-run causality is examined by applying the Granger causality test in a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) framework. Moreover, a modified Wald test in an augmented Vector Autoregressive Model is applied in order to find the direction of the long-run causality. This research provides evidence to support a short-run bi-directional causality between primary imports and economic growth, while an indirect causality runs from manufactured imports and human capital to economic growth, through exports and primary imports. Empirical results do not provide evidence of either an Import-Led growth (ILG) or Export-Led Growth (ELG) hypothesis in the long-run, while no causality runs from primary imports, manufactured imports or exports to human capital.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1532: Drivers and Barriers in Socially Responsible Human Resource Management Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051532 Authors: Jesus Barrena-Martinez Macarena López-Fernández Pedro M. Romero-Fernandez The current recession has caused a large number of companies to reevaluate their valuable resources and ways to preserve and invest those resources. Given the relevance of employees as key stakeholders, developing a socially responsible orientation in human resource management for taking care of workers and their needs must be an essential process for business success. This study, based on stakeholder theory and a social integrative approach, examines the main drivers and barriers in the implementation of socially responsible actions in human resource management. The research uses a quantitative analysis based on questionnaires responded to by 85 human resource managers from large Spanish companies. We conclude that there are two significant drivers of socially responsible actions in human resource management (HRM): access to public subsidies and the improvement of the working environment. The main significant barriers highlighted by human resource managers are conflicts in decisions with boards and/or management teams and the lack of employees’ acceptance. The professional implications of the research are discussed at the end of the paper.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1529: The Influence of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties and Enzyme Activities on Soil Quality of Saline-Alkali Agroecosystems in Western Jilin Province, China Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051529 Authors: Qing Zhao Jie Tang Zhaoyang Li Wei Yang Yucong Duan Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a critical role in carbon cycling and soil quality of agroecosystems. Understanding the factors influencing SOC and the main indicators for soil quality can help in better soil management and sustainable agriculture. In this study, we selected three upland fields (U1, U2 and U3) and three paddy fields (P1, P2 and P3) of saline-alkali agroecosystems to study the impacts of soil physico-chemical properties (soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage, electrical conductivity and bulk density) and enzyme activities (soil amylase, invertase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) on SOC dynamics. The soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) had profoundly negative effect on SOC. Soil amylase and invertase activities were significantly positively correlated with SOC in both upland and paddy fields. Catalase promoted the accumulation of paddy SOC and polyphenol oxidase led to the acceleration of decomposition of upland SOC. Additionally, we combined SOC contents, soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities together to obtain the main indicators of soil quality. The results suggested that, in upland sites, the main factors affecting the soil quality were soil pH, ESP and SOC. As for paddy sites, the main indicators of soil quality were soil pH, amylase and invertase. By comparing the soil quality indicators between upland and paddy fields, it was observed that the inhibiting effect of ESP on paddy soil quality was not as significant as on upland soil quality due to the irrigation practice of rice planting, which could reduce the degree of soil alkalization. Therefore, paddy development has been widely used to improve the saline-alkali land in western Jilin Province of China.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1528: Identifying the Impacts of Social, Economic, and Environmental Factors on Population Aging in the Yangtze River Delta Using the Geographical Detector Technique Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051528 Authors: Xin Xu Yuan Zhao Xinlin Zhang Siyou Xia Under the background of social transformation and space reconstruction, population aging in China is becoming more and more diverse and complex. “Aging before getting rich”, a notion in population and economic development, has been a serious threat to sustainable development in China. On the basis of town- and street block-scale data from the Fifth and Sixth National Census in the Yangtze River Delta, we studied spatial distribution characteristics of population aging using global Moran’s I and hotspot analysis, and applied the geographical detector technique to explain the spatial heterogeneity of population aging. Several conclusions were drawn. (1) The promotion and replacement of aging coexist. Cluster of aging degree exhibits an increasing trend. Population aging is more severe in suburban areas than urban areas. (2) Migration is the main factor affecting the spatial heterogeneity of population aging. Per capital GDP and road network density are the second most influential factors. By contrast, the relief degree of land surface and the air quality index minimally influence population aging. The mechanisms of aging in various regions are affected by varying development levels. (3) The interaction among social, economic, and environmental factors enhances their effects and, thus, interacting factors have a greater influence on population aging than any single factor. The findings of this study have significant implications for local inhabitants and policy makers to address the population aging challenge in achieving sustainability of society, economy, and environment.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 32
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1522: Eco-Labeling and Retailer Pricing Strategies: The U.K. Haddock Market Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051522 Authors: Dengjun Zhang Geir Sogn-Grundvåg Frank Asche James A. Young In attempts to differentiate their store imagery, grocery retailers frequently introduce new products, which are often rich in extrinsic attributes such as claims regarding healthiness and environmental sustainability. This paper explores retailers’ pricing strategies for product attributes of haddock in the United Kingdom. The results show that retailers’ pricing strategies vary, in particular for extrinsic product attributes such as eco-labels and country-of-origin. The high price premium generated from the most advocated eco-labels and an emphasis upon promotion strategies appear to play a role in the success of high-end retailers, and may have implications for any heightened competitive responses by larger retail chains in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 28 Author(s): Ian Sosa-Tinoco, Carlos Otero-Casal, Juan Peralta-Jaramillo, G. Miguez-Macho, I. Rodríguez-Cabo The purpose of this study is to improve the results of a solar resource assessment performed with a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model by selecting the best cumulus parametrization for the south of Sonora region. Past results of solar resource assessment by NWP models for the region are promising and also could be improved mainly during the monsoon season. These sorts of results are frequent on different solar radiation forecasts and assessments, on different places, obtained by NWP models since the results depend on climate, season, and location. We assume as a starting point that some of these problems could be solved by selecting the right cumulus parameterizations for each case. Simulations on two seasons (winter and summer) for seven cumulus parameterizations were done. From these results, two cumulus parameterizations were chosen, simulated and compared in a different season (spring) for one month. For all cases, the GHI results for the region present that Simplified Arakawa-Schubert based simulations have better correlation with the observations.
    Print ISSN: 2213-1388
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Symmetry
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 154: The Cosine Measure of Single-Valued Neutrosophic Multisets for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10050154 Authors: Changxing Fan En Fan Jun Ye Based on the multiplicity evaluation in some real situations, this paper firstly introduces a single-valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM) as a subclass of neutrosophic multiset (NM) to express the multiplicity information and the operational relations of SVNMs. Then, a cosine measure between SVNMs and weighted cosine measure between SVNMs are presented to measure the cosine degree between SVNMs, and their properties are investigated. Based on the weighted cosine measure of SVNMs, a multiple attribute decision-making method under a SVNM environment is proposed, in which the evaluated values of alternatives are taken in the form of SVNMs. The ranking order of all alternatives and the best one can be determined by the weighted cosine measure between every alternative and the ideal alternative. Finally, an actual application on the selecting problem illustrates the effectiveness and application of the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 111
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 92 Author(s): Ying Liu, W.Y. Szeto, Sin C. Ho In this paper, a bike repositioning problem with multiple depots, multiple visits, and multiple heterogeneous vehicles for the free-floating bike-sharing system (FFBSS) is studied. Two types of nodes (i.e., easily and hardly access nodes) with different penalties are defined to represent different convenience levels of getting bikes from the FFBSS. The objective of the repositioning is to minimize the weighted sum of the inconvenience level of getting bikes from the system and the total unmet demand and the total operational time. To solve this problem, an enhanced version of chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is developed. A loading and unloading quantity adjustment procedure with the consideration of the node characteristics, including the type of node and its current state (i.e., in a balanced, surplus, or deficit state) is proposed and incorporated into this version to improve its solution quality. A concept of the nearby-node set is also proposed to narrow the search space. Numerical results are presented and indicate that compared to the traditional CRO and CPLEX, the enhanced CRO improves solution quality and has potential to tackle the repositioning problem for larger, longer repositioning duration, and more vehicle instances. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adjustment procedure.
    Print ISSN: 0968-090X
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2359
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Zhibin Lin, Ilias Vlachos Having an appropriate and advanced analytical framework is essential for transport service managers to optimize resource allocation to improve customer satisfaction. This study proposes a novel analytical framework, the “ Importance-Performance-Impact Analysis ” (IPIA), which aims to overcome several conceptual and methodological shortcomings associated with Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). The IPIA framework integrates advanced analytical techniques, such as Back Propagation Neural Network and Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL/ANP). We illustrate IPIA in one of the ‘Big Four’ airlines in China. IPIA Table and IPIA Matrix help transportation managers to allocate resources better than IPA to improve customer satisfaction.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Marije Noordhoek, Wout Dullaert, David S.W. Lai, Sander de Leeuw Academic research on ( s , S ) inventory policies for multi-echelon distribution networks with deterministic lead times, backordering, and fill rate constraints is limited. Inspired by a real-life Dutch food retail case we develop a simulation-optimization approach to optimize ( s , S ) inventory policies in such a setting. We compare the performance of a Nested Bisection Search (NBS) and a novel Scatter Search (SS) metaheuristic using 1280 instances from literature and we derive managerial implications from a real-life case. Results show that the SS outperforms the NBS on solution quality. Additionally, supply chain costs can be saved by allowing lower fill rates at upstream echelons.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Maryam Johari, Seyyed-Mahdi Hosseini-Motlagh, Mohammadreza Nematollahi, Mark Goh, Joshua Ignatius A bi-level credit period coordination scheme is proposed for a supplier-retailer supply chain with a periodic review replenishment policy and price-credit dependent demand. The credit period offered by the retailer to its customers is a promotional effort to induce customer demand and gain market share. We model the problem under decentralized, centralized, and coordinated structures. Through the incentive scheme, the supplier seeks to increase the retailer’s credit period by offering the retailer a credit period. Our results suggest that coordinating the inventory, pricing, and credit financing can improve the overall chain and individual member profitability.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 40
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Dean C. Chatfield, Alan M. Pritchard We investigate the impact of order crossover on a periodic, order-up-to (R,S) inventory system where attaining a target service level is the focus. We first address two crossover related assumptions and then explore five methods of including crossover information into the process of determining the order-up-to level ( S ). We develop a hybrid discrete-event/continuous simulation model and perform a full-factorial simulation study under various conditions of target service level, demand variance, and lead-time variance. We find the method used to include crossover information into the decision significantly impacts service performance and that methods based on effective lead-time observations perform best.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 41
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Sajjad Jalali, Mehdi Seifbarghy, Seyed Taghi Akhavan Niaki The rising disruptions of interdictors force supply chains’ designers to embody the protection decisions when locating the facilities. In the presence of variability in the intensity of disruptions, a risk measure is incorporated into the decision-making. The designer-interdictor bi-level problem, therefore, optimizes the joint location and protection decisions with respect to the conditional value-at-risk. This configuration has been absent from the literature. An accelerated modified Benders decomposition algorithm is developed and enhanced by being hybridized with a sample average approximation-based genetic algorithm. We examine how this new configuration influences the optimal solutions and assess the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 42
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 114 Author(s): Seung Ho Yoo, Taesu Cheong This paper investigates several incentive mechanisms for collaborative product quality improvement in a buyer-driven supply chain, and the impacts of those mechanisms on supply chain performance. The buyer, the Stackelberg leader, determines the sales price of a product while the supplier is responsible for production and product quality determination. We develop analytical models incorporating two reward schemes to better understand how the buyer can facilitate the supplier’s quality improvement efforts. We offer managerial insights and practical guidelines for implementing quality management in the supply chain, derived from both an analytical comparison and numerical experiments.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 43
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 120 Author(s): Thomas Ansell, Steve Cayzer This study investigates the notion of limits to socioeconomic growth with a specific focus on the role of climate change and the declining quality of fossil fuel reserves. A new system dynamics model has been created. The World Energy Model (WEM) is based on the World3 model ( The Limits to Growth , Meadows et al., 2004) with climate change and energy production replacing generic pollution and resources factors. WEM also tracks global population, food production and industrial output out to the year 2100. This paper presents a series of WEM's projections; each of which represent broad sweeps of what the future may bring. All scenarios project that global industrial output will continue growing until 2100. Scenarios based on current energy trends lead to a 50% increase in the average cost of energy production and 2.4–2.7 °C of global warming by 2100. WEM projects that limiting global warming to 2 °C will reduce the industrial output growth rate by 0.1–0.2%. However, WEM also plots industrial decline by 2150 for cases of uncontrolled climate change or increased population growth. The general behaviour of WEM is far more stable than World3 but its results still support the call for a managed decline in society's ecological footprint.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 44
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 444: A Novel Boolean Kernels Family for Categorical Data Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20060444 Authors: Mirko Polato Ivano Lauriola Fabio Aiolli Kernel based classifiers, such as SVM, are considered state-of-the-art algorithms and are widely used on many classification tasks. However, this kind of methods are hardly interpretable and for this reason they are often considered as black-box models. In this paper, we propose a new family of Boolean kernels for categorical data where features correspond to propositional formulas applied to the input variables. The idea is to create human-readable features to ease the extraction of interpretation rules directly from the embedding space. Experiments on artificial and benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed family of kernels with respect to established ones, such as RBF, in terms of classification accuracy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 45
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C7EW00530J, Paper Wei Li, Xinran Liang, Jinming Duan, Simon Beecham, Dennis Mulcahy The effects of recycling spent filter backwash water (SFBW) on the removal of 14 organic pesticides were examined in a simulated conventional drinking water treatment process. The experimental results indicate... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 2053-1400
    Electronic ISSN: 2053-1419
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 46
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 333: Microbial Taxa and Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation Driven by Tree Roots Forests doi: 10.3390/f9060333 Authors: Wenchen Song Yanhong Liu Rhizosphere microbes in forests are key elements for carbon accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. To date, little is known on the rhizomicrobial community changes occurring during soil carbon accumulation. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing, we identified the phyla composing the rhizomicrobial communities of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. and Quercus variabilis Blume forests in North China and their abundance. These results were correlated with the soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation driven by tree roots. Rhizomicrobial community composition and abundance and SOC accumulation varied with tree species, but root presence benefited SOC accumulation significantly. Different phyla played different roles in root-driven carbon accumulation during the succession of a recovery forest ecosystem, but Proteobacteria and Basidiomycota were keystones for root-driven carbon accumulation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 332: Bark Assortments of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce as Industrial Feedstock for Tall Oil Production Forests doi: 10.3390/f9060332 Authors: Mehrdad Arshadi Daniel Eriksson Patrik Isacsson Urban Bergsten Fatty and resin acids in bark residues generated by forest industries can be used to produce high-value green chemicals, but more information about their concentrations in potential sources is required. We examined variations in the content of lipophilic extractives from both pulpwood bark and timber bark of Norway spruce and Scots pine trees growing in homogenous stands in mid-Sweden. We found that spruce pulpwood bark had the highest total amounts of fatty and resin acids (average yield, 0.9 kg/m3 wood). The regression functions, based on readily available tree parameters (age, stem diameter, height, growth rate and inner bark proportions), can be used to predict the concentrations of fatty and resin acids, triglycerides, sterols and steryl esters in bark materials before harvesting stands that supply industrial plants.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 48
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 330: Isolation and Pathogenicity of Phytophthora Species from Poplar Plantations in Serbia Forests doi: 10.3390/f9060330 Authors: Ivan Milenković Nenad Keča Dragan Karadžić Zlatan Radulović Justyna A. Nowakowska Tomasz Oszako Katarzyna Sikora Tamara Corcobado Thomas Jung During a survey in three declining and three healthy poplar plantations in Serbia, six different Phytophthora species were obtained. Phytophthora plurivora was the most common, followed by P. pini, P. polonica, P. lacustris, P. cactorum, and P. gonapodyides. Pathogenicity of all isolated species to four-month and one-year-old cuttings of Populus hybrid clones I-214 and Pánnonia, respectively, was tested using both a soil infestation and stem inoculation test. Isolates of P. polonica, P. × cambivora, P. cryptogea, and P. × serendipita from other host plants were included as a comparison. In the soil infestation test, the most aggressive species to clone I-214 were P. plurivora, P. × serendipita, and P. pini. On clone Pánnonia, P. gonapodyides and P. pini were the most aggressive, both causing 100% mortality, followed by P. cactorum, P. × cambivora, and P. polonica. In the underbark inoculation test, the susceptibility of both poplar clones to the different Phytophthora species was largely similar, as in the soil infestation test, with the exception of P. polonica, which proved to be only weakly pathogenic to poplar bark. The most aggressive species to clone I-214 was P. pini, while on clone Pánnonia, the longest lesions and highest disease incidence were caused by P. gonapodyides. Phytophthora cactorum and P. plurivora were pathogenic to both clones, whereas P. × cambivora showed only weak pathogenicity. The implications of these findings and possible pathways of dispersion of the pathogens are discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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    Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
    In: Genes
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Genes, Vol. 9, Pages 285: Development of Microplatforms to Mimic the In Vivo Architecture of CNS and PNS Physiology and Their Diseases Genes doi: 10.3390/genes9060285 Authors: John Saliba Arij Daou Samar Damiati Jessica Saliba Marwan El-Sabban Rami Mhanna Understanding the mechanisms that govern nervous tissues function remains a challenge. In vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems provide a simplistic platform to evaluate systematic investigations but often result in unreliable responses that cannot be translated to pathophysiological settings. Recently, microplatforms have emerged to provide a better approximation of the in vivo scenario with better control over the microenvironment, stimuli and structure. Advances in biomaterials enable the construction of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, which combined with microfabrication, allow enhanced biomimicry through precise control of the architecture, cell positioning, fluid flows and electrochemical stimuli. This manuscript reviews, compares and contrasts advances in nervous tissues-on-a-chip models and their applications in neural physiology and disease. Microplatforms used for neuro-glia interactions, neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), blood-brain barrier (BBB) and studies on brain cancer, metastasis and neurodegenerative diseases are addressed. Finally, we highlight challenges that can be addressed with interdisciplinary efforts to achieve a higher degree of biomimicry. Nervous tissue microplatforms provide a powerful tool that is destined to provide a better understanding of neural health and disease.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4425
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Geosciences, Vol. 8, Pages 205: Geotourism and Local Development Based on Geological and Mining Sites Utilization, Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador Geosciences doi: 10.3390/geosciences8060205 Authors: Paúl Carrión Mero Gricelda Herrera Franco Josué Briones Pablo Caldevilla María José Domínguez-Cuesta Edgar Berrezueta This study offers a detailed assessment of the geosites and mining sites present in the Zaruma-Portovelo mining district (Ecuador) through their qualitative and quantitative assessment. It shows up the potentiality of this area taking advantage of its geological-mining heritage. The methodological process includes: (i) compilation and inventory of all the sites within the study area with particular geological or mining interest; (ii) preparation of reports and thematic cartography, (iii) assessment and classification of the elements of geological-mining interest; (iv) SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis and TOWS (Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, Strengths) matrix preparation seeking strategies to guarantee the viability of geotourism. A total of 16 sites of geological interest and 11 of mining interest were identified. The 77% of these sites was proved to be of high and very high interest in scientific terms. Likewise, their susceptibility to degradation assessed from their vulnerability and fragility was found to be high or very high in the 30% of the cases. As for the protection priority, all the studied sites obtained a medium-high result. Finally, the study based on the SWOT-TOWS revealed the possibility of applying action strategies in order to facilitate the compatibility of geotourism with the current productive activities, despite the difficult situation in the study area created by mining activities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 51
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 52 Author(s): M. Jayanthi, S. Thirumurthy, M. Muralidhar, P. Ravichandran The rapid growth of aquaculture has raised the environmental concern about the conversion of ecologically important areas such as mangroves and agricultural lands. The study explored the impact of shrimp aquaculture on land use change in India’s coastal wetlands using Landsat satellite data, geographical information system techniques and field verification. From 1988 to 2013, the area under aquaculture has grown by 879 %, which brought the tremendous changes in the coastal land use pattern. Mangrove and agriculture lands have been used for 5.04 % and 28.10 % of the aquaculture growth. Mudflats, scrublands, saltpan, and waterbodies have contributed to 51.65 %, 1.76 %, 1.73 % and 2.37 % of the aquaculture area expansion respectively. Mangrove areas have undergone severe changes due to gain and loss at different places. Environmental factors influenced the changes in mangroves, and the overall extent of mangrove has increased by 13.44 %. Construction activities and aquaculture have reduced the agricultural land by 3.52 % and 0.53 % respectively. The variation between the actual area under shrimp aquaculture and the Coastal Aquaculture Authority approved area indicate that the larger extent of shrimp farm operates without approval. Implementation of an intensive monitoring program for strict adherence to coastal aquaculture regulation laws will be helpful for the sustainability of coastal resources as well as aquaculture.
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 52
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Green Chem. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8GC01129J, Communication Jiayin Hu, Jun Ma, Huizhen Liu, Qingli Qian, Chao Xie, Buxing Han An easily prepared novel dual-ionic liquid system were developed for cyclic carbonate synthesis from carbon dioxide and epoxides under mild conditions (1 atmos CO2, T = 30-60 [degree]C) with excellent... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1463-9262
    Electronic ISSN: 1463-9270
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 53
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Pedro L. Miranda, Jean-François Cordeau, Deisemera Ferreira, Raf Jans, Reinaldo Morabito We propose a decomposition heuristic to solve a rich production routing problem arising in the context of a make-to-order company. The problem is motivated by the operations of a Brazilian furniture manufacturer and considers several important features, such as multiple products, sequence-dependent setup times, a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, routes extending over one or more periods, multiple time windows and customer deadlines, among others. An integrated mathematical model is presented and is used as a basis to develop the heuristic, which solves the problem by decomposing it in two parts that are solved iteratively. The first subproblem focuses on the production planning and customer assignment decisions, and uses an approximation for the routing costs and travel times. The second subproblem makes the routing decisions, which are further improved by a local search algorithm. The solution of the second subproblem is then used to update the approximation of the routing costs and travel times in the first subproblem. We use a large set of random instances to benchmark our heuristic against a general-purpose solver. Numerical results show that our method provides, in shorter computing times, solutions of similar quality as those obtained by the solver for instances with up to 15 customers. For larger instances, with 20 to 50 customers, the heuristic clearly outperforms the solver, which in most cases cannot find any solution after 24 hours of computing time.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 54
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Lei Xu, Xiaoran Shi, Peng Du, Kannan Govindan, Zhenchao Zhang We analyze the impact of the retailer's overconfidence on the supply chain performance. We consider a duopolistic market with uncertain demand where one overconfident retailer and one rational retailer compete in selling the same product. We identify two cases in terms of the rational retailer's overconfidence awareness: (1) the rational retailer is aware of the other retailer's overconfidence; (2) the rational retailer is not aware of the other retailer's overconfidence. We first analyze the two retailers’ decision processes in a Nash game and derive their optimal decisions, and further discuss a Stackelberg-like game for an extension. We conduct a numerical analysis to examine the impact of overconfidence on the optimal pricing, ordering decisions and expected profits. We find that the higher the overconfident level is, the higher selling price that the overconfident retailer charges. Together, the results stress that the overconfidence does not necessarily damage the supply chain performance.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 55
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Joseph Agor, Osman Y. Özaltın Selecting model features that would ensure adequate out-of-sample classification is difficult in real life applications of classification often because there is a large number of candidate features. We propose a bilevel programming approach to feature selection problem for classification and develop a novel genetic algorithm as a solution approach. We implement the proposed framework in three different case studies where we classify influenza strains based on antigenic variety, distinguish between good and bad quality colposcopy images, and identify splice junction sites in genetic sequences. As a benchmark for the proposed genetic algorithm, we use a derivative-free optimization method to solve the bilevel feature selection problems in these case studies. The computational experiments show that the proposed bilevel framework improves the overall classification performance while selecting the most important features for the model.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 56
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    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Dalton Trans. , 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI : 10.1039/C8DT00740C, Paper Qiufan Wang, Xiao Liang, Yun Ma, Daohong Zhang In this work, hollow RuO2 nanotube arrays were successfully grown on carbon cloth by a facile two-step method to fabricate a bind-free elecrode. The well-aligned electrode displays excellent electrochemical performance.... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 1477-9226
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 57
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 787: The Effect of Ultrafine-Grained Microstructure on Creep Behaviour of 9% Cr Steel Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11050787 Authors: Petr Kral Jiri Dvorak Vaclav Sklenicka Takahiro Masuda Zenji Horita Kveta Kucharova Marie Kvapilova Marie Svobodova The effect of ultrafine-grained size on creep behaviour was investigated in P92 steel. Ultrafine-grained steel was prepared by one revolution of high-pressure torsion at room temperature. Creep tensile tests were performed at 873 K under the initially-applied stress range between 50 and 160 MPa. The microstructure was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an electron-back scatter detector. It was found that ultrafine-grained steel exhibits significantly faster minimum creep rates, and there was a decrease in the value of the stress exponent in comparison with coarse-grained P92 steel. Creep results also showed an abrupt decrease in the creep rate over time during the primary stage. The abrupt deceleration of the creep rate during the primary stage was shifted, with decreasing applied stress with longer creep times. The change in the decline of the creep rate during the primary stage was probably related to the enhanced precipitation of the Laves phase in the ultrafine-grained microstructure.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 58
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    Elsevier
    In: Omega
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018 Source: Omega Author(s): Eduardo Fernández, José Rui Figueira, Jorge Navarro This paper presents a new outranking method whose main feature is its capacity to handle imperfect knowledge. This research is interested in two important sources of imperfect knowledge: 1) poorly known model parameters, and 2) imperfectly known (even missing) criterion values characterizing the actions. The use of interval numbers to model imperfect knowledge is suggested, and a new interval-based outranking method is proposed as an extension of the outranking approach to the interval framework. This method handles different sources of imperfect knowledge coming from model parameters (weights, veto thresholds, majority threshold) and from ill-determined, imprecise, uncertain, arbitrary (even missing) criterion values. The index of likelihood of the interval outranking is interpreted from a logical perspective, and could be used for choice, ranking and ordinal classification. Specifically, this paper proposes the method INTERCLASS for ordinal classification, which is inspired by ELECTRE TRI-B. Their assignment rules and structural properties are similar, but INTERCLASS is able to handle imprecisions in weights, veto thresholds, cutting level, and even in criteria defining limiting profiles.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0483
    Topics: Economics
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  • 59
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1537: A Hybrid TDMA/CSMA-Based Wireless Sensor and Data Transmission Network for ORS Intra-Microsatellite Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051537 Authors: Long Wang Yong Liu Zengshan Yin To achieve launch-on-demand for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions, in this article, an intra-satellite wireless network (ISWN) is presented. It provides a wireless and modularized scheme for intra-spacecraft sensing and data buses. By removing the wired data bus, the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) based wireless modular architecture will reduce both the volume and weight of the satellite platform, thus achieving rapid design and cost savings in development and launching. Based on the on-orbit data demand analysis, a hybrid time division multiple access/carrier sense multiple access (TDMA/CSMA) protocol is proposed. It includes an improved clear channel assessment (CCA) mechanism and a traffic adaptive slot allocation method. To analyze the access process, a Markov model is constructed. Then a detailed calculation is given in which the unsaturated cases are considered. Through simulations, the proposed protocol is proved to commendably satisfy the demands and performs better than existing schemes. It helps to build a full-wireless satellite instead of the current wired ones, and will contribute to provide dynamic space capabilities for ORS missions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 60
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1538: Hybrid Transverse Polar Navigation for High-Precision and Long-Term INSs Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051538 Authors: Wu Wu Han Zhang Hu Li Transverse navigation has been proposed to help inertial navigation systems (INSs) fill the gap of polar navigation ability. However, as the transverse system does not have the ability of navigate globally, a complicated switch between the transverse and the traditional algorithms is necessary when the system moves across the polar circles. To maintain the inner continuity and consistency of the core algorithm, a hybrid transverse polar navigation is proposed in this research based on a combination of Earth-fixed-frame mechanization and transverse-frame outputs. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of kinematic error characteristics, proper damping technology and corresponding long-term contributions of main error sources is conducted for the high-precision INSs. According to the analytical expressions of the long-term navigation errors in polar areas, the 24-h period symmetrical oscillation with a slowly divergent amplitude dominates the transverse horizontal position errors, and the first-order drift dominates the transverse azimuth error, which results from the gyro drift coefficients that occur in corresponding directions. Simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical analysis and the deduced analytical expressions. The results show that the proposed hybrid transverse navigation can ensure the same accuracy and oscillation characteristics in polar areas as the traditional algorithm in low and mid latitude regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1535: An Effective Delay Reduction Approach through a Portion of Nodes with a Larger Duty Cycle for Industrial WSNs Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051535 Authors: Minrui Wu Yanhui Wu Chuyao Liu Zhiping Cai Neal N. Xiong Anfeng Liu Ming Ma For Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), sending data with timely style to the stink (or control center, CC) that is monitored by sensor nodes is a challenging issue. However, in order to save energy, wireless sensor networks based on a duty cycle are widely used in the industrial field, which can bring great delay to data transmission. We observe that if the duty cycle of a small number of nodes in the network is set to 1, the sleep delay caused by the duty cycle can be effectively reduced. Thus, in this paper, a novel Portion of Nodes with Larger Duty Cycle (PNLDC) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and optimize energy efficiency for IWSNs. In the PNLDC scheme, a portion of nodes are selected to set their duty cycle to 1, and the proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 is determined according to the energy abundance of the area in which the node is located. The more the residual energy in the region, the greater the proportion of the selected nodes. Because there are a certain proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 in the network, the PNLDC scheme can effectively reduce delay in IWSNs. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the delay for forwarding data by 8.9~26.4% and delay for detection by 2.1~24.6% without reducing the network lifetime when compared with the fixed duty cycle method. Meanwhile, compared with the dynamic duty cycle strategy, the proposed scheme has certain advantages in terms of energy utilization and delay reduction.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 62
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1533: Speckle Filtering of GF-3 Polarimetric SAR Data with Joint Restriction Principle Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051533 Authors: Jinwei Xie Zhenfang Li Chaowei Zhou Yuyuan Fang Qingjun Zhang Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) scattering characteristics of imagery are always obtained from the second order moments estimation of multi-polarization data, that is, the estimation of covariance or coherency matrices. Due to the extra-paths that signal reflected from separate scatterers within the resolution cell has to travel, speckle noise always exists in SAR images and has a severe impact on the scattering performance, especially on single look complex images. In order to achieve high accuracy in estimating covariance or coherency matrices, three aspects are taken into consideration: (1) the edges and texture of the scene are distinct after speckle filtering; (2) the statistical characteristic should be similar to the object pixel; and (3) the polarimetric scattering signature should be preserved, in addition to speckle reduction. In this paper, a joint restriction principle is proposed to meet the requirement. Three different restriction principles are introduced to the processing of speckle filtering. First, a new template, which is more suitable for the point or line targets, is designed to ensure the morphological consistency. Then, the extent sigma filter is used to restrict the pixels in the template aforementioned to have an identical statistic characteristic. At last, a polarimetric similarity factor is applied to the same pixels above, to guarantee the similar polarimetric features amongst the optional pixels. This processing procedure is named as speckle filtering with joint restriction principle and the approach is applied to GF-3 polarimetric SAR data acquired in San Francisco, CA, USA. Its effectiveness of keeping the image sharpness and preserving the scattering mechanism as well as speckle reduction is validated by the comparison with boxcar filters and refined Lee filter.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 63
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1530: Convolutional Neural Network-Based Embarrassing Situation Detection under Camera for Social Robot in Smart Homes Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051530 Authors: Guanci Yang Jing Yang Weihua Sheng Francisco Erivaldo Fernandes Junior Shaobo Li Recent research has shown that the ubiquitous use of cameras and voice monitoring equipment in a home environment can raise privacy concerns and affect human mental health. This can be a major obstacle to the deployment of smart home systems for elderly or disabled care. This study uses a social robot to detect embarrassing situations. Firstly, we designed an improved neural network structure based on the You Only Look Once (YOLO) model to obtain feature information. By focusing on reducing area redundancy and computation time, we proposed a bounding-box merging algorithm based on region proposal networks (B-RPN), to merge the areas that have similar features and determine the borders of the bounding box. Thereafter, we designed a feature extraction algorithm based on our improved YOLO and B-RPN, called F-YOLO, for our training datasets, and then proposed a real-time object detection algorithm based on F-YOLO (RODA-FY). We implemented RODA-FY and compared models on our MAT social robot. Secondly, we considered six types of situations in smart homes, and developed training and validation datasets, containing 2580 and 360 images, respectively. Meanwhile, we designed three types of experiments with four types of test datasets composed of 960 sample images. Thirdly, we analyzed how a different number of training iterations affects our prediction estimation, and then we explored the relationship between recognition accuracy and learning rates. Our results show that our proposed privacy detection system can recognize designed situations in the smart home with an acceptable recognition accuracy of 94.48%. Finally, we compared the results among RODA-FY, Inception V3, and YOLO, which indicate that our proposed RODA-FY outperforms the other comparison models in recognition accuracy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 64
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): Xuejun Zou, Yuying Dong, Sijia Li, Jun Ke, Yubo Cui Herein, uniform AgX/Ag 2 CrO 4 (X = Cl, Br, I) NR hybrids were successfully prepared by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction at room temperature. When AgX was formed on the surface of Ag 2 CrO 4 NRs, the light absorption range AgX/Ag 2 CrO 4 hybrids show apparent red shifting by compared with the pure Ag 2 CrO 4 NRs, which indicates the enhanced ability of utilizing solar energy. Moreover, the as-prepared AgBr/Ag 2 CrO 4 NR hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation owing to more suitable band offset between AgBr and Ag 2 CrO 4 to form type-II heterojunction in comparison with the other two hybrids with type-I heterojunction. The kinetic constant over AgBr/Ag 2 CrO 4 NR hybrids is 4 times as high as the pure Ag 2 CrO 4 NRs, which demonstrates that the formation of heterojunction is beneficial for suppressing the recombination of photogenerated holes and electrons. Moreover, the rad O 2 − and h + are proven to be main active species involving in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Apart from that, chlorine radicals are found to be produced simultaneously to enhance photocatalytic activity of AgCl/Ag 2 CrO 4 . Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 65
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): Kazem Bashirnezhad, Mahdi kavyanpoor, Seyed Ahmad Kebriyaee, Atena Moosavi This research aims at investigating the performance of a laboratory solar chimney using thermal phase change material. The geometric properties of this prototype consist of a chimney 0.3 m in diameter and the length of 12 m and an air collector with the diameter and height of 11 m and 0.65 m, respectively. Some measuring instruments including air speed meter, temperature sensors, and a processor are employed so as to record changes in temperature of intake air, ground, and air trapped within the collector in addition to speed alterations of intake air in three modes of utilizing soil, water and paraffin as a thermal storage material. It can be clearly seen from the results that using water and paraffin as thermal storage materials have increased the time productivity by 9% and 20%, and electric energy production by 6.2% and 22%, respectively in comparison to no absorber state in this solar power plant.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): P. Soulatiantork The importance of Photovoltaic (PV) systems as a sustainable energy resource is widely recognized. The real maximum power point (MPP) is the most crucial parameter that must be considered to assure that maximum power is harvested from the PV module at all operating points. To this end, several PV testing systems and MPP tracker algorithms have been developed to find the real MPP. Issues related to the comparison of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, evaluation, and comparison of PV testing system performances are the repeatability and reproducibility of testing conditions such as solar irradiation and PV module temperature. In this work, a flexible, low-cost testing system for PV applications is presented, and two identical PV modules have been compared at the same environmental conditions. A model-based (MB) MPPT algorithm, previously developed by the authors of this study, has been used. The MB algorithm has been evaluated and its efficiency is reported as 99.65%. The experimental test has been carried out and the performance of the developed architecture is validated, and two PV modules have been compared in real-time. It has been shown that the generated energy percentage difference between two identical PV modules is 0.6%. It is also worth mentioning that the proposed testing system is capable of hosting, evaluating and comparing four different MPPT algorithms, four PV modules and a combination of them.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 67
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): Praveen Naik, Kavya S. Keremane, Mohamed R. Elmorsy, Rui Su, Ahmed El-Shafei, Airody Vasudeva Adhikari Herein, we report a comparative study of four interesting metal-free carbazole based organic dyes with different structural configurations, carrying electron deficient barbituric acid ( C 1-4 ) , as effective co-sensitizers in DSSCs sensitized with NCSU-10 dye. The new entities comprise different structural architectures, viz. D-A ( C 1 ), D-π-A ( C 2 ), D-D-π-A ( C 3 ) and D-A-π-A ( C 4 ) configurations with same accepting/anchoring moiety. They consist of carbazole as donor scaffold linked to barbituric acid as an acceptor/anchoring unit via different π-spacers. This paper describes the study of all the four co-sensitizers with regard to their structural, photophysical, electrochemical, theoretical and photovoltaic investigations. Also, it includes their structure-performance correlation study in detail. The devices co-sensitized with C 1-4 displayed the superior photovoltaic performance when compared to NCSU-10 alone. The results ameliorate the role of efficient co-sensitizers to yield DSSC with improved performance. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 68
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1540: Global SDGs Assessments: Helping or Confusing Indicators? Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10051540 Authors: Svatava Janoušková Tomáš Hák Bedřich Moldan On 1 January 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—adopted by world leaders in 2015—came into force. They build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and call for action by all countries to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. Since the SDGs are not legally binding, governments are expected to take ownership and establish national frameworks for the achievement of the 17 Goals. Countries thus have the primary responsibility for follow-up and review of the progress made in implementing the Goals, which will require quality, accessible and timely data collection. This will be instrumental for both regional and global follow-up analyses and assessments—several such major global assessments have already appeared. It might be supposed that the SDGs framework, including indicators, is conceptually and methodologically well-designed and tested in order to function reliably and provide guidance for such assessments. However, while it seems that the current structure of the SDGs has provided a firm policy framework, the Goals and targets have been mostly operationalized by indicators. We demonstrate and argue that without a procedurally well-designed, conceptual indicator framework for selecting and/or designing indicators, the results of SDGs assessments may be ambiguous and confusing.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 69
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 113 Author(s): Kum Fai Yuen, Vinh V. Thai, Yiik Diew Wong, Xueqin Wang The interaction impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and service quality (SQ) on customer satisfaction, job satisfaction, and financial performance are investigated in the context of shipping. Interviews were conducted, and surveys were administered on 156 shipping firms with operations in Singapore. The collected data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed that: (1) customer and job satisfaction fully-mediate the link between corporate level associations (i.e. CSR and SQ) and shipping firms’ financial performance; (2) CSR and SQ complement each other in driving job and customer satisfaction; (3) the interaction between CSR and SQ produces synergistic effects on customer satisfaction but compensatory effects on job satisfaction. The results suggest that the decision to implement CSR is contingent on the motivation of a firm as well as its current SQ capability. This paper contributes to the literature by reconciling the conflicting views on managing SQ performance and corporate social performance based on stakeholder theory, economic theory of complementarities and perceived value theory.
    Print ISSN: 0965-8564
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2375
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    In: Land
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Land, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Forest Cover Changes and Trajectories in a Typical Middle Mountain Watershed of Western Nepal Land doi: 10.3390/land7020072 Authors: Pradeep Baral Yali Wen Nadia Nora Urriola There have been drastic changes in resource use practices and land-use patterns in the middle mountains of Nepal as a result of human transformation processes of the environment. This study aimed at assessing land-use and land-cover changes, especially those related to forest cover changes, in Phewa Lake watershed—a typical middle mountain watershed of western Nepal—using multi-temporal Landsat images from 1995, 2005 and 2017. Landsat images of each year were classified individually using object-based image classification into four land-use and land-cover types: agriculture and built-up, forest, waterbodies and other. Post-classification comparison was employed to quantify the extent and rate of changes, which was further extended to quantify the level of persistence, gains, losses, and swaps of forests. Furthermore, temporal trajectories of land-cover associated with forest cover changes were established, and their spatial pattern analyzed. The results show that, between 1995 and 2017, forest cover increased by 6.8% with a corresponding decrease in the extent of all other land-cover types. Dynamic transitions and internal trading among forest and agriculture and built-up category were observed, revealing more complex patterns than the commonly assumed linear and irreversible forest cover transformations in the mountains of Nepal. Our approach to assess major signals of forest cover transitions and change trajectories will help link patterns to the process of change including deforestation and forest regeneration. This would, in turn, form the basis for formulating practical conservation and management strategies for Phewa Lake watershed and other mountain watersheds of Nepal.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-445X
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI
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  • 71
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 962: Fast-Response and Reusable Oxytetracycline Colorimetric Strips Based on Nickel (II) Ions Immobilized Carboxymethylcellulose/Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibrous Membranes Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11060962 Authors: Mohammed Awad Abedalwafa Yan Li De Li Xiaojun Lv Lu Wang Driven by economic interests, the abuse of antibiotics has become a significant concern for humans worldwide. As one of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in animal-derived foods occurs occasionally, which has caused danger to humanity. However, there is still no simple and efficient solution to detect OTC residue. Here, an easily-operated colorimetric strategy for OTC detection was developed based on nickel ions (Ni2+) immobilized carboxymethylcellulose/polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes (Ni@CMC/PAN NFMs). Owing to numerous O- and N-containing groups OTC has a strong tendency to complex with Ni2+ on the strips, inducing a color change from light green to yellow visible to the naked eye. The NFMs structural features, CMC functionalization process, and Ni2+ immobilization amount was carefully regulated to assure OTC detection whilst maintaining the inherent characteristics of NFMs. With the benefits of the large specific surface area (SSA) and small pore size of NFMs, the strips not only exhibited a rapid response (2 min), and low detection limit (5 nM) but also performed with good reversibility and selectivity concerning OTC detection over other antibiotics. The successful development of such enchanting nanofibrous materials may provide a new comprehension into the design and improvement of colorimetric strips.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 72
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 960: Investigation of Groove Shape Variation during Steel Sheave Spinning Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11060960 Authors: Chengcheng Zhu Dean Meng Shengdun Zhao Shuaipeng Li Large sheaves, such as crosshead sheaves, are foundation parts in the heavy industry. Counter-roller spinning steel sheaves are utilized to replace traditional casting iron parts. Few studies exist on the groove shape of these spinning sheaves. Consequently, it is significant to explore the spinning groove shape variation rule and confirm the appropriate spinning parameters. Both experimental and numerical methods were utilized to study the groove shape variation of Q235 steel sheaves and their results were well matched. Spring-back phenomena were considered in this study. The groove depth was lower than the spinning depth and the last formed groove was the deepest. The former groove depth would be affected by the adjacent following spinning process. The single groove spinning result was linearly dependent on the multiple spinning groove depth. Certain equations were used to calculate the groove depth. The bottom–middle–top spinning sequence, which was better than other spinning sequences, should be used in the sheave spinning method. A sheave spinning process could be designed based on the study to obtain a fine groove shape.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 73
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Materials
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 958: Conjectured the Behaviour of a Recycled Metal Matrix Composite (MMC–AlR) Developed through Hot Press Forging by Means of 3D FEM Simulation Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11060958 Authors: Azlan Ahmad Mohd Amri Lajis Shazarel Shamsudin Nur Kamilah Yusuf Melting aluminium waste to produce a secondary bulk material is such an energy-intensive recycling technique that it also indirectly threatens the environment. Hot press forging is introduced as an alternative. Mixing the waste with another substance is a proven practice that enhances the material integrity. To cope with the technology revolution, a finite element is utilised to predict the behaviour without a practical trial. Utilising commercial software, DEFORM 3D, the conjectures were demonstrated scientifically. The flow stress of the material was modified to suit the material used in the actual experiment. It is acknowledged that the stress–strain had gradually increased in each step. Due to the confined forming space, the temperature decreased by ~0.5% because the heat could not simply vacate the area. A reduction of ~10% of the flesh observed in the simulation is roughly the same as in the actual experiment. Above all, the simulation abides by the standards and follows what has been done previously. Through the finite element utilisation, this study forecasted the performance of the recycled composite. The results presented may facilitate improvement of the recycling issue and conserve the environment for a better future.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 74
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Manipulating type-I and type-II Dirac polaritons in cavity-embedded honeycomb metasurfaces Manipulating type-I and type-II Dirac polaritons in cavity-embedded honeycomb metasurfaces, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03982-7 Manipulating the properties of artificial graphene systems without changing the lattice has proven difficult. Here, Mann et al. theoretically show that changing the photonic environment alone can modify the fundamental properties of emergent massless Dirac polaritons in honeycomb metasurfaces.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 75
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Polysulfurating reagent design for unsymmetrical polysulfide construction Polysulfurating reagent design for unsymmetrical polysulfide construction, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04306-5 Synthetic methods to access unsymmetrical polysulfides are limited despite their high biological relevance. Here, the authors disclose a polysulfurating reagent affording unsymmetrical di- and tri-sulfides under mild conditions, and suitable for late-stage modification of natural products.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 76
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering Author(s): Shivani Garg, Hao Wu, James M. Clomburg, George N. Bennett Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) and contributes significantly to climate change. The conversion of methane to industrial platform chemicals provides an attractive opportunity to decrease GHG emissions and utilize this inexpensive and abundantly available gas as a carbon feedstock. While technologies exist for chemical conversion of methane to liquid fuels, the technical complexity of these processes mandate high capital expenditure, large-scale commercial facilities to leverage economies of scale that cannot be efficiently scaled down. Alternatively, bioconversion technologies capable of efficient small-scale operation with high carbon and energy efficiency can enable deployment at remote methane resources inaccessible to current chemical technologies. Aerobic obligate methanotrophs, specifically Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1, have recently garnered increased research interest for development of such bio-technologies. In this study, we demonstrate production of C-4 carboxylic acids non-native to the host, specifically crotonic and butyric acids, from methane in an engineered M. buryatense 5GB1C by diversion of carbon flux through the acetyl-CoA node of central ‘sugar’ linked metabolic pathways using reverse β-oxidation pathway genes. The synthesis of short chain carboxylic acids through the acetyl-CoA node demonstrates the potential for engineering M. buryatense 5GB1 as a platform for bioconversion of methane to a number of value added industrial chemicals, and presents new opportunities for further diversifying the products obtainable from methane as the feedstock.
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 77
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: In vivo production of RNA nanostructures via programmed folding of single-stranded RNAs In vivo production of RNA nanostructures via programmed folding of single-stranded RNAs, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04652-4 RNA nanostructures have been demonstrated in a range of biological applications, but their assembly and delivery to cells is difficult. Here the authors demonstrate the in vivo assembly of a RNA nanostructure from a single transcript inside the cellular environment.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 78
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering Author(s): Shubin Li, Tao Sun, Chunxiao Xu, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang The fast-growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (hereafter Synechococcus 2973) has been considered a good chassis candidate for “microbial cell factory” as it can perform oxygenic photosynthesis and its doubling time can be as short as 1.9 hours. However, the limited genetic tools currently restrict its further research and application efforts using synthetic biology approaches. In this study, a series of genetic tools were systematically developed and optimized for Synechococcus 2973. First, the introduction of Tfp pilus assembly protein encoding gene pilN into Synechococcus 2973 successfully recovered its natural transformability, which greatly simplified the DNA transformation process. Second, a series of promoters with different strengths were evaluated and the super-strong promoters including P cpc560 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, native P psbA2 and P psbA3 of Synechococcus 2973 were found with the highest activity of β -galactosidase among those evaluated by miller values. Some promoters related to photosystems ( i.e. , P psbA2 , P psbA3 , P 6803psbA2 and P cpc560 ) were also demonstrated to be induced by high intensity of light. Third, three lactose induction systems were evaluated, among which P lac combined with lacI q showed the best application prospect with great induction capacity, low leakage and middle induced expression. Fourth, the translational on riboswitch theoE⁎ , the transcriptional off riboswitches theo/yitJ and xpt(C74U)/metE and an artificial inducing system combining theoE⁎ with T7 RNA polymerase were successfully developed and characterized in Synechococcus 2973. Finally, by using T7 induction system to control the expression of both small RNA and chaperone Hfq, a small RNA regulatory tool was developed and optimized to be a strictly inducible off system for gene regulation in Synechococcus 2973. The work here presented valuable genetic toolboxes necessary for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology research in Synechococcus 2973, which will facilitate the future application of the fast growing cyanobacterial chassis.
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 79
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Author Correction: RNA cytosine methylation and methyltransferases mediate chromatin organization and 5-azacytidine response and resistance in leukaemia Author Correction: RNA cytosine methylation and methyltransferases mediate chromatin organization and 5-azacytidine response and resistance in leukaemia, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04518-9 Author Correction: RNA cytosine methylation and methyltransferases mediate chromatin organization and 5-azacytidine response and resistance in leukaemia
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 80
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04599-6 Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 81
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    In: Physics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Author(s): Austin P. Lund A photon-based method for demonstrating the advantage of quantum over classical machines can handle photon loss, facilitating experiments. [Physics 11, 57] Published Wed Jun 06, 2018