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  • 1
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: This open access book addresses an urgent issue on which little organized information exists. It reflects experience in Africa but is highly relevant to other fragile states as well. - Constantine Michalopoulos, John Hopkins University, USA and former Director of Economic Policy and Co-ordination at the World Bank. Fragile countries face a triple data challenge. Up-to-date information is needed to deal with rapidly changing circumstances and to design adequate responses. Yet, fragile countries are among the most data deprived, while collecting new information in such circumstances is very challenging. This open access book presents innovations in data collection developed with decision makers in fragile countries in mind. Looking at innovations in Africa from mobile phone surveys monitoring the Ebola crisis, to tracking displaced people in Mali, this collection highlights the challenges in data collection researchers face and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Data collection ; Fragile states ; Development economics ; Economic development ; African economics ; African innovations ; Mobile phone surveys ; Rapid emergency response survey ; Displaced people ; Central African Republic ; Geo-spatial sampling ; Rapid consumption surveys ; Vulnerable populations
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Springer Spektrum
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: In diesem Open Access-Buch werden fünf zentrale Themenbereiche des Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagement (UBRM) vorgestellt. Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagerinnen und -manager kennen die Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, wie sie zum Beispiel in der Agenda 2030 der Vereinten Nationen - den sogenannten nachhaltigen Entwicklungszielen (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) - formuliert wurden. Sie denken vernetzt und verfügen über fachliche, methodische und soziale Kompetenzen, die für eine inter- und transdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit erforderlich sind. Sie sind in der Lage, mit sich verändernden Anforderungen umzugehen und können sich in eine breite Palette von Fachbereichen vertiefen. Ihre Qualifikation wird in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen, in nationalen und internationalen Organisationen sowie in privaten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen nachgefragt. Die Leserinnen und Leser bekommen in jedem der hier vorgestellten Themenbereich Einblicke in verschiedene UBRM-Fachbereiche sowie darüber, welche Kompetenzen und Fertigkeiten erworben werden können. Dies wird anhand konkreter Fallbeispiele verdeutlicht. Abschließend veranschaulichen Porträts von Absolventinnen und Absolventen die Studien- und Berufspraxis und zeigen, wie nachhaltige Zukunftsgestaltung im Sinne der Agenda 2030 aussehen kann.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltmanagement ; Bioressourcen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Sustainability ; Universität für Bodenkultur ; Open Access ; UBRM
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with Epstein-Zin (1989, 1991) recursive preferences calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the fi ndings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. In contrast, under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the same economy calibrated to Bulgarian data now displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "sink" dynamics.
    Keywords: H22 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; progressive taxation ; equilibrium (in)determinacy ; Epstein-Zin preferences ; Bulgaria
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Budrich UniPress Ltd.: Leverkusen
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: Alleinerziehende gehören in Deutschland konstant zu den am meisten von Armut betroffenen Bevölkerungsgruppen: Während die Armutsrate der gesamten Bevölkerung im Jahr 2016 bei 16,5% und die von Paarhaushalten mit Kindern bei ‚nur‘ 10% lag, waren doppelt bzw. dreimal so viele (32,5%) Alleinerziehende von Armut betroffen. 90% aller Alleinerziehenden sind Frauen. Obwohl das hohe Armutsausmaß alleinerziehender Mütter wissenschaftlich bestens dokumentiert ist, sind die Ursachen bisher wenig erforscht. Dieses Buch entwickelt anhand der Lebensverlaufsperspektive ein Theoriemodell, das sowohl die dynamischen Interdependenzen von Familien- und Erwerbsverläufen als auch den rahmenden Einfluss bestehender Familien- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik systematisch berücksichtigt. Es werden folgende Forschungsfragen beantwortet: Inwiefern ist dieses hohe Armutsrisiko das Ergebnis eines endogenen Selektionsprozesses ins Alleinerziehen oder des Alleinerziehens per se? Inwiefern trägt die Differenzierung von drei Wegen ins Alleinerziehen (Trennung einer Ehe, Trennung einer nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, außerpartnerschaftliche Kindesgeburt) zum Verständnis dieser Effekte bei? Inwiefern werden diese beiden Effekte vom bestehenden institutionellen Kontext moderiert? Diese Fragen wurden anhand von Daten des Sozio-Ökonomischen Panel (SOEP) mit verschiedenen quantitativen Methoden empirisch analysiert. Im Vergleich zu Frauen, die nicht alleinerziehend werden, weisen zukünftige Alleinerziehende bereits zwei Jahre vor dem Übergang ins Alleinerziehen ein substanziell höheres Armutsrisiko auf. Zusätzlich wird die Wahrscheinlichkeit, arm zu sein, durch den Übergang ins Alleinerziehen substanziell noch erhöht. Dabei gibt es jedoch deutliche Unterschiede je nach Weg ins Alleinerziehen. Weiterhin wird gezeigt, dass weder die Arbeitsmarktreformen der frühen 2000er Jahre noch der Ausbau der Familienpolitik zu einer substanziellen Reduktion der Armutsrate für Alleinerziehende beigetragen haben.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, 2018. Die Publikation wurde durch das Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) und den Leibniz-Publikationsfonds für Open-Access-Monografien gefördert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Alleinerziehende ; Selektionsprozesse ; Familienpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; SOEP ; UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) ; Understanding Society ; Deutschland ; Vereinigtes Königreich
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: The present paper explores the demand-pull effect of distinct demand sources (i.e. households and retailers, other firms and public sector) on Italian companies’ growth patterns. Data relies on the PEC (Indagine sulle Professioni e le Competenze) survey carried out by the Institute for Public Policy Analysis (INAPP), which provides a rich set of information on a representative sample of Italian companies (~32.000) observed during the years 2012, 2014 and 2017. In particular, we investigate if and to what extent firm-level growth profiles are linked to the prevalent source of the demand flows that such firms face. The analysis contextually accounts for the role played by technological and knowledge-related heterogeneities in shaping the growth pattern-demand type relationship. The empirical analysis shows that the demand-pull effect on firms’ growth is heterogeneous across different types of demand sources and that the ability to seize the growth-related chances provided by distinct demand conditions is contingent on firms’ specific knowledge profiles.
    Keywords: L1 ; L21 ; L22 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; firms ; growth ; demand-pull ; innovation
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper compares two methods for meta-analysis: fixed-effect models and random- effects models. Both models are applied to pass-through rates of excise taxes on alcohol beverages. Using a sample of estimates from 30 primary studies, weighted means are first reported for each method and compared against a fully- passed tax or rate of unity. Dispersion and heterogeneity statistics are used to assess the performance of each method. Second, means and dispersion statistics are reported by subgroups for country source; beverage (beer, wine-spirits); and published status. Third, tests are conducted forpublication selection bias using funnel plots and regression asymmetry tests. Fourth, threeprocedures are undertaken to reduce selection bias: trim-and-fill; cumulative meta-analysis; and meta-regressions. Based on a variety of tests and procedures, three conclusions arereached. First, a random-effects model is more appropriate for these data, reflecting diverse estimates of pass-through rates. Second, pass-through rates are approximately unity regardless of beverage. Third, greater attention needs to be given to choice of model for meta-analysis in economics.
    Keywords: C18 ; C52 ; H21 ; H22 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; meta-analysis ; fixed-effects ; random-effects ; publication bias ; excise taxes ; pass-through rate ; alcohol
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Stockholm: Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Entrepreneurship plays a pivotal role for institutional change and economic development in transition and developing economies. Formal and informal institutions in such countries are often sub-par, but rather than being constrained by them, entrepreneurship can often affect institutions and contribute to their evolution. We highlight three entrepreneurial responses to the institutional status quo: an abiding response, an altering response, and an evasive response. Each response can be either welfare-enhancing or welfare-reducing; more importantly, each response can affect the institutional framework of the society in which it occurs. Better knowledge of entrepreneurial responses to institutions and the context in which they occur offers a promising avenue for future research and a potential way of sustaining lasting institutional change and economic development.
    Keywords: L50 ; M13 ; O31 ; P14 ; ddc:330 ; Development ; Entrepreneurship ; Evasion ; Innovation ; Institutions ; Regulation
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: We implement a novel empirical strategy for measuring and studying a strong form of nationalism - the willingness to fight and die in a war for national independence - using name choices corresponding to previous war leaders. Based on data on almost half a million soldiers, we first show that having been given a first name that is synonymous with the leader(s) of the Croatian state during World War II predicts volunteering for service in the 1991-1995 Croatian war of independence and dying during the conflict. Next, we use the universe of Croatian birth certificates and the information about nationalism conveyed by first names to suggests that in ex-Yugoslav Croatia, nationalism was on a continuous rise starting in the 1970s and that its rise was curbed in areas where concentration camps were located during WWII. Our evidence on intergener- ational transmission of nationalism is consistent with nationalist fathers purposefully reflecting the trade-o¤ between within-family and society-wide transmission channels of political values. We also link the nationalist values we proxy using first name choices to right-wing voting behavior in 2015, 20 years after the war.
    Keywords: D64 ; D74 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; Nationalism ; Names ; Intergenerational Transmission
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This paper is one of the first to examine the associations between prenatal sunshine exposure and birth outcomes, specifically the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on a nationally representative birth record dataset in China. During the sample period in the 1990s, migration was limited in rural China, allowing us to address the identification challenges, like residential sorting and avoidance behaviors. We found a nonlinear relationship between the length of sunlight and birth outcomes. In particular, prenatal exposure to increasing sunshine was associated with a reduction in the incidence of LBW and SGA, especially in the second trimester during pregnancy. This finding was consistent with the clinical evidence suggesting positive effects of sunshine on birth outcomes via obtaining vitamin D or relieving maternal stress.
    Keywords: I12 ; J13 ; I18 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Sunshine Duration ; Low Birth Weight ; Small for Gestational Age ; China
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We study how urban land use fragmentation affects the subjective wellbeing of city residents. Therefore, we calculate fragmentation metrics based on the European Urban Atlas for 15,000 households in the German Socio-Economic Panel. Using random and fixed effects specifications, we find that fragmentation has little impact on wellbeing when aggregating over all land use types. Looking at particular land use types, however, we find that wellbeing is positively affected by lower average degrees of soil sealing, larger shares of vegetation, and a more heterogeneous configuration of medium and low density urban fabric, especially in areas with above average population density.
    Keywords: C23 ; Q51 ; Q57 ; R20 ; ddc:330 ; Urban Land Use ; Urban Land Use Fragmentation ; Subjective Wellbeing ; Life Satisfaction ; Spatial Analysis ; SOEP ; GIS
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    London: Taylor & Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This article revisits the effects of life expectancy (LE) on economic growth (IPC) reported in previous research. Maximum likelihhod (ML) estimates are obtained based on the monotonic nonlinear flexible Box-Cox power transformation regression model. This variance stabilizing model, unlike the a priori restrictive nested log and linear forms, is a parametrically richer flexible functional form for transforming the dependent and independent variables separately with different power parameters. The conditional life expectancy elasticity of income estimates are found to vary across fitted models and the more robust flexible Box-Cox power model outperforms the restrictive linear and log specifications fitted in past work. Contrary to past findings indicating large negative and highly elastic (statistically significant) life expectancy (LE) elasticity of income (INC), new results from the preferred fully flexible Box-Cox model incorporating the nonlinear effect yield a much smaller negative (statistically significant) and inelastic life expectancy elasticity of income estimate. Study explores some policy options for enhancing economic growth during periods of high or rising life expectancy.
    Description: This is the pre-print of the published article. Refer to the Applied Economics Letters for the published version of this work.
    Keywords: I1 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; flexible Box-Cox transformation ; non-linearity ; economic growth ; elasticity
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Toronto: The Bichler & Nitzan Archives
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: In December 2017, we posted a RWERB entry, titled ‘Profit warning: there will be blood’. We warned that, although the Weapondollar-Petrodollar Coalition might no longer be in the Middle East driver’s seat, the oil and armament companies, the region’s oil-exporting autocracies and various non-state groups were all keen on seeing their oil incomes rise from record lows. And we ob-served that, in this context, ‘the prospects of a new energy conflict, whether premeditated or co-incidental, seem extremely high’. [. . .] We can only hope that the current round of Middle East hostilities won’t be proportional to the size of its current danger zone.
    Keywords: P16 ; D74 ; Q4 ; ddc:330 ; differential accumulation ; Middle East Energy Conflicts
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: We propose a theoretical framework to analyze the offshoring and reshoring decisions of firms in the age of automation. Our theory suggests that increasing productivity in automation leads to a relocation of previously offshored production back to the home economy but without improving low-skilled wages and without creating jobs for low-skilled workers. Since it leads also to increasing wages for high-skilled workers, automation-induced reshoring is associated with an increasing skill premium and increasing inequality. We develop a measure for reshoring activity at the macro-level and, using data from the world input output table, we provide evidence for automation-driven reshoring. On average, within manufacturing sectors, an increase by one robot per 1000 workers is associated with a 3.5% increase of reshoring activity. Using robots in countries with similar sectoral structure as an instrument, we find that an increase by one robot per 1000 workers causes a 2.5% increase of reshoring activity. We also provide the first cross-country evidence that reshoring is positively associated with wages and employment for high-skilled labor but not for low-skilled labor and that tariffs increase the degree of reshoring.
    Keywords: F13 ; F62 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Automation ; Reshoring ; Employment ; Wages ; Inequality ; Tariffs
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Köln: Bundesanzeiger-Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Die Zollverwaltung hatte bislang mit dem Bekenntnis zur De-Mail Neuerungen zu den Geschäftsabläufen eingeführt. Der zweite Teil der Einführung neuer, elektronischer Geschäftsabläufe ist umfassender: seit April 2016 wird im Hintergrund von der Generalzolldirektion (GZD) an der Einführung des Bürger- und Geschäftskundenportals (BuG) gearbeitet, mit welchem die Abläufe im Zoll- und Verbrauchsteuerrecht elektrifiziert werden, z.B. die Abgabe von Steueran meldungen oder die Beantragung einer VZTA, einer EORI-Nummer oder (zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt) von Erlaubnissen und Bewilligungen. Dieser Beitrag stellt den Aufbau und die Entwicklung des BuG vor. Der Beitrag stellt die persönliche Auffassung des Autors dar.
    Description: Zweitveröffentlichung im kostenlosen AW-Service-Guide 2020. Erstveröffentlichung in der AW-Prax 9/19, S. 375 ff.
    Keywords: K34 ; H83 ; ddc:330 ; Zollverwaltung ; Informatikverfahren ; Vereinfachung
    Language: German
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  • 16
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: In this paper, we simulate the effects of an increase in the levels of public spending in health care and social assistance in the Chinese economy, and examine its global effects, i.e., the effects on the main macroeconomic variables of seven regions of the world economy, namely, China, Japan, United States, European Union, Latin America, Asia‐Pacific and Rest of the World. Three different rules to finance the increase in public expenditure are considered. The empirical methodology makes use of a computable general equilibrium model, through an extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project model. The policy measure simulated led to either expansionary or contractionary effects on China’s activity levels, depending on whether the government deficit is left to increase, or if taxes are raised instead in order to offset it. While no sector seemed to be particularly hurt by this measure, trade flows were negatively affected, but this did not seem to have a strong influence on the rest of the world.
    Keywords: D58 ; H53 ; H62 ; ddc:330 ; Computable general equilibrium ; Spending in social services ; Global economy ; China
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The paper adds to the literature on innovation and employment by looking at the relationship between R&D investments and the rise of alternative work arrangements, particularly selfemployment (SE). A literature review on the determinants of the emergence of non-standard work, alternative work arrangements and self-employment if offered first. The contributions that have looked at SE in relation to innovation strategies is surprisingly limited. General trends of SE in Europe are considered. The empirical contribution is focused on the analysis of local labour markets in the UK (Travel-To-Work-Areas, TTWAs), where their initial concentration of routinized and non-routinized jobs is considered. The probability that an individual shifts from paid employment to either unemployment or self-employment over the period 2001-13, as linked to changes in R&D investments in the TTWA is empirically accounted for. Results show that overall R&D has negligible effects on the probability of workers to become self-employed. R&D increases the probability of moving from unemployment to paid employment, especially in routinized areas, and reduces the permeability between routinised and nonroutinised workers. Also, a non-negligible increase in the probability that a routinized worker becomes SE as a result of R&D increase is found in low routinised local labour markets, but not in highly routinised areas. The paper sheds new lights on the effect of R&D on employment and self-employment in areas with different degrees of routinization, and adds to the discussion on the more general raise of alternative work arrangements in Europe by disentangling the characteristics of self-employment as resulting from R&D investments.
    Keywords: J6 ; O3 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; R&D ; employment ; unemployment ; self-employment ; routinized local labour markets
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper aims to assess the role of migration as an adjustment mechanism device to favor convergence across states and regions of Russia. In contrast to previous studies, we use variations in the population of a region as a proxy of its net migration rate and apply spatial econometric methodology in order to distinguish the effect from the neighbouring regions. We provide descriptive statistical evidence showing that Russia has more/less/the same intense migration flows than the USA and EU. The econometric analysis shows that migration flows are sensitive to both regional income and regional unemployment differentials. Nonetheless, we find that internal migration is sensitive to regional unemployment and income differentials of neighbouring regions. Dependent on the welfare, pre- or after-crisis period, income in neighbouring regions can create out- or in-migration flows. The relatively high degree of internal mobility coupled with the low sensitivity of migration flows to the local unemployment rate of distant regions might explain why migration flows tends not to generate convergence, but rather divergence across Russian regions.
    Keywords: F15 ; F22 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Internal and International migration ; Adjustment mechanism ; spatial econometrics ; Russia
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Do firms in China share rents with their workers? We address this question by examining firm-level panel data covering virtually all manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2007, representing an average of 52 million workers per year. We find evidence of rent sharing (RS), with wage-profit elasticies of between 4% and 6%. These results are based on multiple instrumental variables, including firm-specific international trade shocks. We also present a number of complementary findings to understand better the nature of RS in the country: it involves an element of risk sharing, as wages also decrease when profits fall; RS is lower in regions with more latent competition from rural workers; higher minimum wages tend to reduce RS; and, while employer labour market power reduces wages, it increases RS. Overall, despite its importance, RS in China is smaller and more symmetric than in developed economies, which re ects the weaker bargaining power of its workers and the different nature of its labour market institutions.
    Keywords: J31 ; J41 ; J50 ; ddc:330 ; Wages ; Bargaining ; Monopsony
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Chair of International Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper aims to revisit the relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth using the largest, up-to-date macro database (2000-2015) available to corroborate the econometric findings of earlier work and to generate novel econometric evidence by accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013) and economic recovery (2014-2015). To achieve these aims, this paper employs a cross-country growth accounting econometric estimation approach using the largest, up-to-date database available encompassing 16 EU countries over the time-period 2000-2015. The paper accounts for times of crisis (2008-2013) and of economic recovery (2014-2015). It separately estimates the contribution of three distinct dimensions of intangible capital: i) computerized information, ii) innovative property and iii) economic competencies. First, when accounting for intangibles, the paper finds that these have become the dominant source of labour productivity growth in the EU, explaining up to 66 percent of growth. Second, when accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013), in contrast to tangible capital, the paper detects a solid positive relationship between intangibles and labour productivity growth. Third, when accounting for the economic recovery (2014-2015), the paper finds a highly significant and remarkably strong relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth. This paper corroborates the importance of intangibles for labour productivity growth and thereby underlines the necessity to incorporate intangibles into today's national accounting frameworks in order to correctly depict the levels of capital investment being made in European economies. These levels are significantly higher than is currently reflected in official statistics.
    Keywords: C23 ; G01 ; O34 ; O47 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; intangible capital ; labour productivity growth ; crisis ; recovery ; European Union
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This paper studies the welfare effects of wholesale price discrimination between downstream firms operating under different regulatory systems. I model a monopolistic intermediate good market in which production cost differences between downstream firms may be due to regulatory or technological asymmetries. Price discrimination reduces regulatory distortions but may lower productive efficiency. Therefore, price discrimination increases welfare if regulation is the dominant source of cost differences. This provides a novel welfare rationale for exempting wholesale markets from the recent ban on geo-blocking in the EU.
    Keywords: D43 ; L11 ; L42 ; ddc:330 ; Price discrimination ; Intermediate good markets ; International price discrimination ; Geo-blocking
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This chapter undertook the monumental task of providing a complete outlook about return, repeat, circular and onward migration by bringing together the perspectives of the host and the home country. In this endeavor, it reviewed and evaluated all theories about why people move, when they circulate, where they go, who are the people who migrate, who are the people who return, and how they change the economic and social structures in the home country. In the process, it revealed the new norm of joint decision-making by the family as a unit and underlined the importance of non-economic reasons for return. The chapter further provided a state-of-the-art literature review about empirical evidence regarding the disparate phenomena of return, circular and onward migration. It emphasized commonalities and compared differences in findings, while connecting them to the theories, policies and institutions. Return, repeat, and circular migrants are self-selected and extremely heterogeneous people and cannot conform under one theory or empirical study. Their de facto migration comportment can be understood by several different theories and, in the absence of good data, it can be explained by a variety of studies. The chapter ends with a critical conclusion and hope to inspire new avenues of research on the topic.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J18 ; J20 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Return ; circular ; onward ; international labor migration ; public policy
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This paper examines the extent to which childhood circumstances contribute to health inequality in old age and how the contributions may vary across key dimensions of health. We link the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2013 and 2015 with its Life History Survey in 2014 to quantify health inequality due to childhood circumstances for which they have little control. We evaluate comprehensive dimensions of health ranging from cognitive health, mental health, physical health, self-rated health to mortality. Our analytic sample includes about 8,000 Chinese persons age above 60. Using the Shapley value decomposition approach, we first show that childhood circumstances may explain 1-23 percent of health inequality in old age across multiple health outcomes. Second, while both direct health-related circumstances and indirect health-related circumstances contribute significantly to health inequality, the latter tends to be more sizable. Our findings support the value of a life course approach in identifying the key determinants of health in old age.
    Keywords: I14 ; D63 ; I18 ; J13 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; Life course approach ; Inequality of opportunity ; Physical health ; Cognitive ability ; Mental health ; Mortality
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Grants and services provided by the government may crowd out informal arrangements, thus weakening informal caring relations and networks. In this paper, we examine the impact of social security expansion on neighborhood cohesion of elders using China’s New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS), one of the largest existing pension program in the world. Since its launch in 2009, more than 400 million Chinese have enrolled in NRPS. We use two waves of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) to examine the effect of pension receipt on two dimensions of neighborhood cohesion among older adults, i.e. participation in collective recreational activities (e.g., socializing and organizational activities) and altruistic activities (e.g., helping those in need in the community), and the frequencies of these activities. Employing an instrumental variable approach, our empirical strategy addresses the endogeneity of pension receipt via exploiting geographic variation in pension program roll-out. We find evidence that receiving pension only slightly reduces collective recreational activities while significantly crowding out altruistic activities in the communities.
    Keywords: H55 ; I38 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; neighborhood cohesion ; pension ; crowd out ; diversity
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: Dieses Open-Access-Fachbuch setzt sich empirisch und theoretisch mit Teilaspekten der digitalen Transformation und deren Konsequenzen für die Unternehmensführung auseinander. Die mit der Digitalisierung verbundenen neuen Technologien, Geschäftsmodelle sowie Denk- und Handlungsweisen verändern die Welt grundlegend und mit einer hohen Geschwindigkeit. Der Band greift aktuelle, praxisrelevante Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen des Megatrends Digitalisierung auf und bietet Informationen zu Themen wie plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen, Cybersicherheit, Ambidextrie, Big Data Analytics, Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts, Online Marketing Tools, Augmented Reality und Social Influencing. Die 15 Beiträge wurden durch Autorenteams erarbeitet. Diese setzen sich aus Lehrenden und Forschenden sowie Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der Unternehmenspraxis mit akademischem Background zusammen. Sämtliche Beiträge basieren auf empirischen Analysen, die zumeist ihren Schwerpunkt auf Gestaltungsprobleme aus der Unternehmenspraxis legen, und beinhalten somit ein breites Spektrum an konkreten Fallbeispielen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Digitale Transformation ; Digitalisierung ; Open Access ; Digitaler Wandel ; Digital Business ; Unternehmensführung ; Management ; Megatrend ; Big Data ; Geschäftsmodelle ; Cybersicherheit ; Digitales Zeitalter ; Virtual Reality ; Arbeitsmodelle ; Google AdWords ; Schweiz ; Social Influencing ; Augmented Reality ; Ambidextrie ; Kryptowährungen
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-04
    Description: Teaser: Tunisian social programs provide direct transfers and free or reduced rate access to public health care for families selected by local and regional commissions. In some areas, poor and vulnerable families are excluded from these programs whose places are occupied by other households. The center is often ill-informed about the performance of different regions in reaching the poor and about the exclusion and inclusion errors sources. This lack of information can severely limit the options for designing reforms that will improve targeting performance. In a nutshell : Two components of social safety nets in Tunisia: one covers more, and the other is more generous. The regional commissions often select households headed by women widowed and elderly as beneficiaries. At the regional level, some beneficiaries are not eligible, and the eligible are not beneficiaries. The inclusion of the non-poor and the exclusion of the poor at the regional level are due to disagreement between eligibility criteria and a person’s poverty status.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-04
    Description: We present cross-country evidence suggesting that agricultural credits have a positive impact on agricultural productivity. In particular, we find that doubling agricultural credits generates around 4-5 percent increase in agricultural productivity. We use two different agricultural production measures: (i) the agricultural component of GDP and (ii) agricultural labor productivity. Employing a combination of panel-data and instrumental- variable methods, we show that agricultural credits operate mostly on the agricultural component of GDP in developing countries and agricultural labor productivity in developed countries. This suggests that the nature of the relationship between agricultural finance and agricultural output changes along the development path. We conjecture that development of the agricultural finance system generates entry into the agricultural labor market, which pushes up the agricultural component of GDP and keeps down agricultural labor productivity in developing countries; while, in developed countries, it leads to labor-augmenting increase in agricultural production. We argue that replacement of the informal credit channel with formal and advanced agricultural credit markets along the development path is the main force driving the labor market response.
    Keywords: J43 ; Q14 ; Q18 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural credits ; productivity ; labor markets ; financial development
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Livelihood diversification is attracting considerable interest as a tool to cope with economic shocks and resist vulnerability. This paper investigates the evolution of livelihood diversification in Egypt with a particular focus on wealth and urban-rural divides. Using Egypt Labor Market Panel data from 2006 to 2018, I find that rural households have a more diversified livelihood portfolio, yet they diversified away from farming over time. Poor rural households remained dependent on informal livelihood strategies due to the high entry barriers to formal employment. Urban households had significantly less livelihood diversification than rural households. Wealthy households in urban areas tended to depend on relatively more specialized livelihood clusters which were stable over time. These findings imply that distress is a potential reason for diversification in urban areas.
    Keywords: O10 ; D1 ; D60 ; ddc:330 ; livelihood ; diversification strategies ; vulnerability ; informality ; Egypt
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: This paper links banking systems development to the colonial and legal history of African countries. Specifically, we investigate the impact of differing legal traditions on the development of existing investor and creditor protection, and on African banking systems. Based on a sample of 40 African countries from 2000 to 2016, our empirical findings show a significant dependence of current financial institutions on the legal origin and the colonization type. Findings also reveal that current legal financial institutions are not the major determinants of banking system development, whereas institutional and regulatory quality significantly matter for banking system development in both common and civil law countries. Strong creditor rights reduce the cost of banking in African countries.
    Keywords: G21 ; G38 ; G39 ; K15 ; K40 ; K54 ; ddc:330 ; Legal origins ; colonial history ; financial institutions ; banking systems ; Hausman-Taylor estimation
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This study revisits and tests empirically the Portfolio Theory of Inflation (PTI), which analyzes how the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy in open and globally financially integrated economies is influenced by global investor decisions (Bossone, The portfolio theory of inflation and policy (in)effectiveness, 2019). The PTI shows that when an economy is heavily indebted and is perceived by the market to be poorly credible, investors hold it to a tighter intertemporal budget constraint and policies aimed to stimulate output growth dissipate into domestic currency depreciation and higher inflation, with limited or no impact on output, or with lower output and lower inflation. On the other hand, markets afford highly credible economies much greater space for effective and noninflationary macro policies. The study leads to a very basic advice: policymakers of an internationally highly integrated economy should keep public liabilities (the stock of both central bank money and public debt) at low levels: the larger the liabilities, the higher the degree of surrender of the country's national policy sovereignty to external forces and interests.
    Keywords: E31 ; E4 ; E5 ; E62 ; F31 ; G15 ; H3 ; ddc:330 ; credibility ; exchange rate ; financial integration ; fiscal and monetary policies ; global investor(s) ; inflation ; intertemporal budget constraint ; policy effectiveness ; public debt
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Gelsenkirchen: Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: * Die digitale Fertigung bietet vielfaltige Chancen für Handwerksbetriebe und Designunternehmen, mit innovativen Produkten und Dienstleistungen auf veränderte Kundenanforderungen zu reagieren und sich wettbewerbsfähig im Markt zu positionieren. * Die Ausschöpfung der Potenziale ist nicht nur risikoreich, sondern für viele kleine und mittlere Unternehmen aus Handwerk und Design gänzlich unmöglich. * Mit W3 - Wissen.Werkstatt.Workshop hat das Projekt 'DigiMat' über drei Jahre gemeinsam mit Handwerker/innen und Designer/innen ein Geschäftsmodell entwickelt, um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen. * Im Fokus steht die gewerke-/branchenübergreifende wissensbasierte und innovationsorientierte Vernetzung von Handwerksbetrieben und Designunternehmen, um ihr Wissen zu bündeln, auszutauschen, neues Wissen zu generieren und dieses in der digitalen Fertigung materieller Gegenstande zu verwerten. * Damit lassen sich Kundenanforderungen und neue technologische und materialbezogene Entwicklungen leichter antizipieren und das Risiko der digitalen Fertigung reduzieren.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Automatisierte Produktion ; Handwerk ; Konstruktion ; Unternehmenskooperation ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 35
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    Köln: Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Dieses Policy Paper untersucht für die Europäische Union, die Bundesebene und die Bundesländer die institutionelle und inhaltliche Ausgestaltung der Regulierungskontrolle und der Maßnahmen zum Bürokratieabbau. Die Analyse der administrativen Belastungen für die Unternehmen in Deutschland und der Institutionen zu ihrer Reduzierung ist bislang überwiegend auf die gesamtstaatliche Ebene mit der Bundesgesetzgebung fokussiert, eine zusammenfassende Darstellung der Zuständigkeiten nach staatlichen Ebenen fehlt. Auf EU-Ebene wurde erst nach der Jahrtausendwende und damit relativ spät die bürokratische Belastung für Unternehmen durch europäische Rechtsakte und Vorgaben thematisiert. Ausgehend von der Kleinunternehmenscharta 2000 folgten 2007 die Einsetzung der Hochrangigen Gruppe im Bereich Verwaltungslasten, 2008 der Small Business Act und 2015 das REFIT-Programm. Auf gesamtstaatlicher Ebene in Deutschland wurde nach diversen Einzelmaßnahmen 2006 mit dem Standardkostenmodell und der Einsetzung des Nationalen Normenkontrollrats ein systematisches Vorgehen gegen administrative Belastungen für Unternehmen eingeleitet, dass eine Reduktion dieser eng abgegrenzten Bürokratie um ein Viertel bringen sollte. Seit 2010 wird auch der Erfüllungsaufwand von neuen Gesetzen gemessen. Die Bundesländer sind dem deutschen Föderalismus gemäß sehr unterschiedlich aufgestellt, was die Begrenzung von Bürokratie betrifft. Bis auf Berlin verfügen alle Länder über ein Mittelstandsgesetz oder eine entsprechende Richtlinie zur Berücksichtigung der Belange des Mittelstands, aber nur wenige Länder verfügen über eine eigene Standardkostenmessung nach Bundesvorbild. Das Policy Paper schließt mit Empfehlungen für die drei untersuchten Staatsebenen.
    Description: This Policy Paper analyses the relevant institutions and administrative measures for curbing bureaucracy in the European Union, for the German federal administration and at German Laender level. While bureaucratic burdens and measures to control and reduce bureaucracy are well documented for the national level in Germany, a common approach to the EU, national and state level is still missing. In the EU, the burdens for the enterprise sector resulting from European bureaucracy and regulation became an important topic only after 2000, as European competitiveness seemed to be in danger. Starting with the 'European Charter for Small Enterprises' in 2000, the 'High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on Administrative Burdens' was established in 2007 and the 'Small Business Act' followed in 2008. In 2015, the REFIT-programme was introduced to strengthen the better regulation agenda. On the German national level, the introduction of the standard cost model and the establishment of the regulatory control council 'Normenkontrollrat' in 2006 can be viewed as milestones, because they were a prerequisite for a systematic measurement and reduction of bureaucracy-induced costs. In 2010, measurement was extended to total costs of regulation including compliance costs instead of costs of administrative procedures only. Nevertheless, a considerable discrepancy between bureaucracy felt by enterprises and measured by government agencies remains. At the administrative level of the 16 German Laender, institutions and measures to control and reduce bureaucracy vary widely. Only few Laender have introduced a measurement of state bureaucracy and a regulatory control council similar to the federal level. The paper concludes with recommendations to strengthen regulatory and bureaucracy control on the three governmental levels.
    Keywords: D73 ; E61 ; H79 ; ddc:330 ; Befolgungskosten ; Verwaltungsreform ; Mittelstandspolitik ; Deutschland ; EU-Staaten
    Language: German
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  • 36
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    Köln: Bundesanzeiger Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Die Abschottungspolitik der USA unter dem Präsidenten Donald Trump (America-First-Politik) führt zu einer Neuausrichtung der Handelspolitik der Europäischen Union. Zur Wahrheit gehört auch, dass die Neuausrichtung bereits seit 2010 begonnen hat, da seitdem Verhandlungen mit Wirtschaftsnationen in (Süd-)Ostasien geführt werden (Singapur, Japan, Vietnam). Diese drei sehr wichtigen Freihandelsabkommen mit Asien sind unterzeichnet und stehen jetzt zur Abstimmung im Europäischen Parlament und dem Europäischen Rat an. Eine dreiteilige Reihe stellt die Inhalte der drei Freihandelsabkommen vor. Teil 2 beschäftigt sich mit dem Freihandelsabkommen Japan–EU (JEFTA). Dieser Beitrag stellt die persönliche Auffassung des Verfassers dar.
    Description: Zweitveröffentlichung im kostenlosen AW-Service Guide 2020. Erstveröffentlichung in der AW-Prax 1/19, S. 22 ff.
    Keywords: K33 ; K34 ; ddc:330 ; Free Trade Agreement ; Preferential Trade Agreement ; Economic Integration
    Language: German
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  • 37
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    Köln: Bundesanzeiger-Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Der Zugelassene Wirtschaftsbeteiligte (AEO) wurde mit Wirkung vom 1. Januar 2008 geschaffen. Elf Jahre sind vergangen, nach denen es nun erneut gilt, eine Zwischenbilanz zu ziehen (die erste Kurzbilanz) – wurden die Erwartungen und Antragszahlen erreicht, was gibt es an Neuerungen und welche Tendenzen sind erkennbar? Erneut werden neben den Zahlen für die EU-28 auch die Zahlen für Norwegen und die Schweiz dargestellt, obwohl die AEO-Zahlen in beiden Ländern bescheiden sind. Die Anzahl der AEO-Bewilligungen stagniert in einigen Mitgliedstaaten, während in anderen die Zahl weiter ansteigt. Die Entwicklungen in dieser Spätphase der AEO-Bewilligung sind dynamisch und teilweise überraschend aber oft schwankend, gegenläufig und nicht eindeutig. Aber ist es wirklich die Spätphase? Eine detaillierte Analyse der Erteilungsraten für 2018 deutet in manchen Mitgliedstaaten auf eine neue Erteilungswelle hin: Dazu gehören Frankreich, Italien, Ungarn, Österreich, Bulgarien und Litauen und, erneut Großbritannien (im Hinblick auf den bevorstehenden Brexit ein deutliches Bekenntnis der britischen Wirtschaft für den Außenhandel und die Sicherheit der Lieferkette)! Ein Ausblick auf den 2019 bevorstehenden (harten?!) Brexit und die Auswirkungen auf die AEO-Bewilligung wird gegeben. Diese Kurzanalyse löst die bisherigen, ausführlichen Analysen ab. Dieser Beitrag stellt die persönliche Auffassung des Autors dar.
    Description: Zweitveröffentlichung im kostenlosen AW-Serviceguide 2020. Erstveröffentlichung in der AW-Prax 3/19, S. 95 ff.
    Keywords: K33 ; K34 ; H83 ; ddc:330 ; Zollrecht ; Customs Law ; Unionszollkodex ; Union Customs Code ; Authorized Economic Operator
    Language: German
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  • 38
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: We introduce consumption habits into an exogenous growth model augmented with a detailed government sector, and calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We show that in contrast to the case without habits, e.g., Vasilev (2009), when the economy features saddle-path stability, the habit motive alone leads to equilibrium indeterminacy in the model. When habits enter multiplicatively in the representative agent's utility function, the setup exhibits "sink" dynamics, and equilibrium paths are determined by "animal spirits." These results are in line with the findings in the literature, e.g., Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999), and have major implications for policy-making and welfare.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E32 ; E22
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Banerjee, Duflo, and Kremer have had an enormous impact on scholarship on the political economy of development. But as RCTs have become more central in this field, political scientists have struggled to draw implications from proliferating micro-level studies for longstanding macrolevel problems. We describe these challenges and point to recent innovations to help address them.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Hintergrund: In Deutschland gehören Rückenschmerzen zu den häufigsten Erkrankungen quer durch alle Bevölkerungsschichten. Rund 80 bis 85% der Bevölkerung berichten von Rückenschmerzen im Verlauf ihres Lebens und bei 10–15% der Patienten ist ein chronischer Verlauf festzustellen. Chronische Erkrankungen gehen einher mit Multimorbidität und verursachen hohe Krankheitskosten für das Gesundheitswesen. Hieraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit, die verfügbaren Ressourcen zweckmäßig einzusetzen. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie wurden u.a. 99 Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen in sechs Berliner Schmerzambulanzen konsekutiv rekrutiert und mit Hilfe eines standardisierten Fragebogens interviewt. Zielsetzung: Das primäre Ziel der Studie war, die Inanspruchnahme von Gesundheitsdienstleistungen durch Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen im Gesundheitswesen abzubilden und die hieraus resultierenden Krankheitskosten zu berechnen. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen verursachten jährliche durchschnittliche Gesamtkosten in Höhe von 31.148, - Euro, wobei die direkten Krankheitskosten 8.862, - Euro sowie die indirekten Kosten 22.287, - Euro betrugen. Schlussfolgerung: Im Hinblick auf die Allokation knapper Ressourcen im Gesundheitswesen erscheint es geboten, dass die Behandlungswege von Patienten mit Rückenschmerzen evaluiert werden.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Direkte Krankheitskosten ; Indirekte Krankheitskosten ; Prävalenz ; chronische Rückenschmerzen ; Krankheitskostenanalyse
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:preprint
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  • 41
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: This article examines the effect of Aid for Trade (AfT) flows on services export diversification in recipient-countries. The empirical analysis has relied on a sample of 100 recipient-countries (of which 31 Least developed countries – LDCs) over the period 2002-2014 and used the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) approach. It shows that total AfT flows always exert a positive effect on services export diversification over the full sample, with the magnitude of this positive effect being higher for less advanced countries such as LDCs than for relatively advanced economies. This finding also applies to the effect of the cumulated AfT flows on services export diversification. However, we find that the components of total AfT flows - namely AfT for services sectors and AfT for non-services sectors - exert a higher positive effect on services diversification in less advanced countries, notably LDCs than in relatively advanced countries. Specifically, for countries whose real per capita income exceed a certain level, these two types of capital inflows are associated with greater services export concentration. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries and notably the poorest countries among them.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; Aid for Trade ; Services Export Diversification
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: We examine whether tax audit regimes become more efficient if (i) there are audited financial statements and (ii) tax auditors have access to the internal statutory audit report revealing information about statutory audit adjustments. Our analysis is based on a standard tax compliance game that we extend to model the strategic interaction among a firm issuing financial and tax reports, a statutory auditor, and a tax auditor. We find that the efficiency effects of additional information depend on the strength of tax auditor incentives and the weight that firms place on book income. For high-powered tax auditor incentives, we obtain no information effect on our efficiency measures. For low-powered tax auditor incentives, we find an ambiguous effect, and for mediumpowered tax auditor incentives and firms that place a high weight on book income, tax audit efficiency increases if the tax auditor has access to additional information. In the latter case, we find that granting the tax auditor access to the internal statutory audit report increases firms' tax compliance, raises tax revenues, and decreases tax audit frequency.
    Keywords: H26 ; M41 ; M42 ; ddc:330 ; Tax compliance game ; Tax audit ; Statutory audit ; Tax audit efficiency ; Strategic auditing
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (IW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Durch ein "Phase 1"-Handelsabkommen mit China haben die USA dem Waffenstillstand einen rechtlichen Rahmen verliehen. China soll seine Einkäufe in den USA steigern und somit dazu beitragen, dass die US-Industrie eine Renaissance erlebt. Dass dies nicht so einfach möglich ist, zeigt die Entwicklung des US-Außenhandels im vergangenen Jahr. Der leichte Rückgang des Handelsdefizits dürfte im Wesentlichen auf die Entwicklung am Rohölmarkt zurückzuführen sein und ist somit nicht als Erfolg des neu eingeschlagenen protektionistischen Kurses anzusehen. Rechnet man die Entwicklung der Handelsbilanz gegenüber den OPEC-Ländern heraus, ist sogar ein Anstieg des US-Handelsdefizits zu verzeichnen.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 44
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper examines the effect of tax incentives in the form of bonus depreciation on the quality of investment. Using the expiration of tax incentives via bonus depreciation in East Germany and a representative panel of West German establishments, we show that bonus depreciation significantly lowers the quality of investment. The average quality of investments, measured by the responsiveness of future sales to current investment, reduces by 22.6-34.6%. This adverse effect of tax subsidies is greater for jurisdictions with higher tax rates as well as for large or high-productivity firms. Overall, while increasing investment quantity, as shown by prior literature, tax incentives such as bonus depreciation substantially reduce the quality of investments.
    Keywords: G11 ; H25 ; H32 ; M41 ; ddc:330 ; bonus depreciation ; tax incentive ; investment incentive ; investment quality
    Language: English
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: GlobalG.A.P. compliance has often become a key requirement for farmers to access high-value global markets. Yet, the global spread of certification is highly uneven among countries. We assess the drivers and dynamics behind these unequal patterns, applying panel data regressions. Findings show that global agricultural trade networks remain relevant, but are no longer sufficient in explaining certification. Fostering a favourable business environment - via providing secure land tenure and a functioning judicial system - as well as investing in transportation and information infrastructure may facilitate farmers' participation in certification schemes. Stringency of existing public regulations is helpful for overcoming entry barriers.
    Keywords: O31 ; Q13 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; global agricultural supply chains ; GlobalG.A.P. ; private food standards ; organisational innovations ; agricultural sector transformation
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Unknown
    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: During the last years of his life, the mathematician Karl Menger worked on a biography of his father, the economist and founder of the Austrian School of Economics, Carl Menger. The younger Menger never finished the work. While working in the Menger collections at Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, we discovered draft chapters of the biography, a valuable source of information given that relatively little is known about Carl Menger's life nearly a hundred years after his death. The unfinished biography covers Carl Menger's family background and his life through early 1889. In this article, we discuss the biography and the most valuable new insights it provides into Carl Menger's life, including Carl Menger's family, his childhood, his student years, his time working as a journalist and newspaper editor, his early scientific career, and his relationship with Crown Prince Rudolf.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Carl Menger ; Karl Menger ; Austrian Economics ; Liberalism in Austria ; Crown Prince Rudolf ; Anton Menger
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, Center for Financial Studies (CFS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: We study the incidence and severity of lower-bound episodes and the efficacy of three types of state-dependent policies - forward guidance about the future path of interest rates, large-scale asset purchases and spending-based fiscal stimulus - in ameliorating the adverse consequences stemming from the effective lower bound on nominal interest rates. In particular, we focus on the euro area economy and examine, using the ECB's New Area-Wide Model, the consequences of the lower bound both for the near-term economic outlook, characterised by persistently low nominal interest rates and inflation, and in a lasting low-real-interest-rate world. Our findings suggest that, if unaddressed, the lower bound can have very substantial costs in terms of worsened macroeconomic performance. Forward guidance, if fully credible, is most powerful and can largely undo the distortionary effects due to the lower bound. A combination of imperfectly credible forward guidance, asset purchases and fiscal stimulus is almost equally effective, in particular when asset purchases enhance the credibility of the forward guidance policy via a signalling effect.
    Keywords: E31 ; E32 ; E37 ; E52 ; E62 ; ddc:330 ; effective lower bound ; monetary policy ; forward guidance ; asset purchases ; fiscal policy ; euro area
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (IW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Im Jahr 2018 haben die Arbeitgeber für ihre erkrankten Mitarbeiter 51,6 Milliarden Euro an Bruttogehältern und weitere 10,2 Milliarden Euro an Sozialversicherungsbeiträgen gezahlt. Nicht nur ein leicht erhöhter Krankenstand, sondern auch die günstige Beschäftigungsentwicklung sowie die jährlichen Lohnsteigerungen treiben die Kosten.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 49
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: This paper aims to study the evolution in the age composition of males' employment in the aftermath of the public sector downsizing in the 1990s -during the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Policies - and the new labor law in 2003. This answers the question of whether young (15-29) and older (50-59) male workers were the most likely to bear the brunt of the 1990s reforms and the new labor law in 2003. Employment, formality and hours-of-work are simultaneously estimated by maximum likelihood to control for the self-selection, using three repeated cross sectional samples from Egyptian Datasets conducted in 1988, 1998 and 2006. Results show that men aged (15-29) and those aged (50-59) were less likely, as compared to their peers in middle age (30-49), to be employed in 1998 than in 1988 (before the first reform). While informality has affected all age groups, the 30 to 49 years old were the category that experienced the most rapid increase in informality as compared to the other two age groups. Findings also show evidence of negative correlation between the probability of employment and the probability of having a formal job, indicating that those who have more incidence to work in formal jobs are more likely to remain unemployed or inactive.
    Keywords: J08 ; J21 ; N35 ; C3 ; ddc:330 ; Structural Adjustment Programs ; Labor Supply ; Informality ; Simultaneous Equations ; Middle-East ; Egypt
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Unknown
    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Bioaerosols ; agriculture ; animal husbandry ; emissions ; review ; methods
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: It is often assumed that voluntary sustainability standards - such as Fairtrade - could not only improve the socioeconomic wellbeing of smallholder farmers in developing countries but could also help to reduce negative health and environmental impacts of agricultural production. The empirical evidence is thin, as most previous studies on the impact of sustainability standards only focused on economic indicators, such as prices, yields, and incomes. Here, we argue that Fairtrade and other sustainability standards can affect agrochemical input use through various mechanisms with possible positive and negative effects. We use data from farmers and rural workers in Cote d'Ivoire to analyze effects of Fairtrade certification on fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as on human health and environmental toxicity. Fairtrade increases chemical input quantities and aggregated levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, Fairtrade reduces the incidence of pesticide-related acute health symptoms among farmers and workers. Certified cooperatives are more likely to offer training and other services related to the safe handling of pesticides and occupational health, which can reduce negative externalities in spite of higher input quantities. These results suggest that simplistic assumptions about the health and environmental effects of sustainability standards may be inappropriate.
    Keywords: O12 ; Q01 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Agrochemicals ; certification ; Fairtrade ; pesticides ; sustainability standards ; toxicity
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The development of renewable energy sources is central to the goal of gaining independence from conventional fossil fuels and achieving a sustainable energy supply. As these technologies are not yetfully developed and due to multi-dimensional selection environments cannotalwayscompete with conventional energy sources in the market, renewable energy sources initially require temporary protective space. Although some research has identified important factors with regard to the development of renewable technologies, there have not been any clear empirical studies, especially focusing on the new Member Statesof the European Union. Bulgaria and Poland in particular showed divergent results with regard to the deployment of the renewables. One, Bulgaria, achieved an outstanding increase in the share of energycoming from renewablessince its target was set in 2009, while another, Poland, has seen a sluggish result with regard to its policies. The aim of this paper is to identifythe factors leading to the successful promotion of renewable energy in the new Member States by using a comparative study of the cases of Bulgaria and Poland. The comparative study is conducted based on the three protective spaces advocated by Smith & Raven (2012). As a result, two main factors can be seen as the determinants of the success of renewable energy policies; "mprovement of connection to grid networks in shielding process" and "schemes for a transition from a niche space to a socio-technical regime in an energy industry structure in empowering process." Additionally, the delay of effective renewable energy policy implementation, which in the case of Poland, led to a failure of policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bulgaria ; Empowering ; EU ; Evolutionary theory ; New Member States ; Nurturing ; Protective space ; Poland ; Renewable energy policy ; Shielding
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Der vorliegende Bericht sichtet die weltweit verfügbare Literatur zu Methoden und Ergebnissen von Bioaerosoluntersuchungen in und um Landwirtschaftliche Nutztierhaltung und fasst die wichtigsten Punkte zusammen. Der weltweite Trend der Industrialisierung der Tierproduktion mit regionaler Konzentrierung von Betrieben sowie steigenden Tierzahlen und Besatzdichten führt zu einem Anstieg der Bioaerosolemissionen. Wesentliche Quellen der Bioaerosole sind vor allem die Mikroorganismen auf den Tieren, in ihren Fäkalien, in der Einstreu und im Futter. Werden sie aufgewirbelt emittieren sie mit der Abluft aus den Ställen heraus auch in die Umwelt. Daher wächst die Besorgnis über eine gesundheitliche Beeinträchtigung der Bevölkerung im Umfeld von großen Tierhaltungsanlagen. In der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung sind weltweit hunderte verschiedener Viren-, Bakterien- und Schimmelpilzarten nachgewiesen worden, wobei Vertreter der Bakteriengruppe Staphylococcaceae besonders häufig in großer Zahl gefunden wurden. Diese Gruppe scheint somit als spezifischer Leitparameter für Bioaerosole aus der Tierhaltung geeignet. Bioaerosole können Online mit Partikelspektrometern und Offline mit klassischen Methoden gemessen werden, d. h. Probenahme vor Ort mit anschließender Auswertung über kulturbasierte oder molekularbiologische Methoden im Labor. Aufgrund des komplexen Aufbaus von Bioaerosolpartikeln in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung sind Partikelspektrometer nur bedingt zu deren Klassifizierung einsetzbar. Die klassischen Nachweisverfahren sind vor allem zur Detektion von Mikroorganismen besser geeignet. Dabei sollte die Probenahme aufgrund einer Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Sammelverfahren möglichst mit standardisierten Systemen durchgeführt werden, um eine Vergleichbarkeit der Daten zu gewährleisten. Die Systeme sollten zudem eine möglichst hohe physikalische und biologische Sammeleffizienz haben. Die Auswahl eines geeigneten Sammelsystems sollte primär abhängig von der Fragestellung erfolgen. Nach der Sammlung der Bioaerosole erfolgt die Auswertung der Proben meist über Kultivierung von Mikroorganismen und/oder verschiedene biochemische und molekularbiologische Tests. Besonders letztere erlauben, vor allem in Kombination mit kulturbasierten Verfahren, einen detaillierten Einblick in die Zusammensetzung von Bioaerosolen. Hier ist jedoch noch eine weitere Standardisierung der für Bioaerosole geeigneten Methoden notwendig. Endotoxine als Bestandteile von Bioaerosolen werden überwiegend mit dem LAL-Test nachgewiesen, der jedoch relativ störanfällig ist. Die meisten Daten zu Bioaerosolmessungen in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung stehen aus den USA und Deutschland zur Verfügung. Hier wurden in den Ställen von Schweinen, Rindern und Hühnern vor allem die Konzentrationen von Bakterien, Schimmelpilzen und Endotoxinen gemessen. Bei relativ großen Schwankungsbreiten der Ergebnisse bei allen Tierarten wurden die höchsten Konzentrationen luftgetragener Bakterien in Haltungssystemen für Hühner gefunden, gefolgt von Puten, Enten, Schafen, Ziegen, Schweine, Rinder, Pferde und Kaninchen, wobei die verschiedenen Haltungsverfahren und Produktionsstadien einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Höhe der Konzentrationen haben. Auch publizierte Emissionsfaktoren für luftgetragene Mikroorganismen unterscheiden sich für dieselbe Tierart und Haltungsform teilweise erheblich, hervorgerufen auch durch unterschiedliche Probenahmebedingungen, Sammelmethoden und verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Konzentrationen. Bioaerosole wurden bisher ausschließlich Tagsüber gemessen. In den Tierställen können die Konzentrationsunterschiede luftgetragener Bakterien zwischen Tag und Nacht jedoch erheblich sein. Emissionsfaktoren können sich sogar um bis zu 3 Zehnerpotenzen unterscheiden, abhängig von der Tierart. Dies sollte in Zukunft z. B. bei der Berechnung von Jahresmittelwerten berücksichtigt werden. Bei der Transmission, also dem Transport der Bioaerosole über die Luft, sind die Mikroorganismen weitgehend ungeschützt Wind und Wetter ausgesetzt. Wie weit sie getragen werden, ist neben den meteorologischen Bedingungen primär von zwei Parametern abhängig: Die Tenazität, also die Fähigkeit den luftgetragenen Zustand zu Überleben und dem aerodynamischen Durchmesser der Bioaerosolpartikel, der z. B. bestimmt wie schnell diese sedimentieren. Wie lange Mikroorganismen in der Luft lebensfähig bleiben ist wiederum von vielen Faktoren abhängig und nur unzureichend untersucht, letzteres vor allem aufgrund der bisher eingesetzten und nur bedingt geeigneten Testsysteme. Bezüglich der Partikelgröße werden in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung die meisten luftgetragenen Mikroorganismen in deutlich größeren Partikelfraktionen gefunden, als es die Größe der Einzelzellen der Organismen vermuten lässt. Dabei sind 30 % bis 70 % der Bakterien auf Partikeln 〉 10 μm zu finden, wobei die Verteilung der verschiedenen Bioaerosolbestandteile sehr unterschiedlich sein kann. Auch korreliert die Größenverteilung der Mikroorganismen nicht unbedingt mit der Größenverteilung von Staubpartikeln. Die Konzentrationen von Bioaerosolen in der Immission fallen exponentiell mit der Entfernung zur Emissionsquelle ab. Dies ist primär abhängig von der Partikelgröße und meteorologischen Bedingungen. Anstelle aufwändiger Messungen kann die Ausbreitung von Bioaerosolen auch mit Computermodellen simuliert werden. Bisher überschätzen die Modelle die tatsächlichen Immissionen jedoch meist um ein Vielfaches, da Nachtabsenkung, Partikelgrößenverteilungen und Absterberaten der Mikroorganismen nicht berücksichtigt werden. [...]
    Description: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Bioaerosole ; Landwirtschaft ; Nutztierhaltung ; Emissionen ; Literaturübersicht ; Methoden ; Bioaerosols ; agriculture ; animal husbandry ; emissions ; review ; methods
    Language: German
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  • 54
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Why adoption rate of potentially profitable agricultural technologies in Africa remains low is still puzzling. This paper uses a randomized control trial to study Ugandan subsistence smallholders' decisions to adopt cash crops. A unique way of eliciting farmers price and yield expectations allows us to investigate the role of farmers' ex-ante beliefs about crop profitability on adoption decisions. We find that the provision of extension services increases oilseeds adoption by 15%, and farmers who under-estimate oilseeds price at baseline are the most likely to adopt the new crops. The results suggest that changes in expectations drive agricultural technology take-up.
    Keywords: O13 ; O33 ; Q14 ; Q15 ; Q16 ; ddc:330 ; Technology Adoption ; Commercial Farming ; Randomized Controlled Trial ; Uganda
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 55
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    Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Agricultural commodity markets in developing countries are characterized by high transaction costs and risks that reduce trade flows among spatial markets. In this article, we examine whether institutionalized agricultural commodity exchange markets reduce transaction costs and hence spatial price dispersion using the introduction of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) as a quasi-experiment. We use a commodity level Difference-in-Difference identification strategy to compare the spatial price dispersion of cereals that are traded at ECX (maize and wheat) with a cereal traded only at the local market (teff). Results show that ECX significantly reduces the spatial price dispersion of maize and wheat compared to teff. This effect varies depending on crop type and the time length since the ECX started trading the commodity. The longer the duration, the larger the reduction in price dispersion. We also find that dissemination of price information is the main channel through which the commodity exchange affects spatial price dispersion.
    Keywords: O13 ; O18 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Commodity Exchange ; Difference-in-Difference ; Ethiopia ; Price Dispersion ; Spatial market
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, DFG Research Unit 2569 FORLand "Agricultural Land Markets – Efficiency and Regulation"
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The “Greening” measures of the EU’s CAP, implemented in 2015, have been intensively debated in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency for agricultural, environmental, and climate outcomes. This study explores the fine-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) (with a particular emphasis on fallow land). We use annual land-use data at the plot level from IACS for Brandenburg in Germany from 2005 to 2018 and apply quantitative spatial metrics. In result, we find EFA measures to represent a small percentage of the total area of agriculture, with catch crops dominating, followed by fallow land and nitrogen-fixing crops. Fallow land decreased until 2015 and slightly increased with the introduction of Greening. Half of the fallow land in 2015 was fallow land in the previous year, while the other half had been used for cereals, fodder and oil seed plants. A large share of fallow land shows a low permanency of 1 up to 4 years. EFAs and particularly fallow land hence may contribute to environmental performance in agricultural land use, yet currently they do so to a limited degree. We suggest a change in types of EFA measures, spatial optimisation to reduce fragmented patterns, and a higher permanency of fallow land by a better alignment of agricultural and landscape policies and planning.
    Keywords: Q57 ; Q1 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; sustainable land use ; Common Agricultural Policy ; ecological focus areas ; fallow land ; Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS)
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Description: Exposures in childhood and adolescence may impact the development of diseases and symptoms in late life. However, evidence from low- and middle- income countries is scarce. In this study, we examined the association of early life risk factors with frailty among older adults using a large, nationally representative cohort of community-dwelling Chinese sample. 6,806 participants aged ≥60 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were included. We measured 13 risk factors in childhood or adolescence through self-reports, encompassing six dimensions (education, family economic status, nutritional status, domestic violence, neighborhood, and health). We used multinomial regression models to examine the association between risk factors and frailty and further calculated the absolute risk difference for the statistically significant factors. Results show that worse health condition in childhood and unfavorable childhood and adolescent socioeconomic status as measured by educational attainment and neighborhood quality may increase the risk of late-life frailty among Chinese older adults. Severe starvation in childhood was associated with higher risk of prefrailty. The risk differences of being frail were 5.7% lower for persons with a high school or above education, 1.5% lower for those whose fathers were literate, 4.8% lower for the highest neighborhood quality, and 2.9% higher for worse childhood health status compared to their counterparts.
    Keywords: I10 ; I14 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; Early Life Environments ; Life Course Health ; Physical Health ; Frailty ; Aging ; China
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (IW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Frankreich ist von erheblichen Streiks getroffen worden, besonders der öffentliche Verkehr wurde massiv behindert. Gewerkschaften haben zum Widerstand gegen die Pläne aufgerufen, das französische Rentensystem zu reformieren. Geht es nach der Regierung in Paris sollen mehr als 40 verschiedene Rentensysteme durch ein einheitliches System ersetzt werden.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper discusses the development of Euroscepticism in France and the underlying actors and causes. First, the literature review presents a selection of distinct classifications, actors and sources for the analysis. Thus, the distinction between hard and soft Euroscepticism as well as diffuse and specific support for European integration guides the interpretation of Eurobarometer data, which show that there has been an actual increase of French discontent towards the European project since the early 1990s. The Front National represents the main actor within the Eurosceptic landscape. A socio-demographic analysis of the electorate describes the average frontiste likely to be a male, belonging to a household with lower levels of income and education, and besides immigration and security, ranking identity and national sovereignty very highly on their list of concerns. Eventually, the sources for rising Euroscepticism in France are examined in light of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors. Once more, Eurobarometer data reveal that while economic concerns tend to fuel EU-critical positions rather than fundamental opposition, cultural aspects like national identity, immigration and national security should also be deemed as a crucial source of Euroscepticism. Institutional dissatisfaction at the national and European level -particularly related to the mismanagement of the financial and sovereign debt crisis as well as the migration crisis - has also contributed to the amplification of EU-critical attitudes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Euroscepticism ; France ; Front National ; Rassemblement National ; Euro Crisis ; Migration Crisis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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