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  • 1
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE
    Publication Date: 2022-01-26
    Description: This article compares the three initial safety nets spanned by the European Union in response to the Covid-19 crisis: SURE, the Pandemic Crisis Support, and the European Guarantee Fund. It compares their design regarding scope, generosity, target groups, implementation, the types of solidarity and conditionality, and asks how they reflect on core-periphery relations in the EU. The article finds that the most important factor in all three instruments is risk-sharing between member states, even though SURE and the EGF display elements of fiscal solidarity. Finally, the article shows that Euro crisis countries from the South are the main recipients of financial aid, while Central and East European countries receive significantly less assistance and core countries in the North and West have no need for them.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; financial solidarity ; conditionality ; Covid-19 ; European Commission ; European Stability Mechanism ; European Investment Bank
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE
    Publication Date: 2022-01-26
    Description: With Big Data, decisions made by machine learning algorithms depend on training data generated by many individuals. In an experiment, we identify the effect of varying individual responsibility for the moral choices of an artificially intelligent algorithm. Across treatments, we manipulated the sources of training data and thus the impact of each individual's decisions on the algorithm. Diffusing such individual pivotality for algorithmic choices increased the share of selfish decisions and weakened revealed prosocial preferences. This does not result from a change in the structure of incentives. Rather, our results show that Big Data offers an excuse for selfish behavior through lower responsibility for one's and others' fate.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C49 ; C91 ; D10 ; D63 ; D64 ; O33 ; Artificial Intelligence ; Big Data ; Pivotality ; Ethics ; Experiment
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Fachbereich Wirtschaft und Recht
    Publication Date: 2022-01-22
    Description: Empirical evidence suggests that international ownership of local firms supports firm performance and growth through various channels such as financing, technology transfer, and improved access to international markets. This is particularly true for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that otherwise may lack access to a variety of vital resources. At the same time small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) formation may promote economic development. The relationship between firm performance and international ownership has been well explored for firms in developed economies but this is not the case for firms - including SMEs - in Africa and the Middle East. Largely due to lack of relevant cross-country financial data, existing literature on African and Middle-Eastern firms has presented survey-based evidence on firm performance while evidence based on detailed financial information remains lacking. The present paper aims at filling this research gap. We identify African and Middle-Eastern SMEs operating in the formal sector and examine the impact of ownership structure on firm performance. We use cross-sectional financial data covering about 25,500 companies - including about 30% SMEs - in 69 African and Middle-Eastern countries for the years 2006 to 2015. Our results indicate that international ownership has significant positive association with firm performance. For internationally-owned SMEs this appears to be true despite lower levels of equity and debt capital, implying that internationally-owned firms use international resources - other than capital - more efficiently!
    Description: Empirische Erkenntnisse deuten darauf hin, dass das internationale Eigentum an lokalen Unternehmen die Leistung und das Wachstum von Unternehmen über verschiedene Kanäle wie Finanzierung, Technologietransfer und verbesserten Zugang zu internationalen Märkten unterstützt. Dies gilt insbesondere für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU), die andernfalls möglicherweise keinen Zugang zu einer Vielzahl wichtiger Ressourcen haben. Gleichzeitig kann die Gründung kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen (KMU) die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung fördern. Die Beziehung zwischen Unternehmensleistung und internationalem Eigentum wurde für Unternehmen in Industrieländern umfassend untersucht; dies ist allerdings nicht der Fall für Unternehmen - einschließlich KMU - in Afrika und im Nahen Osten. Da relevante länderübergreifende Finanzdaten oft nicht vorlagen, hat die vorhandene Literatur über afrikanische und nahöstliche Unternehmen vor Allem umfragebasierte Untersuchungen zu Unternehmensleistungen vorgelegt, während Evidenz, die auf detaillierten Finanzinformationen basiert, nach wie vor fehlt. Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist es, diese Forschungslücke zu schließen. Wir untersuchen die Auswirkungen der Eigentümerstruktur auf die Unternehmensleistung afrikanischer und nahöstlicher KMU. Wir nutzen dazu Querschnittsfinanzdaten von rund 25.500 Unternehmen - darunter etwa 30% KMU - in 69 Ländern Afrikas und des Nahen Ostens für die Jahre 2006 bis 2015. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass internationale Eigentümerschaft eine signifikante positive Assoziation mit der Unternehmensleistung hat. Für KMU in internationalem Besitz scheint dies trotz eines geringeren Eigen- und Fremdkapitals zu gelten; dies impliziert, dass in internationalem Besitz befindliche Unternehmen internationale Ressourcen - außer Kapital - effizienter nutzen!
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; KMU ; Eigentümerstruktur ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Mittlerer Osten ; Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-22
    Description: In this paper we study whether the presence of binding liquidity constraints and the existence of fixed costs can explain the underinvestment of parents in their children's human capital. We first incorporate these two potential mechanisms into the theoretical model of Raut & Tran (2005) and then we test their empirical relevance using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Our results show that especially fixed costs play an important role in explaining human capital underinvestment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J24 ; J31 ; I2 ; Two-Sided Altruism ; Human Capital ; Liquidity Constraints ; Fixed Costs
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-22
    Description: The objective of the paper is to examine the retirement behaviour of Belgian workers in one-earner households who are automatically granted a more generous old-age pension benefits replacement rate, called the household replacement rate. Following a recommendation of the Belgian Pension Reform Committee, this policy is to be suppressed for new pensioners, except for those receiving the minimum pension. We provide an ex-ante impact evaluation of such reform on both pension sustainability and adequacy measures. Specifically, we test whether the household replacement rate entails a work (dis)incentive mechanism promoting (harming) pension sustainability and furthermore, we analyse the role of the household replacement rate in old-age poverty and inequality measures. To do so, we use the survey dataset SHARE and a discrete time logistic duration model to study the link between retirement and financial retirement incentives created by the social security system. We find that the household replacement rate generates slightly higher retirement incentives through an income effect and we find that the household replacement rate plays an important role in decreasing the elderly poverty rate. Since households with asymmetrical working arrangements are often at the lowest part of the equivalized income distribution, the substantial effect of the household replacement rate on poverty measures is a motive to use such mechanism as a poverty alleviation tool. Nevertheless, we advocate that income redistribution measures should not be tied to a specific household composition and policies such as pensionable earning minima, minimum pension benefits and the inclusion of replacement income periods in the pension benefits calculation effectively serve the income redistribution goal without favouring a certain type of household over another. Overall, despite the positive poverty and distributional aspects of this policy, our analysis supports the reform proposal of removing the household replacement rate.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J22 ; H31 ; H55 ; J26 ; retirement ; pension policy ; Belgium ; impact assessment
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Description: One of the potential avenues for former professional football players to pursue their career is to become a head coach of a club's first team. An important question is how to best prepare for such a reconversion. This letter is the first in the academic literature quantifying the association between success as a professional head coach and prior experience of former professional players as a youth coach, player-coach, head coach at a lower division, assistant coach, in other staff positions and in club management positions. Our regression analyses, based on unique coach career data, show a significant positive association for the jobs of assistant or youth coach.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; L830 ; Z220 ; Z260 ; football ; coaching ; education ; regression analysis ; sports management
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Description: The stagnancy of women's workforce participation in urban India is alarming and puzzling, considering the pace of economic development experienced in the previous decade. We investigate the extent to which the low workforce participation of women can be explained by growing instances of officially reported crimes against women. We employ a fixed-effects strategy using district-level panel data between 2004-2012. To address additional concerns of endogeneity, we exploit state-level regulations in alcohol sale and consumption and provide estimates from two different strategies - an instrumental variable approach and a border analysis. Our findings indicate that an additional sexual crime per 1000 women in a district reduces the probability that a woman is employed outside her home by roughly 1%. While we find some evidence of heterogeneity across regions and religions, overall, the deterrent effect seems to affect women equally across all economic, demographic, and social groups.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E24 ; J08 ; J16 ; J18 ; Crime-against-women ; Female Labor Supply ; Instrumental Variable ; Alcohol Regulation
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Description: In an artefactual field experiment, we implemented a crowdfunding campaign for an institute's summer party and compared donation and contribution framings. We found that the use of the word 'donation' generated higher revenue than the use of 'contribution'. While the individuals receiving the donation framing gave substantially larger amounts, those receiving the contribution framing responded more strongly to reward thresholds and suggestions. An additional survey experiment on MTurk indicated that the term 'donation' triggers more positive emotional responses and that emotions are highly correlated with giving. It appears that making a donation is perceived as a more voluntary act and is thus more successful at generating warm glow than making a contribution. We surmise that this extends to other funding mechanisms.
    Description: August 2016 (2nd revision January 2022)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C93 ; D64 ; D12 ; crowdfunding ; field experiment ; framing
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: In this study, we tested the effect of time delays on sharing behavior. We conducted a dictator game to examine whether dictators change their sharing behaviors if they have more time between receiving and sharing money. When the response time was 2 hours, the sharing behavior of dictators was similar to sharing behavior in a standard game without time delay. However, if the dictators kept their received money for a week, they were remarkably less likely to share the money. This finding provides suggestive evidence of the ownership effect in sharing behavior.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C70 ; D63 ; D64 ; Dictator games ; endowment ; experiment ; time delay
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: We propose a regional inequality-based mechanism to explain the heterogeneity in the spread of Covid-19 and test it using data from India. We argue that an area characterized by coreperiphery economic structure creates regional inequality in which the periphery remains dependent on the core for the supply of jobs, goods and services. Hence, areas arranged in coreperiphery structure induce greater degree of mobility which in turn ends up at a higher infection rate than the more homogeneously developed areas at the time of pandemic. Using nightlights data to measure regional inequality in the degree of economic activity, we find evidence in support of our hypothesis. Further, we find that regions with higher nightlight inequality also experience higher spread of Covid-19 only when lockdown measures have been relaxed and movement of goods and services are near normal. Using mobility data, we provide direct evidence in support of our proposed mechanism; that the positive relationship between regional inequality and Covid-19 infection is driven by mobility. Our findings imply that policy responses to contain Covid-19 contagion needs to be heterogeneous across India where the priority areas can be chosen ex-ante based on inequality in economic activity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I15 ; I18 ; R1 ; Covid-19 ; contagion ; core-periphery ; nightlight ; mobility
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: In this paper, we use the Chinese General Social Survey data (2010-2017) to analyse the returns to different education qualifications. We additionally compare the returns to vocational education with returns to academic education, at both the upper secondary level and the tertiary level. Compared to those who only complete compulsory education, upper secondary graduates earn about 20% more, vocational college graduates earn 50%, and academic university graduates earn 75% more. At tertiary level, academic education pays better than vocational education, although the difference shrinks over the years. At upper secondary level, the evidence is indeterminate, depending on different econometric techniques (i.e., OLS, IV, Lewbel method, or PSM). These findings add to the limited quantitative evidence on returns to vocational education. The dynamics emerged from the findings echo the discussion on labor market mismatch and overeducation in China, which has important policy implications.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I26 ; I25 ; J24 ; J31 ; C36 ; dynamic ; vocational education ; academic education ; upper secondary ; tertiary ; China
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Bremen: Institut Arbeit und Wirtschaft (IAW), Universität Bremen und Arbeitnehmerkammer Bremen
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: This paper examines how the collective bargaining parties of the German metal and electrical industry, Gesamtmetall and IG Metall, portrayed the Corona crisis in the public sphere. The empirical basis consists of press releases, guest contributions by the chairpersons and press interviews. The framing perspective adopted by this study promises to shed light on how the collective bargaining parties assess the social partnership's ability to act and what priorities they set. Social partnership is also coming under increasing pressure in the core areas of the German economic model. This is also reflected in our analysis: While at first glance there is a coalition of interests in the description of the crisis and the call for state aid to support the economy and safeguard employees, this is characterized by a strong imbalance. It is not just a matter of purely strategic cooperation on specific issues. The employer-side also insists on wage restraint and leaves unanswered union calls for a more farreaching joint assumption of responsibility. Particularly against the backdrop of further effects of the pandemic on the labor market, this weakens the unions' bargaining power and puts further pressure on the institutional pattern of social partnership.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: Using over 50 thousand time-use diaries from two cohorts of children, we document significant gender differences in time allocation in the first 16 years in life. Relative to males, females spend more time on personal care, chores and educational activities and less time on physical and media related activities. These gender gaps in time allocation appear at very young ages and widen overtime. We provide novel evidence that gender differentials in time investment are quantitatively important in explaining a female advantage in most cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Moreover, gender disparity in educational time outside of school is the most important factor contributing to gender test score gaps and its contribution is more pronounced for higher performing students. By contrast, gender differences in media time are the main factor explaining gender gaps in non-cognitive skills. As children age, gender differences in time allocation play an increasing role in explaining gender gaps in both cognitive and non-cognitive skills.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I24 ; J13 ; J16 ; J22 ; J24 ; Time Allocation ; Time Use Diary ; Gender Gap ; Human Capital ; Child Development
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: Besides their ideas and social networks, émigré intellectuals bring with themselves practices for engagement with intellectual work. This article focuses on one such practice: the intellectual Kreis [circle]. It focuses on the Geistkreis, an interwar Viennese interdisciplinary intellectual circle. Based on archival research, the article uses a number of case studies to show that the Kreis was employed by the Viennese emigres as a mental scheme and as a recipe for action. It argues that the émigrés' adherence to the Kreis-structure explains the friction between them and their hosts. By following the attempts of former Geistkreis members to create Kreis-like institutions in America, the article shows that the Kreis was more than mere organizational form. It represented an epistemical commitment to knowledge-making as a collective effort, and the preference of general theoretical knowledge over specialized research. It also entailed an intermingling of 'work' and 'life' that did not conform to American norms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wissensmanagement ; Kollektives Handeln ; Migranten ; Flüchtlinge ; Österreichisch ; Geschichte ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: This study uses a large-scale dataset from Vietnam to analyze the impacts of parental absence due to migration, death, or divorce on children's school enrollment, for children aged from 7 to 22. We find children from two-parent families have a better chance of enrolling at all levels of education than those from single-parent families. Within single-family types, the negative effect on children of parental divorce is higher than that of parental death, while the effect of parental migration is the lowest. Comparing the effect of single-father and single-mother households, we find that children living with a single mother tend to have higher school enrollment than those living with a single father, indicating the critical role of mothers in children's education.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I1 ; I2 ; O1 ; Children ; Young ; Education ; Vietnam
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Vienna: Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-27
    Description: Emission trading has been the key instrument in the EU's climate policy since its introduction in 2005. According to economic literature, emissions trading should ensure the achievement of a given reduction target at the lowest possible costs, by equalising marginal abatement costs of the installations covered. According to previous studies, however, only a limited number of companies have engaged in trading pointing at a limited economic efficiency of the scheme. This paper contributes to the growing body of empirical literature on allowance transactions by providing an analysis for Austria. For this purpose, two approaches are combined - a quantitative analysis of data on allowance transactions from the EUTL and a survey among Austrian firms in the EU ETS on their trading behaviour, motivations, and strategies. Our results show that allowance transactions have increased over time and that Austrian companies in the EU ETS tend to mainly acquire allowances in the market. The majority of Austrian companies reported compliance as the main motive for purchasing allowances. However, they stated that the time horizon of buying allowances for compliance purposes has been rather short so far, but some Austrian ETS participants intend to emphasise earlier purchases and consider a longer period in their purchasing strategy. Moreover, our analysis shows that it is a limited number of large companies (trading companies and large energy suppliers) that is very active in the market. Market actors have gotten accustomed to this new market for emissions over the past 16 years which is illustrated by increasing quantities and volumes traded. Nevertheless, for Austrian companies there is some potential for adapting their trading strategies in order to incorporate the future challenges, primarily for those companies not used to trading on international energy or resource markets.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU Emission Trading Scheme ; Data analysis ; Survey ; Austria ; Trading behaviour
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Gelsenkirchen: Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Description: Für Städte und Gemeinden sind die Akquise und Abwicklung von Fördermitteln herausfordernd, denn es fehlt oft an Personal, Zeit und Geld. Besonders für finanziell herausgeforderte Kommunen stellt sich die Frage, ob Eigenanteile und Bearbeitungsaufwand noch finanzierbar sind. Anhand von Regressionsanalysen zeigt unsere Studie, dass es keinen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen der kommunalen Haushaltslage und der Höhe der akquirierten Fördermittel gibt. Denn wenn strukturelle Faktoren wie das BIP oder die Arbeitslosenquote berücksichtigt werden, lässt sich für die drei betrachteten Fördermittelbereiche (Städtebauförderung, GRW Infrastrukturförderung und direkte Projektförderung) kein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen Finanzschwäche und niedrigen Fördermittelaufkommen auf Ebene der deutschen Kreise aufzeigen. Städtebauförderung und GRW Infrastrukturförderung fließen, entsprechend ihren ausgleichsorientierten Förderzielen, tendenziell in strukturschwache Kreise und kreisfreie Städte. Direkte Projektförderung fließt überproportional in universitäre und wirtschaftsstarke Kreise und kreisfreie Städte sowie in ostdeutsche Regionen.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 19
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2022-01-15
    Description: We consider an observation-driven location model where the unobserved location variable is modeled as a random walk process and where the error variable is from a mixture of normal distributions. The mixed normal distribution can approximate many continuous error distributions accurately. We obtain a flexible modeling framework which is particularly designed for robust filtering and forecasting. We provide sufficient conditions for the strong consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameter vector in the specified model. The asymptotic properties are valid under correct model specification and can be generalized to allow for potential misspecification of the model. A simulation study is carried out to monitor the forecast accuracy improvements when extra mixture components are added to the model. In an empirical study we show that our approach is able to outperform alternative observation-driven location models in forecast accuracy for a time-series of electricity spot prices.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C13 ; C22 ; time-varying parameters ; asymmetric and heavy-tailed distributions ; robust filter ; invertibility ; consistency ; asymptotic normality
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-18
    Description: Using the entire population of USPTO patent applications published between 2002 and 2019, and leveraging on both patent classification and semantic analysis, this paper aims to map the current knowledge base centred on robotics and AI technologies. These technologies are investigated both as a whole and distinguishing core and related innovations, along a 4-level core-periphery architecture. Merging patent applications with the Orbis IP firm-level database allows us to put forward a twofold analysis based on industry of activity and geographic location. In a nutshell, results show that: (i) rather than representing a technological revolution, the new knowledge base is strictly linked to the previous technological paradigm; (ii) the new knowledge base is characterised by a considerable - but not impressively widespread - degree of pervasiveness; (iii) robotics and AI are strictly related, converging (particularly among the related technologies and in more recent times) and jointly shaping a new knowledge base that should be considered as a whole, rather than consisting of two separate GPTs; (iv) the US technological leadership turns out to be confirmed (although declining in relative terms in favour of Asian countries such as South Korea, China and, more recently, India).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; O33 ; Robotics ; Artificial Intelligence ; General Purpose Technology ; Technological Paradigm ; Industry 4.0 ; Patents full-text
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Economics
    Publication Date: 2022-01-18
    Description: Our paper aims at improving the understanding for the role of public employment agencies in job matching. We analyze the effects of the restructuring of the Federal Employment Agency in Germany (Hartz III labor market reform) for aggregate matching and unemployment. Based on two microeconomic datasets, we show that the market share of the Federal Employment Agency as job intermediary declined after the Hartzreforms. We propose a macroeconomic model of the labor market with a private and a public search channel and fit the model to various dimensions of the data. We show that direct intermediation activities of the Federal Employment Agency did not contribute to the decline of unemployment in Germany. By contrast, improved activation of unemployed workers reduced unemployed by 0.7 percentage points.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E24 ; E00 ; E60 ; Hartz reforms ; search and matching ; reform of employment agency
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-18
    Description: Smallholder farming dominates agriculture in poorer countries. Yet, traditional recall-based surveys on smallholder farming in these countries face challenges with seasonal variations, high survey costs, poor record-keeping, and technical capacity constraints resulting in significant recall bias. We offer the first study that employs a less-costly, imputation-based alternative using mixed modes of data collection to obtain estimates on smallholder farm labor. Using data from Tanzania, we find that parsimonious imputation models based on small samples of a benchmark weekly in-person survey can offer reasonably accurate estimates. Furthermore, we also show how less accurate, but also less resource-intensive, imputation-based measures using a weekly phone survey may provide a viable alternative for the more costly weekly in-person survey. If replicated in other contexts, including for other types of variables that suffer from similar recall bias, these results could open up a new and cost-effective way to collect more accurate data at scale.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C8 ; J2 ; O12 ; Q12 ; farm labor ; agricultural productivity ; multiple imputation ; missing data ; survey data ; Tanzania
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-18
    Description: We study how weather shocks interact with cultural norms biased against women to affect female poverty within the household. Using expenditure on female assignable clothing per adult woman as a measure of women's intra-household access to consumption, we document that spending on female assignable goods is lower in households with at least one widowed woman relative to households with no widows in India. However, selection into widowhood appears to be plausibly random and economic hardship on account of death of a male member is unlikely to explain why households with a widow have lower spending on female assignable goods. We then study how rainfall shocks in uence the spending on female assignable goods by the presence of a widow in the household. We find that although beneficial rainfall shocks increase overall spending on female assignable goods; this increase is lower in households with a widow. We obtain opposite findings for spending on male assignable goods. We find that regions where widow persecution was widespread historically are associated with poorer outcomes for widows at present. Our analysis shows that persistence in historical norms can potentially prevent women from realizing gains in access to consumption resources within the household even in the event of beneficial environmental shocks.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D13 ; I31 ; J12 ; J16 ; N35 ; Q54 ; Z10 ; widows ; rainfall shocks ; private assignable goods ; historical persistence ; India
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Gelsenkirchen: Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT)
    Publication Date: 2021-12-31
    Description: Die digitale Transformation der Arbeitswelt ermöglicht neue Formen des zeit- und ortsflexiblen Arbeitens. Die COVID19-Pandemie in Deutschland hat erheblich dazu beigetragen, dass in vielen Wirtschaftsbranchen und Betrieben Aufgaben und Tätigkeiten der Beschäftigten ins Homeoffice verlagert wurden. Auch Arbeitswelten in den sozialen Dienstleistungsbranchen befinden sich in einem digitalen Transformationsprozess, Felder der sozialen Dienstleistungsarbeit waren von der COVID19-Pandemie in besonderem Maße betroffen. Insbesondere die sekundären Aufgaben (bspw. Administrations- und Dokumentationstätigkeiten) können auch hier prinzipiell digital gestützt ortsflexibel erbracht werden. Inzwischen gilt dies bereichsabhängig jedoch zunehmend auch für die Kerntätigkeit, d.h. für die Interaktion mit Klient*innen. Somit ergibt sich auch für Teilbranchen der sozialen Dienstleistungen zunehmend ein Homeoffice-Potenzial: Zumindest teilweise können Arbeitstätigkeiten ortsflexibel, auch aus dem eigenen häuslichen Umfeld heraus, erledigt werden. Branchenspezifische und vertiefende Analysen zu Umfang, Rahmenbedingungen und Folgen des Homeoffice für die Arbeits- und Versorgungsqualität in der sozialen Dienstleistungsarbeit sind jedoch ein Forschungsdesiderat. Dies gilt auch für den Bereich der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe. Im Rahmen einer explorativen Studie im Mixed-Methods-Design (quantitative Online-Befragung und qualitative problemzentrierte Interviews) sind wir der Frage nachgegangen, inwiefern die COVID19-Pandemie Einfluss auf die Verbreitung von Homeoffice in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe hat, unter welchen Rahmenbedingungen die Beschäftigten Aufgaben und Tätigkeiten aus dem Homeoffice erbringen und welche Erwartungen sie diesbezüglich für die Zukunft haben. Darüber hinaus wurden aufgaben- und tätigkeitsspezifisch die Auswirkungen des Homeoffice auf die subjektiv empfundene Arbeitsqualität der Beschäftigten untersucht. Sowohl das Angebot von Einrichtungen als auch die Nachfrage von Beschäftigten in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe bezüglich des Homeoffice sind im Zuge der Corona-Pandemie gestiegen. Zwar wurden bereits vor der COVID19- Pandemie Aufgaben und Tätigkeiten im Homeoffice erledigt. Im Zuge der Pandemie zeichnet sich jedoch eine Verbesserung der Rahmenbedingungen für die Beschäftigten der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe im Homeoffice ab, u.a. in Form der technischen Ausstattung und des Bedeutungsgewinns kodifizierter Regelungen (v.a. Betriebsvereinbarungen). Gleichwohl zeigen die Studienergebnisse, dass hier weiterhin großer Handlungsbedarf besteht.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; ortsflexibles Arbeiten ; Homeoffice ; mobiles Arbeiten ; soziale Dienstleistungen ; Kinder- und Jugendhilfe
    Language: German
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-15
    Description: Die Bundesagentur für Arbeit hat erstmals nicht nur fachlich, sondern auch regional tief gegliederte Daten zum unteren Entgeltbereich herausgegeben (Bundesagentur für Arbeit 2021a). In Verbindung mit weiteren Sonderauswertungen der Bundesagentur liefern diese Kennziffern detaillierte Informationen über Menschen, die trotz Vollzeitbeschäftigung am Ende des Monats wenig Lohn haben. Diese Daten sollen im Hinblick auf die folgenden Fragen ausgewertet werden: Wer sind die Geringverdiener und wo arbeiten sie? Wie hat sich der untere Entgeltbereich entwickelt? Welche regionalen Unterschiede bestehen und wie lassen sich diese erklären? Zunächst soll jedoch auf methodische Aspekte eingegangen werden.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-15
    Description: Mit dem Ausscheiden der Babyboomer aus dem Arbeitsmarkt ist Deutschland in den nächsten Jahren in zunehmendem Maße auf Fachkräfte auf dem Ausland angewiesen, um seine wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit zu stabilisieren. Überdies ist davon auszugehen, dass die neuen EU-Mitgliedsländer als Herkunftsregion an Bedeutung verlieren werden, da sie vom demografischen Wandel ebenfalls stark betroffen sind. Gleichzeitig zeigt die Erfahrung, dass mit Blick auf die Fachkräftesicherung nicht jede Form der Zuwanderung gleich erfolgreich ist. Einen besonders großen Beitrag leisten hier Personen aus Indien. Im März 2021 arbeiteten 57,6 Prozent der sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten Inder in Deutschland in Spezialisten- oder Expertentätigkeiten, die typischerweise ein Hochschulstudium oder einen Fortbildungsabschluss, wie den Meister, voraussetzen. Hingegen betrug der entsprechende Anteil bei allen Ausländern nur 16,5 Prozent und bei den Inländern 28,3 Prozent. Besonders stark vertreten waren sie bei den von Fachkräfteengpässen besonders betroffen Expertentätigkeiten im MINT-Bereich, wo ihr Anteil mit 1,3 Prozent rund siebenmal so hoch lag wie bei der Gesamtbeschäftigung. Betrachtet man die Entwicklung der Zuwanderung aus Indien,zeigt sich in den letzten Jahren ein dynamischer Anstieg. So ist die Zahl der Personen mit indischer Staatsangehörigkeit in Deutschland zwischen den Jahren 2010 und 2020 von 48.000 auf 151.000 angewachsen und ihr Anteil an der gesamten ausländischen Bevölkerung von 0,7 Prozent auf 1,6 Prozent gestiegen. Dabei haben sich auch die Zugangswege deutlich verschoben. Kamen die Inder zu Beginn des Jahrzehnts vorwiegend im Rahmen der Erwerbszuwanderung, absolviert inzwischen ein bedeutender Teil von ihnen (zunächst) ein Hochschulstudium in Deutschland. Dies ist durchaus zu begrüßen, da die Qualifikationen so passgenauer den Anforderungen des deutschen Arbeitsmarkts entsprechen und sich Deutschland an den Investitionen in die Ausbildung beteiligt. Die Gefahr eines BrainDrains besteht allerdings auch bei der Zuwanderung vollständig ausgebildeter Personen nicht. Mit allein rund 44,8 Millionen hochqualifizierten Personen im Alter zwischen 25 und 34 Jahren ist die Fachkräftebasis in Indien so groß, dass auch aus deutscher Sicht sehr starke Wanderungsbewegungen kaum ins Gewicht fallen. Dass sich die Zuwanderung aus Indien in den letzten Jahren so positiv entwickelt hat, ist keinesfalls selbstverständlich. Vielmehrsteht Deutschland hier in einer starken Konkurrenz mit den angelsächsischen Ländern, die mit der englischen Sprache und starken indischstämmigen Communities zwei große Vorteile haben. Ein wichtiger Faktor dürfte, neben einem zunehmend positiveren Deutschlandbild in der Welt, die gezielte Ansprache zuwanderungsinteressierter Personen in Indien insbesondere durch die Onlineplattform "Make it in Germany" gewesen sein. Diese Aktivitäten sollten noch weiter ausgebaut werden. Auf längere Sicht wäre es sinnvoll einen sehr großen Teil von einem Drittel und mehr der in Deutschland benötigten Zuwanderer aus Indien zu gewinnen, da der Anteil Indiens an der Weltbevölkerung im Alter von 15 bis 24 Jahren bei 20,5 Prozent liegt und das Land anders als China, das mit 14,0 Prozent an zweiter Stelle folgt, derzeit noch demografiestark ist. Dabei sollte auch darauf hingewirkt werden, dass sich die Wanderungsströme nicht stark auf einzelne Regionen und soziale Gruppen in Indien konzentrieren, sondern vielfältige deutsch-indische soziale Netzwerke und indische Gemeinschaften in Deutschland entstehen. So lassen sich insbesondere auch die Auswirkungen wirtschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Verschiebungen in Indien auf die Wanderungsströme minimieren.
    Description: With the retirement of the baby boomers from the labour market, Germany will be increasingly dependent on skilled workers from abroad in the coming years in order to stabilise its economic performance. Moreover, the new EU member states will most likely become increasingly less important as regions of origin for immigrants, as they are also strongly affected by demographic change. At the same time, experience shows that not every form of immigration is equally successful in securing skilled labour. People from India make a particularly large contribution here. In March 2021, 57.6 per cent of Indians subject to social insurance contributions in Germany worked in specialist or expert jobs that typically require a university degree or an advanced vocational degree such as master craftsman. In contrast, the corresponding share for all foreigners was only 16.5 per cent and for nationals 28.3 per cent. Indians were particularly well represented in the expert occupations in the STEM fields, which are particularly affected by shortages of skilled workers. Their share here of 1.3 per cent was about seven times higher than in total employment. If we look at the development of immigration from India, we see a dynamic increase in recent years. Between 2010 and 2020, the number of people with Indian citizenship in Germany rose from 48,000 to 151,000, and their share of the total foreign population increased from 0.7 per cent to 1.6 per cent. At the same time, the routes of entry have shifted significantly. Whereas at the beginning of the decade Indians came to the country primarily as labour migrants, a significant number of them are now (initially) pursuing university education in Germany. This is certainly to be endorsed, as the qualifications thus more closely match the requirements of the German labour market and Germany participates in the investment in training. Nevertheless, the danger of a brain drain does neither exist with the immigration of fully educated people. With around 44.8 million highly qualified persons between the ages of 25 and 34 alone, the skilled labour base in India is so large that even from Germany's point of view very strong migration movements would be of little consequence. The fact that immigration from India has developed so positively in recent years is by no means self-evident. Rather, Germany is in strong competition here with the Anglo-Saxon countries, which have the two major advantages of the English language and strong Indian communities. In addition to an increasingly positive image of Germany in the world, an important factor may have been the targeted approach of people in India interested in immigration, especially through the online platform "Make it in Germany". These activities should be further expanded. Since India's share of the world's population aged 15 to 24 is 20.5 per cent and the country is currently still demographically strong, unlike China, which follows in second place with 14.0 per cent, it would make sense in the long term to recruit a very large proportion of one-third or more of the immigrants needed in Germany here. At the same time, one should work towards ensuring that migration flows are not strongly concentrated on single regions and social groups in India, but that diverse GermanIndian social networks and Indian communities in Germany emerge. In this way, the effects of economic and social shifts in India on migration flows can be minimised.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F22 ; J15 ; J21 ; Einwanderung ; Arbeitsmigranten ; Hochqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte ; Inder ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: This paper proposes a targeting methodology focused on household's deprivations that helps the public decision-maker in Tunisia to alleviate multidimensional poverty. In the first part of this research, we intend to decipher the relationship between official poverty measurement and anti-poverty programs currently implemented in Tunisia, with special emphasis on their targeting performance and on the divergence observed between the beneficiary selection process at the regional level and the official identification of poor households. Next, we will outline the proposed targeting methodology using the counting identification approach and we estimate three groups of potential beneficiaries reflecting three degrees of poverty. Our empirical findings show that if a household becomes deprived in one dimension, then he will automatically be considered a potential beneficiary of the anti-poverty program. In terms of budget allocation, categorizing beneficiaries by group allows the public decision-maker to prioritize the most urgent situations in the country, even in the case of an austerity policy. On the other hand, to eradicate poverty in all its forms everywhere, it would be useful to strengthen the targeting of the poor population through a forward-looking policy targeting households living in vulnerability to poverty.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C54 ; C43 ; I18 ; H12 ; Multidimensional Poverty Alleviation ; Targeting ; Counting Approach ; Tunisia
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: In this paper, we report returns to education in India using unit level data from the nationwide Periodic Labour Force Survey for 2018-19. OLS estimates from the classical Mincerian equation are presented. Various econometric techniques (e.g., conventional IV and heteroskedasticity-based IV models) are used to address endogeneity and sample selection issue. For regular workers, compared to those with no formal education, an additional year of literacy education increases yearly return by 2.3%, primary education by 3.4%, middle school education by 3.7%, secondary school education by 4.5%, higher secondary education by 5.8%, graduate and diploma by 9.8%, and postgraduate and above level of education by 8.2%. We also find a widening of the wage distribution, with striking differences across social groups, sectors, locations. First, returns to middle-school and above level of education are higher for women than for men; second, returns to graduate and above level of education are higher for urban than for rural workers; third, returns to workers in the public sector are higher than returns in the private or third sectors; fourth, returns to the scheduled tribe are the highest across all the castes. Over the last decade, returns to education have reduced. We provide evidence showing that this may be because more people hold higher levels of education qualifications, while the demand for skills remains quite stable. Overall, our policy suggestion is that in India, as in other lowmiddle- income countries, especially in rural areas, it is important to increase primary and secondary level of education in rural areas, and the tertiary level in urban areas and to equalize the life chances of some social groups.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I26 ; J15 ; J16 ; J30 ; C20 ; returns to education ; endogeneity ; sample selection ; India
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: This paper examines the effects of working from home on mental health, with particular attention to the role of home environments. Using unique real time survey data from South Korea collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, we find that working from home negatively affects the mental health of workers, with greater effects on women and those who are primarily responsible for housework while also maintaining market work. Surprisingly, workers who live with children in the household do not suffer from the negative effects of working from home. Our findings suggest that family-work interaction may be an important factor in the optimal design of working from home.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D13 ; L23 ; L84 ; M11 ; M54 ; Working from home ; home working ; remote work ; COVID-19 ; mental health ; subjective well-being
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: This paper evaluates how Vietnam's Escuela Nueva (VNEN) program, an educational reform for primary schools supported by the World Bank, affected the cognitive (mathematics and Vietnamese) and non-cognitive (socioemotional) skills of students in that country. We use propensity score matching to estimate both short-term (1-3 years) and long-term (5-7 years) average treatment effects on the treated (ATT). We find that the impacts of VNEN on students' cognitive skills are relatively small in the short-term, and that they are larger for boys, ethnic minorities, and students in Northern Vietnam. The VNEN program modestly increased primary school students' non-cognitive skills in the short-term; these impacts on non-cognitive skills are sizable and significant for ethnic minority students, although there seems to be little gender difference. The long-term impacts are less precisely estimated, but they appear to fade away, showing little or no impact of the VNEN program on cognitive skills. There is little variation of long-term impacts by gender or geographical region, although the imprecision of the estimates for ethnic minority students does not allow us to rule out large long-term impacts on cognitive skills for those students. The program's impacts on non-cognitive skills also seem to have dissipated in the long-term.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: In this study, for the first time, to our knowledge, we use the propensity score matching algorithm to estimate the probability to remain 'stuck in the status-quo ante' across generations in Egypt. We use repeated cross-sectional data relative to a 20-year period from 1998 to 2018 to build transition matrices of intergenerational occupational mobility. The findings of the econometric analysis hint at a low degree of occupational mobility, with children of fathers in the agricultural sector or holding a blue- or white-collar job remaining linked to the profession of their fathers in most cases and experiencing only rarely upward mobility from agricultural to blue- and white-collar jobs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C35 ; D64 ; J24 ; J62 ; L16 ; Intergenerational occupational mobility ; Status quo bias ; Propensity score matching ; Egypt
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-11
    Description: This chapter examines contemporary labor-management relations in autocratic regimes, drawing on two sets of countries, namely transitional peripheral economies in Central Asia (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) and hierarchical market economies in Latin America (Colombia and Honduras), for analysis. We discuss the political economy, work, and labor relations of these countries, highlighting the role of the state, business, and international non-government organizations. We also take into account the impact of large-scale (often in millions) migration of workers both internally within the country and cross-border. It is important to note that, just as there are different types of democratic systems, there are also different types of autocratic regimes with distinct political, economic, and social policy orientations, and this directly impacts the nature of labor relations. Under Latin American right-wing authoritarianism, a primary focus is on supporting a relatively small property-owning elite, and any countervailing worker power is seen as a direct attack on the latter. Even if workers have employment rights under the law, this zero-sum game view frequently results in extra-legal attacks on worker activists and their representatives, making union organization an extremely dangerous business. In contrast, the Central Asian autocracies, business elites are tied up within extended clan networks. Especially within Uzbekistan, a much closer emphasis has been placed on the provision of a critical mass of jobs as a means of buying political stability. Unions have been afforded a place in the system both for historical reasons and as proof of an ability to create a critical mass of decent work; at the same time, there is little room for union autonomy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E24 ; E26 ; F23 ; F66 ; J08 ; autocratic regimes ; labor-management relations ; Central Asia ; Latin America ; trade unions ; international labor organisations
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-11
    Description: Although a large body of literature has argued that motherhood has a profound and long-lasting negative effect on the employment and earnings of women, there is little evidence focusing on the post-communist region. This paper exploits the latest round of the EBRD-World Bank Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) and of the Mongolian National Statistics Office Household Socio- Economic Survey (HSES) to examine the correlation between the presence of children of different age categories in a family and female employment in Mongolia in 2016. We examine the availability of childcare, social norms and attitudes towards women, as well as household decision-making as potential explanations. We find that small children decrease the probability of female employment relative to women with no small children. In particular, women with two children aged one to six years are 21.5 percentage points less likely to be employed. Our results also suggest that cultural biases against women may be - at least partially - responsible for the low female employment levels which we uncovered. These results are unlikely to be driven by omitted variable bias.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J16 ; J13 ; J20 ; children ; female employment ; Mongolia ; women
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: Trade agreements with the European Union (EU) and Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) significantly influenced the liberalisation of agri-food products in Western Balkan (WB) countries. In all Western Balkan countries, there has been an intensification of the trade of agri-food products and a partial change in the regional and commodity structures of trade. This paper aims to identify comparative advantages of agri-food sectors and consider its tendencies during the EU integration process. Additionally, this paper will discuss some opportunities for improvement of the export positions of agri-food products. In that context and based on the literature review, the indexes of revealed comparative advantages and its modified version will be used as a main method for analysis in this research. Results showed that all Western Balkan countries, except Albania, have comparative advantages in exporting agri-food products. It is evident that Serbia has the highest level of comparative advantages in this sector. Moreover, this paper suggests that all countries should aim to provide the best possible positions for their agri-food products during pre-accession negotiations for EU membership and take the necessary steps towards increasing the level of competitiveness in the common EU market.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; agri-food ; competitiveness ; European Union ; Western Balkans
    Language: English
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2022-01-14
    Description: The effect of the betterment of enforced intellectual property rights (IPRs) provisions on services export concentration has been investigated. The analysis has used a panel dataset of 103 countries (both developed and developing countries) over the period of 1985-2014. It has revealed that countries with low levels of enforced IPRs tend to concentrate their services exports on few items, while countries with a high degree of enforced IPRs experience a greater level of services export diversification. Furthermore, the betterment of IPRs protection influences positively services export diversification, and the magnitude of this positive effect is higher for advanced countries compared to relatively less advanced economies. These results are particularly relevant for developing countries, including the least-developed countries that have both weakly enforced IPRs and high levels of services export concentration.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E31 ; F13 ; O34 ; Intellectual property rights ; Services export concentration
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: To reduce the spread of COVID-19, schools closed to an unprecedented degree in the spring of 2020. To varying extent, students have moved between in-person and remote learning up until the spring of 2021. This chapter surveys the literature on the implications of school closures of primary to upper-secondary schools for virus transmission, student learning, and mental health among children and adolescents in high-income countries. Subject to severe methodological challenges, most studies indicate that the initial school closures at least to some extent contributed to a reduction of virus transmission. However, several studies find that schools could reopen safely, especially when substantial within-school preventive measures were implemented and the general level of transmission was moderate. Student age also matters and keeping schools open for younger students contributes less to overall virus transmission. Most studies find that students learned less and that learning inequalities widened when school closed. These patterns are particularly pronounced for younger students who face more challenges adjusting to remote instruction. Essentially nothing can be said concerning the implications for vocational training. High-quality evidence on the impact on mental health is scarce and the results are mixed, but there are some indications that older students coped better with school closures also in this regard. On balance, closing schools for younger students is less well-motivated than for older students.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I12 ; I21 ; COVID-19 ; Mental health ; School closures ; Student achievement ; Virus transmission
    Language: English
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: We are the first to estimate the impact of relative age (i.e., the difference in classmates' ages) on both speed and quality of individuals' transition from education to the labour market. Moreover, we are the first to explore whether and how this impact passes through characteristics of students' educational career. We use rich data pertaining to schooling and to labour market outcomes one year after graduation to conduct instrumental variables analyses. We find that a one-year increase in relative age increases the likelihood of (i) being employed then by 3.5 percentage points, (ii) having a permanent contract by 5.1 percentage points, and (iii) having full-time employment by 6.5 percentage points. These relative age effects are partly mediated by intermediate outcomes such as having had a schooling delay at the age of sixteen or taking on student jobs. The final mediator is particularly notable as no earlier studies examined relative age effects on student employment.We are the first to estimate the impact of relative age (i.e., the difference in classmates' ages) on both speed and quality of individuals' transition from education to the labour market. Moreover, we are the first to explore whether and how this impact passes through characteristics of students' educational career. We use rich data pertaining to schooling and to labour market outcomes one year after graduation to conduct instrumental variables analyses. We find that a one-year increase in relative age increases the likelihood of (i) being employed then by 3.5 percentage points, (ii) having a permanent contract by 5.1 percentage points, and (iii) having full-time employment by 6.5 percentage points. These relative age effects are partly mediated by intermediate outcomes such as having had a schooling delay at the age of sixteen or taking on student jobs. The final mediator is particularly notable as no earlier studies examined relative age effects on student employment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I21 ; J23 ; J24 ; J6 ; relative age ; school starting age ; labour market transition
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: Schools are ripe for policy intervention. We demonstrate that implementing different teaching practices is effective, finding a greater prevalence of group discussion used in schools positively affects students’ life satisfaction and noncognitive skills but has no impact on test scores. The benefits do not apply to girls, however, unless they attend all-girl schools. These findings are based on a sample from the 2015 PISA which includes more than 35 thousand students from approximately 1500 schools in 14 countries or regions. We perform regressions of student life satisfaction on the prevalence of group discussion and lecturing used in their school, including a battery of individual, teacher, and school controls, as well as random intercepts by school. For robustness we use instrumental variables and methods to account for school-selection. The average impact of group discussion is not small – a one standard deviation leads to an increase in life satisfaction that is about one-half of the negative association with grade repetition. On the other hand, more or less lecturing does not affect life satisfaction, noncognitive skills, nor test scores. We conclude that teaching practices – group discussion – can be used to improve student life satisfaction, thereby likely positively affecting future economic outcomes and well-being.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I21 ; I31 ; J24 ; subjective well-being ; teaching ; teaching practices ; non-cognitive skills ; education ; PISA ; participatory teaching ; vertical teaching ; horizontal teaching
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: What is the tenet upon which the public policy of lockdown by fiat experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic is based on? The work approaches this question about the rationale of the mandatory shelter-in-place policy as an interpersonal exchange of rights, but where the exchange occurs coercively instead of voluntarily. It compares, in positive political economy terms, the normative principles of utilitarianism and Rawlsianism, and shows that lockdown by fiat is a policy that is closer to a maximin equity criterion rather than to a utilitarian one. The work moreover shows, also with the aid of a thought experiment in the spirit of Rawls and with factual applications, that the fiat redistribution of rights to liberty in favor of rights to health – from those least affected to those most affected by COVID-19 – is, in the main, a policy choice that is to be expected under certain constraints.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D04 ; D78 ; H11 ; H12 ; I18 ; Covid-19 pandemic ; Health rights ; Liberty ; Public policy ; Lockdown ; Rawls
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Does online fundraising increase charitable giving? Using the Facebook advertising tool, we implemented a natural field experiment across Germany, randomly assigning almost 8,000 postal codes to Save the Children fundraising videos or to a pure control. We studied changes in the volume and frequency of donations to Save the Children and other charities by postal code. Our design circumvents many shortcomings inherent in studies based on click-through data, especially substitution and measurement issues. We found that (i) video fundraising increased donation frequency and value to Save the Children during the campaign and in the subsequent five weeks; (ii) the campaign was profitable for the fundraiser; and (iii) the effects were similar independent of video content and impression assignment strategy. However, we also found non-negligible crowding out of donations to other similar charities or projects. Finally, we demonstrated that click data are an inappropriate proxy for donations and recommend that managers use careful experimental designs that can plausibly evaluate the effects of advertising on relevant outcomes.
    Description: February 2020 (revised January 2022)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C93 ; D64 ; D12 ; Charitable giving ; field experiments ; fundraising ; social media ; competition
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    s.l.: Forum on Capital As Power - Toward a New Cosmology of Capitalism
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: This paper builds an empirical and theoretical model to analyze how the financial goal of risk reduction changed the insides of Hollywood's star system. For the moviegoer looking at Hollywood cinema from the outside, the function of the star system has remained the same since the 1920s: to have recognizable actors attract large audiences to Hollywood's biggest and most expensive productions. The composition of this system is, however, sensitive to many historical changes in the business and culture of cinema. If the evolution of Hollywood's star system is shaped by broader social factors, risk reduction would be a key factor after 1980. This paper uses Internet Movie Database (IMDb) casting data to analyze how the star system was a factor in this period of risk reduction. Film casting assists risk reduction when a star system is built on controlled repetition. Repetitive casting - choosing the same people to star in a series of films - is a form of control because repetitive selection is the inequality of opportunity by another name: if an in-group is internally repetitive when alternatives exist, an out-group is repeatedly excluded. There are two key conclusions to the analysis of the IMDb dataset. First, casting repetitiveness/inequality in the blockbuster era of Hollywood (1980-present) is low compared to Hollywood's "classical" studio system (1930-1948). Second, the historically low repetitiveness/inequality can be misleading if we ignore sector characteristics such as firm size and level of theatrical distribution. Within the top-tier, whether measured by size of distributor or number of opening theatres in theatrical release, Hollywood relies on repetitive casting. The theoretical part of this paper will identify the role of capitalist power in the formation of a star system. Capitalist power, in this case, is defined as the ability of Hollywood to control everything from the industrial production of films to the broader social relations of cinema. This control is never absolute, but the role of capitalist power in the star system has a key purpose: to make sure that casting decisions are complementary to business interests.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; P16 ; Z1 ; culture ; Hollywood ; inequality ; risk
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: Purpose: This study asks whether lower quality forms of employment lead to career transitions into higher quality forms of employment acting as steppingstones, or bridges or, whether instead they lead to dead-ends, or traps, in which workers move between unstable jobs with low prospects for upward mobility and unemployment. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a unique dataset recording retrospective monthly employment states over 3 years for 373 individuals in the Albanian city of Shkoder. The analysis uses sequence and regression analysis to investigate whether people employed in lower quality, more precarious jobs remain in these kinds of jobs or instead are able to transition into higher quality, permanent and füll-time employment. Findings: In line with previous evidence for the region and Europe, the analysis confirms the precarization of many working lives particularly for women, young people and those with lower educational attainment. This evidence is more supportive of the dead-end hypothesis than the idea that a lower quality job can be a steppingstone into a better job. Originality: This study contributes to the limited knowledge of labour market functioning in developing post-socialist Western Balkans countries. Recent flexicurity policies have generated an increased prevalence of more precarious employment arrangements in Albania. This investigation addresses previous research limitations regarding point-in-time transitions and unobserved heterogeneity using retrospective recall data and controlling for personality traits.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; precarious work ; job quality ; Albania ; sequence analysis ; career transitions
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-07
    Description: The Covid-19 pandemic has triggered simultaneously a global health crisis and a global economic crisis which have further deepened existing inequalities along several dimensions, including gender. Increasing gender inequalities in paid and unpaid work has been a primary outcome of the pandemic and the associated economic crisis. Given the disproportionate gender division of labor, women were foremost in bearing the brunt of the increased demands on unpaid care work under the lockdown conditions. At the same time, women were also overrepresented in informal employment and service sectors hard-hit by the pandemic resulting in more severe job loss for female workers overall. In many labor markets, women constituted the majority of so-called essential workers, who were protected from job loss yet exposed to increased health risks and prolonged work hours under distressed work conditions. The increasing demand for household production and the unpaid work burden contributed to weakening women's labor market attachment resulting in higher declines in female labor force participation than male. The increased prevalence of teleworking under the pandemic has the potential to provide improved work-life balance conditions, yet at the risk of widening the gender inequalities in the labor market. While these outcomes point to the threat that Covid-19 poses at rolling back the gains achieved in gender equality, the experiences under the pandemic conditions have also contributed to increased awareness around the Globe of the importance of caring labor and care workers, establishing a solid basis for advocacy of gender equal care policies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; B54 ; J08 ; J010 ; COVID-19 ; gender ; paid and unpaid work ; work-life balance ; telework
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2022-01-08
    Description: The COVID pandemic that took the world economy by surprise at the beginning of 2020 brought many drastic changes to the way individuals carry on their daily lives. One that will have long lasting effects, even after the spread of the virus is contained, is a shift towards flexible work arrangements, including remote work options. Initially implemented to comply with government imposed stay-at-home orders, many employers decided to allow remote work even after the orders were lifted. In this chapter we will review some of the metrics used in the literature to measure the potential that a specific occupation is suitable for telework. This is important because Working From Home was often the only option for businesses to remain open during the first part of the pandemic. We also review the results of the literature on two important dimensions of inequality: the gender wage gap and income inequality, Moreover, we review some evidence of the effect of WFH on worker's productivity in general and during the pandemic and on physical and mental health. We conclude with a description of what WFH may look like after the pandemic, by describing the process towards a possible "new normal" in the labour market.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D13 ; D23 ; E24 ; G18 ; J22 ; M54 ; R3 ; COVID-19 ; working from home ; inequality ; productivity ; health
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Koblenz: Hochschule Koblenz - University of Applied Sciences, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2021-12-31
    Description: The article deals with the influence of the European Commission in the field of economic policy in the European Union (EU) since the beginning of the 21st century. Starting from reflections on the guiding idea of supranationality the question arises if and how the Commission has increased its influence on the economic policies of the EU Member States. The role of the EU's long-term strategies like the European Green Deal are analysed by applying the approach of Evolutionary Institutionalism. Has the European Commission induced institutional change and improved its own institutional fitness? Which role does the European Green Deal play in European economic policy?
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; European integration ; EU ; European economic policy ; European Green Deal ; European integration theory/approaches ; Evolutionary Institutionalism
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 46
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    Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
    Publication Date: 2021-11-13
    Description: Russia’s food policy has been defined by the quest for food security for more than a decade, which in the Russian context includes import protectionism, self-sufficiency, and import substitution, marked by the adoption of Food Security Doctrines in 2010 and 2020. This chapter first investigates the impact of food security policy on domestic production. Food security policy has combined with an increase in state support for domestic production, leading to notable increases in output and self-sufficiency for selected commodities. The chapter also examines the impact of food security on agri-food exports, which have become a priority since 2018. Although Russia has become a leading exporter of wheat, the influence of food security is seen by the introduction of export quotas on grain starting in 2020. Despite protectionism, Russia has not withdrawn from the international food market but rather is an active and significant player as both food importer and exporter.
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Russia ; food security policy ; food security doctrine ; self-sufficiency ; import substitution ; food exports
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 47
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    Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
    Publication Date: 2021-11-13
    Description: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the top destination for Russian food exports, grains in particular. Focusing on Turkey, Egypt, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, this chapter shows that Russia's food trade with MENA countries is strongly affected by bilateral political relations. Russia banned most food imports from Turkey over a political conflict in 2016. In the same year, improved intergovernmental cooperation with Saudi Arabia resulted in a diversification of Russia's food exports to the Gulf country, and in 2019, Iran's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) led to increasing food trade with Russia. Food imports in MENA countries are usually managed by powerful state trading enterprises (STEs), which recurrently disapprove food products originating from Russia based on non-adherence to food quality standards. Our analysis shows that Russia is successfully working to open additional destination markets, while simultaneously impeding imports of food products that it aims to produce domestically.
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Black Sea exporters ; grain markets ; trade policy ; Russia ; Middle East and North Africa ; non-tariff barriers
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 48
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (ECON)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: This is the second out of four papers devoted to the 2021 German federal elections continuing our analysis of the 2009, 2013 and 2017 Bundestag elections. This paper arranges the contesting parties into a 'spectrum' that reflects the spatial proximity of their policy profiles. The latter are 38-dimensional vectors of the parties' answers to 38 policy questions from the 2021 Wahl-O-Mat, the German voting advice application (VAA). Applying Principal component analysis (PCA), we construct a contiguous party ordering where the neighboring parties have close policy profiles. The ordering fits to the left-right ideological axis rolled up in a circumference, which can be unfolded by splitting it at one of its largest gaps. Rigorously speaking, we obtain a horseshoe-shaped left-right axis with the far-left and far-right ends approaching each other. For comparisons, alternative party orderings are constructed using four other models. Finally, the 2013, 2017 and 2021 German political spectra are compared.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D71 ; Policy representation ; representative democracy ; political spectrum ; left-right ideological axis
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: We study whether government subsidies can stimulate bank funding of marginal investment projects and the associated effect on financial stability. We do so by exploiting granular project-level information for the largest regional economic development programme in Germany since 1997: the Improvement of Regional Eco-nomic Structures programme (GRW). By combining the universe of subsidised firms to virtually all German local banks over the period 1998-2019, we test whether this large-scale transfer programme destabilised regional credit markets. Because GRW subsidies to firms are destabilised at the EU level, we can use it as an exogenous shock to identify bank responses. On average, firm subsidies do not affect bank lending, but reduce banks' distance to default. Average effects conflate important bank-level heterogeneity though. Conditional on various bank traits, we show that well capita-lised banks with more industry experience expand lending when being exposed to subsidised firms without exhibiting more risky financial profiles. Our results thus indicate that stable banks can act as an important facilitator of regional economic development policies. Against the backdrop of pervasive transfer payments to mitigate Covid-19 losses and in light of far-reaching transformation policies requiredto green the economy, our study bears important implications as to whether and which banks to incorporate into the design of transfer programmes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; G21 ; G28 ; H25 ; bank stability ; financial intermediation ; government subsidies
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: Die Europäische Union wird sich für die Finanzierung des Next-Generation-EU-Programms im großen Umfang verschulden. Die Tilgung dieser Schulden soll bis in das Jahr 2058 andauern. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Eigenmittelbeschluss für die Jahre 2021 bis 2027 wurde vereinbart, neue Eigenmittelkategorien einzuführen, die für die Rückzahlung der am Kapitalmarkt aufgenommenen Mittel eingesetzt werden sollen. Dazu zählen Eigenmittel auf der Grundlage eines CO2-Grenzausgleichssystems und einer Digitalabgabe sowie Eigenmittel auf der Grundlage des EU-Emissionshandelssystems, wobei auch eine Ausweitung des Systems auf den Luftund Seeverkehr in Rede steht. Darüber hinaus wurde in dem Fahrplan festgehalten, dass die Kommission nach einer Folgenabschätzung weitere Eigenmittel - möglichst bis Juni 2024 - vorschlagen wird: eine Finanztransaktionssteuer sowie einen "finanziellen Beitrag im Zusammenhang mit dem Unternehmenssektor oder eine neue gemeinsame Körperschaftsteuer-Bemessungsgrundlage". Bereits eingeführt wurde mit dem neuen Eigenmittelbeschluss eine Kunststoffabgabe als neue Finanzierungsquelle des EU-Haushalts. Theoretische Überlegungen zeigen, dass Einnahmen aus einigen der diskutierten neuen Eigenmittel durchaus der EU-Ebene zugestanden werden können. Die Schaffung neuer Eigenmittel führt allerdings zu Verteilungswirkungen, wie am Beispiel der Kunststoffabgabe gezeigt wird. Trotz der theoretischen Eignung einiger neuer Eigenmittel ist zu berücksichtigen, dass Eigenmittel auf der Grundlage des Bruttonationaleinkommens - die derzeit zu mehr als 70 Prozent den EU-Haushalt finanzieren - nach überwiegender Meinung die am besten geeignete Einnahmequelle für den EU-Haushalt sind. Sie können als ein umfassender Maßstab für die wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten angesehen werden.
    Description: The European Union will incur a large amount of debt to finance the Next Generation EU Programme. The repayment of this debt is expected to last until 2058. In connection with the own resources decision for the years 2021 to 2027, it was agreed to introduce new categories of own resources to be used for the repayment of the funds raised on the capital market. These include own resources based on a carbon border adjustment mechanism and a digital levy, as well as own resources based on the EU Emissions Trading System, with an extension of the system to aviation and maritime also under consideration. Furthermore, the roadmap stated that the Commission will propose further own resources - if possible by June 2024 - after an impact assessment: A financial transaction tax as well as a "financial contribution linked to the corporate sector or a new common corporate tax base". Already introduced with the new own resources decision is a plastic levy as a new source of financing for the EU budget. Theoretical considerations show that revenue from some of the new own resources under discussion could well be allocated to the EU level. However, the creation of new own resources leads to distributional effects, as shown by the example of the plastics levy. Despite the theoretical suitability of some new own resources, it should be borne in mind that own resources based on gross national income - which currently finance more than 70 per cent of the EU budget - are overwhelmingly considered to be the most appropriate source of revenue for the EU budget. They can be seen as a comprehensive measure of the economic performance of the Member States.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H20 ; H23 ; F23 ; F38
    Language: German
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  • 51
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (ECON)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: This is the third of four papers devoted to the 2021 German federal elections continuing our analysis of the 2009, 2013 and 2017 Bundestag elections. Currently, only China has a parliament larger than the German Bundestag, which still grows due to the increasing number of overhang mandates. The unfettered growth of the Bundestag - caused by allotting too many direct mandates to parties that received too few second votes - can be prevented by relaxing the principle of 'one man-one vote' and introducing adjustable vote weights of Bundestag members. Such a practice could make numerous adjustment (leveling) seats unnecessary and the basic 598 Bundestag seats sufficient under most circumstances. For this purpose, the members of the overrepresented parties (because they receive too many direct mandates) should have vote power = 1 and the members of other parties should have adjustment vote weights 〉 1. We explain the adjustment vote weights using the example of the 2021 Bundestag. The second point discussed is the incomplete compliance of the Sainte-Lague/Schepers method, which dates back to 1832 and is used to apportion the Bundestag, with the mathematical standards of the 21st century. This method results in apportionments that are often not the best ones found by discrete optimization.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D71 ; Representative democracy ; elections ; theory of voting ; proportional representation
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: This paper examines the impact of issuing contingent convertible (CoCo) bonds on bank risk. I apply a matching-based difference-in-differences approach to banklevel data for 246 publicly traded European banks and 61 CoCo issues from 2008−2018. My estimation results reveal that issuing CoCo bonds that meet the criteria for additional tier 1 (AT1) capital results in significantly higher z-scores one to three years after the issuance. Rather than having a net negative impact, issuing CoCos seems to impede a positive time trend towards greater bank stability. This study adds to the empirical literature on the risk-effect of contingent convertibles by identifying the causal effect of AT1 CoCo bonds on reported risk changes over a three-year post-treatment horizon based on a comprehensive sample of European banks. The results confirm theoretical predictions that currently outstanding CoCo bonds create incentives for excessive risk-taking.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; G21 ; G23 ; G32 ; G38 ; AT1 capital ; bank risk ; Basel III ; CoCo bonds
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: In 2020, EU companies imported intermediate products worth 2.4 trillion euros, which made up more than half of total merchandise imports of the EU. Compared to the pre-crisis year 2019, imports of intermediates decreased by 13 percent, partly driven by the lower fuel prices. A detailed analysis of trade in value added shows that in most EU countries more than half of the imported intermediate products come from other EU member states. Extra-EU sources of value added in domestic final demand and exports are particularly important in the smaller economies like Luxembourg and Malta, but also in the biggest EU member states Germany, France, Italy and Spain. Among the Non-EU countries, especially the USA, UK, China, and Russia contribute substantially in terms of value added to the production process of EU member states. The USA are the most important source of value added outside the EU for several countries like Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, Spain, etc. The UK is the top non-EU-provider of value added for Cyprus. China delivers the largest share of non-EU value added in some countries from Central and Eastern Europe like Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Russia is particularly important for the Baltic countries, Bulgaria and Slovakia. Among the EU member states, Germany is the most important source of value added for the domestic final demand and exports in most of the other EU countries - notable exceptions are Belgium and Ireland, where more value added comes from France than from Germany. The corona crisis has revealed the fragility of global value chains. Industries are increasingly and asymmetrically connected with each other. Value chains were internationalized to achieve efficiency and economies of scale. Outsourcing, offshoring and lean production lines with low inventory stocks, however, have made the European economy vulnerable to disruptions and shortages of supply chains. A disruption caused by an event such as the corona crisis can propagate along supply chains affecting direct and indirect suppliers as well as customers of disaster-stricken firms. Hence, the perceived trade-off between low prices of intermediate products and the increased risk of being dependent on complex global supply chains has gained new attention in the context of the pandemic. European policymakers are thus calling for a larger role of reshoring in some industries. However, the actual size and dimensions of reshoring in Europe and Germany in the past have been limited as this is only one of many possible strategies to increase resilience of value chains. This indicates a misalignment between the perspective of companies and priorities of policy makers. The design of the value chain network is a matter of economic decision-making and a potential structural change can only be initiated by companies in the course of reassessing the above-mentioned trade-off and of reconsidering the risks of international supply chains. Besides reshoring, other potential measures to increase resilience concern the diversification of supply chains, increasing stockkeeping, or adjusting delivery times. In terms of economic policy, state interventions are only reasonable for industries producing essentials (e.g. certain medicines or personal protective equipment). However, it is crucial that supply chains, which are already disrupted, are not further affected by additional trade conflicts. Protectionist measures covered in the strategy of restructuring supply chains motivated by the current crisis hence entail the danger of reversing the achievements in trade liberalization and specialization of the last decades.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F10 ; F13 ; F02 ; Globale Wertschöpfungskette ; Auslandsverlagerung ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: Seit Jahrzehnten praktizieren zahlreiche Unternehmen in Europa und den USA eine räumliche und zeitliche Flexibilisierung von Arbeit, die durch digitale Technologien gestützt wird. Als Präventionsmaßnahme zum Infektionsschutz gewann das Arbeiten von zuhause in den letzten beiden Jahren eine ganz neue Bedeutung. Die Zahl der Beschäftigten im Homeoffice stieg sprunghaft an, aber auch die Zahl der Studien verschiedener Forschungsrichtungen, die sich mit den Rahmenbedingungen, mit den betrieblichen und politischen Implikationen und den Chancen und Risiken aus Betriebs- und Beschäftigtensicht auseinandersetzten. Waren es vor dem Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie 13 Prozent aller Erwerbstätigen und knapp 10 Prozent aller abhängig Beschäftigten in Deutschland, die zumindest gelegentlich von zuhause arbeiteten, so stieg ihre Zahl mit Beginn der Pandemie, dem ersten Lockdown im März 2020, und durch die zwischenzeitlich verfügte Homeoffice-Pflicht rapide an: In der Spitze arbeitete im Februar 2021 fast die Hälfte (49 Prozent) der abhängig Beschäftigten in Deutschland in ihrer häuslichen Umgebung. In der Europäischen Union haben im Jahr 2019 durchschnittlich 11 Prozent aller abhängig Beschäftigten zumindest gelegentlich von zuhause gearbeitet, darunter in Schweden etwa ein Drittel aller Beschäftigten und in Bulgarien nur 1 Prozent. Mit Ausbruch der Pandemie stiegen auch hier die Zahlen deutlich an: Durchschnittlich arbeiteten in der EU im Februar/März 2021 etwa 42 Prozent der Beschäftigten von zuhause, in den Niederlanden sogar fast 60 Prozent. In den USA schwanken die Zahlen sehr stark je nach Fragestellung und Erfassung zwischen 15 und 37 Prozent der US-Beschäftigten für die Vor-Corona-Zeit. Zu Beginn der Pandemie-Zeit, im Mai 2020, waren es 42 Prozent der US-Erwerbstätigen, die zuhause arbeiteten. Inzwischen ist die Zahl wieder stark zurückgegangen. In allen Ländern diskutieren Politik, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft, wie es mit dieser flexiblen Arbeitsform nach der Pandemie weitergeht und wie eine neue Normalität dann aussehen kann. Die empirische Evidenz legt nahe, dass der Verbreitungsgrad des Arbeitens von zuhause zunehmen wird - nicht zuletzt aufgrund gemeinsamer positiver Erfahrungen in den vergangenen knapp zwei Jahren mit dieser Arbeitsform. Wo sowohl Beschäftigte als auch Betriebe hingegen ihre Vorbehalte gegenüber dem Homeoffice bestätigt sehen, werden sie zur Präsenzarbeit zurückkehren, wenn die Umstände dies erlauben. Allerdings signalisiert der Kontrast zwischen Wünschen der Beschäftigten nach Arbeiten im Homeoffice und den Homeoffice-Plänen von insbesondere kleinen Unternehmen potenzielle Konflikte auf betrieblicher Ebene nach der Rückkehr in den Regelbetrieb. Eine Analyse auf Basis der BIBB-/BAuA-Erwerbstätigenbefragung 2018 zeigt, dass gut ein Fünftel der Beschäftigten hierzulande der Wunsch nach Arbeiten von zuhause verwehrt ist, obwohl deren Aufgaben nach eigener Aussage eine solche Arbeitsform ermöglichen. Allerdings zeigt die ökonometrische Analyse auch, dass sich diese Beschäftigtengruppe bei vielen Arbeitsplatzmerkmalen von den Beschäftigten unterscheidet, die bereits im Homeoffice arbeiten, aber auch von denen, die dort arbeiten könnten, aber nicht wollen. Diese Unterschiede deuten auf sachbezogene Gründe für eine bislang fehlende Erlaubnis hin. Unternehmen und Beschäftigten müssen daher in einem Dialog die betrieblichen Notwendigkeiten und individuellen Belange ausbalancieren, um angemessene spezifische Lösungen über das Ob und Wie des Arbeitens von zuhause zu finden. Dabei gilt es zu prüfen, welche Rahmenbedingungen für Betriebe und Beschäftigte förderlich sind, um die Arbeitszufriedenheit und Gesundheit der Beschäftigten einerseits und die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Betriebe mit einer hohen Produktivität und gut funktionierender Geschäftsprozesse andererseits in Einklang zu bringen. Der im Koalitionsvertrag vereinbarte Erörterungsanspruch birgt das Risiko, den effektiven und effizienten Aushandlungsprozess zwischen Unternehmen und Beschäftigten aus der Balance zu bringen.
    Description: For decades, numerous companies in Europe and the USA have been practicing flexible working schemes supported by digital technologies. As a preventive measure to protect against infection, working from home has gained a whole new significance in the last two years. The number of employees working from home increased by leaps and bounds, as did the number of studies from various fields of research that examined the framework conditions, the operational and political implications, and the opportunities and risks from the company and employee perspectives. Whereas before the outbreak of the Corona pandemic 13 percent of the labor force and just under ten percent of all dependent employees in Germany worked from home at least occasionally, their number rose rapidly with the onset of the pandemic, with the first lockdown in March 2020. But also as a result of the compulsory work-from-home policy there was - at its peak in February 2021 - almost half (49%) of dependent employees in Germany working from home. In the European Union, an average of eleven percent of all dependent employees worked from home at least occasionally in 2019. In Sweden it was around one-third of all employees working from home whereas in Bulgaria just one percent. With the outbreak of the pandemic, the figures here also rose significantly: On average, about 42 percent of employees in the EU worked from home in February/March 2021, and nearly 60 percent in the Netherlands. In the U.S., the numbers vary widely depending on the kind of inquiry and coverage, from 15 to 37 percent of the U.S. workforce for the pre-Corona period. At the beginning of the pandemic period, in May 2020, 42 percent of the U.S. workforce was working from home. The number has since plummeted again. In all countries, policymakers and business leaders are discussing how this flexible form of work will continue after the pandemic and what a new normal might look like then. The empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of working from home will increase - not least because of shared positive experiences with working from home over the past almost two years. By contrast, where both employees and companies see their reservations about remote working confirmed, they will return to face-to-face work as soon as circumstances will permit. However, a special econometric analysis shows that there is one fifth of employees who are eligible to work from home as far as their tasks and their personal qualification is concerned but they are not allowed to do so. The analysis shows as well that this employee group differs in many workplace characteristics from employees who already work from home or who do not want to. Companies and employees must therefore engage in a dialogue to balance operational necessities and individual concerns in order to find appropriate specific solutions on whether and how to work from home. In this context, it is important to find out which framework conditions are conducive to companies and employees in order to reconcile the job satisfaction and health of employees on the one hand and the competitiveness of companies with high productivity and well-functioning business processes on the other. The coalition agreement of the new German government might disequilibrate the balance of the effective and efficient negotiation process between companies and employees.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J53 ; J81 ; M54 ; Telearbeit ; Arbeitsgestaltung ; Arbeitszeitgestaltung ; Coronavirus ; Deutschland ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Konstanz: University of Konstanz, Cluster of Excellence "The Politics of Inequality"
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: Using new data from a three-wave panel survey administered in Germany between May 2020 and May 2021, this paper studies the impact of a negative shock affecting every strata of the population, such as the development of COVID-19, on preferences for redistribution. Exploiting the plausibly exogenous change in severity of the infection rate at the county level, we show that, contrary to some theoretical expectations, the worse the crisis, the lower the support for redistribution of our respondents. We provide further suggestive evidence that this is not driven by a decrease in inequality aversion, but this might be the result of a decrease in trust in the institutions who are in charge of redistributive policies.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; D31 ; D63 ; D72 ; preferences for redistribution ; inequality aversion ; COVID-19
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 56
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research (IAI)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: In this study we analyse different motives for asylum, focussing on the relative strength of specific asylum reasons and concentrating on origin and destination countries of special relevance. To this end, we build a bilateral asylum migration model, use panel data techniques based on a panel of 131 origin/sending countries and 37 OECD countries over a maximum period of 22 years, and apply the High Density Fixed Effect (HDFE) Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimation technique. Our model includes the economic situation in both sending and receiving countries; political factors in sending countries, such as the political terror scale, civil liberties, government stability, military in politics; institutional factors, such as law & order; personal safety aspects, such as ethnic tensions, external conflict, internal conflict, and religious tensions. We find that economic factors influence asylum claims to a certain extent. Moreover, we identify only deteriorations in civil liberties, internal conflict and ethnic tensions as triggers of increased asylum demand among the personal safety aspects. As to relevant sub-samples of origin countries, a deterioration in civil liberties and an aggravation in ethnic tensions lead to a more than proportionate increase in asylum migration from major asylum seeking countries and a worsening of conflict leads to an extremely strong reaction in asylum requests from refugees of conflict-ridden countries. While these reactions are plausible, they are far less pronounced in the overall sample. As to the question which destination country can be chosen as safe haven, empirical evidence shows that bilateral recognition rates signal bilateral attractiveness in a brutally honest way.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C23 ; F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; asylum migration ; motives ; identification of relevant relations ; bilateral recognition rates ; high density fixed effect poisson pseudo maximum likelihood technique
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 57
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (ECON)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: This is the last of four papers devoted to the 2021 German federal elections continuing our analysis of the 2009, 2013 and 2017 Bundestag elections. It is shown that the policy representation by the Bundestag could be improved using the alternative Third Vote election method. Under the Third Vote, electors cast no votes for parties by name. The electoral ballot consists of questions on topical policy issues ('General speed limit on motorways?'-Yes/No, 'Germany should increase its defense spending?'-Yes/No, etc.), and the parties answer to these questions before the elections - as required by the Wahl-O-Mat, the German voting advice applications. However, the Third Vote is not concerned with individual advices or individual voting intermediation. The electoral ballots are processed to construct the electorate's policy profile with balances of public opinion on all the issues. Then the matching of the parties' profiles with the electorate's profile is measured using the parties' indices of popularity (average percentage of electors represented on all the issues) and universality (percentage of questions when a majority is represented). These indices of representativeness are used instead of the conventional index 'number of votes received' to define the party quotas in the Bundestag. This method is hypothetically applied to reallocate the Bundestag seats to the eligible parties, resulting in a considerable gain in the Bundestag's representativeness. Finally, we discuss mixed election procedures combining the Third Vote with the conventional voting by party name and analyze possible implications.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D71 ; Representative democracy ; elections ; theory of voting ; proportional representation
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 58
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (ECON)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Description: This is the first out of four papers devoted to the 2021 German federal elections continuing our analysis of the 2009, 2013 and 2017 Bundestag elections by the methods of the mathematical theory of democracy. This one estimates the policy representation ability of the 39 parties that participated in the 2021 elections and the Bundestag. For this purpose, the positions of the parties on 38 topical issues are compared with the results of recent public opinion polls. Then the parties' indices of popularity (the average percentage of the population represented) and universality (frequency in representing a majority) are constructed. Assuming that the Bundestag's position on the 38 issues is determined by the Bundestag majority, the Bundestag's indices of popularity and universality are estimated as well. The main conclusion is that the representativeness of the Bundestag parties and the Bundestag (before coalition-formation) has significantly increased since 2017. In particular, the election winner, the SPD, is now ranked 4 instead of 22 in 2017, having the mean index (popularity + universality) / 2 = 65% instead of 52 % in 2017. The Bundestag's mean index is now equal to 61% instead of former 40%. As for the ruling 'Traffic light coalition', SPD+GRUNE+FDP, its compatibility is as low as 45% and the representativeness is not the best either.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D71 ; Policy representation ; representative democracy ; direct democracy ; elections ; coalitions
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 59
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-08
    Description: We utilize the recently updated UNU-WIDER Government Revenue Dataset, which covers key indicators on tax and non-tax revenues for 196 countries since the 1980s, to study the dynamics of government revenue tax collection across selected periods from 1985 up to the most recent available year (2019). In doing so, we propose a new approach that highlights the direction, intensity, and continuity of trends in total tax and total revenue collection, with implications for aid, fiscal policy, and sustainable development. We find that in the early to late 2000s, tax- and revenue-to-gross domestic product ratios experienced an upward surge on average; however, this does not uniformly apply to all regions. In addition, for countries that witnessed moderate to high growth rates in total revenues in the early to late 2000s, moderate growth levels may have turned out to be more sustainable. This, as well as explorations of our methodology, poses topics for further investigation to contextualize global patterns, particularly regarding drivers of domestic revenue mobilization improvement or decline.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E00 ; H2 ; Y10 ; domestic revenue mobilization ; Government Revenue Dataset ; tax ; sustainable development ; aid ; fiscal policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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