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  • 1
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: This article examines the effect of Aid for Trade (AfT) flows on services export diversification in recipient-countries. The empirical analysis has relied on a sample of 100 recipient-countries (of which 31 Least developed countries – LDCs) over the period 2002-2014 and used the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) approach. It shows that total AfT flows always exert a positive effect on services export diversification over the full sample, with the magnitude of this positive effect being higher for less advanced countries such as LDCs than for relatively advanced economies. This finding also applies to the effect of the cumulated AfT flows on services export diversification. However, we find that the components of total AfT flows - namely AfT for services sectors and AfT for non-services sectors - exert a higher positive effect on services diversification in less advanced countries, notably LDCs than in relatively advanced countries. Specifically, for countries whose real per capita income exceed a certain level, these two types of capital inflows are associated with greater services export concentration. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries and notably the poorest countries among them.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; Aid for Trade ; Services Export Diversification
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This study revisits and tests empirically the Portfolio Theory of Inflation (PTI), which analyzes how the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy in open and globally financially integrated economies is influenced by global investor decisions (Bossone, The portfolio theory of inflation and policy (in)effectiveness, 2019). The PTI shows that when an economy is heavily indebted and is perceived by the market to be poorly credible, investors hold it to a tighter intertemporal budget constraint and policies aimed to stimulate output growth dissipate into domestic currency depreciation and higher inflation, with limited or no impact on output, or with lower output and lower inflation. On the other hand, markets afford highly credible economies much greater space for effective and noninflationary macro policies. The study leads to a very basic advice: policymakers of an internationally highly integrated economy should keep public liabilities (the stock of both central bank money and public debt) at low levels: the larger the liabilities, the higher the degree of surrender of the country's national policy sovereignty to external forces and interests.
    Keywords: E31 ; E4 ; E5 ; E62 ; F31 ; G15 ; H3 ; ddc:330 ; credibility ; exchange rate ; financial integration ; fiscal and monetary policies ; global investor(s) ; inflation ; intertemporal budget constraint ; policy effectiveness ; public debt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Köln: Bundesanzeiger-Verlag
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Die Zollverwaltung hatte bislang mit dem Bekenntnis zur De-Mail Neuerungen zu den Geschäftsabläufen eingeführt. Der zweite Teil der Einführung neuer, elektronischer Geschäftsabläufe ist umfassender: seit April 2016 wird im Hintergrund von der Generalzolldirektion (GZD) an der Einführung des Bürger- und Geschäftskundenportals (BuG) gearbeitet, mit welchem die Abläufe im Zoll- und Verbrauchsteuerrecht elektrifiziert werden, z.B. die Abgabe von Steueran meldungen oder die Beantragung einer VZTA, einer EORI-Nummer oder (zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt) von Erlaubnissen und Bewilligungen. Dieser Beitrag stellt den Aufbau und die Entwicklung des BuG vor. Der Beitrag stellt die persönliche Auffassung des Autors dar.
    Description: Zweitveröffentlichung im kostenlosen AW-Service-Guide 2020. Erstveröffentlichung in der AW-Prax 9/19, S. 375 ff.
    Keywords: K34 ; H83 ; ddc:330 ; Zollverwaltung ; Informatikverfahren ; Vereinfachung
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper compares two methods for meta-analysis: fixed-effect models and random- effects models. Both models are applied to pass-through rates of excise taxes on alcohol beverages. Using a sample of estimates from 30 primary studies, weighted means are first reported for each method and compared against a fully- passed tax or rate of unity. Dispersion and heterogeneity statistics are used to assess the performance of each method. Second, means and dispersion statistics are reported by subgroups for country source; beverage (beer, wine-spirits); and published status. Third, tests are conducted forpublication selection bias using funnel plots and regression asymmetry tests. Fourth, threeprocedures are undertaken to reduce selection bias: trim-and-fill; cumulative meta-analysis; and meta-regressions. Based on a variety of tests and procedures, three conclusions arereached. First, a random-effects model is more appropriate for these data, reflecting diverse estimates of pass-through rates. Second, pass-through rates are approximately unity regardless of beverage. Third, greater attention needs to be given to choice of model for meta-analysis in economics.
    Keywords: C18 ; C52 ; H21 ; H22 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; meta-analysis ; fixed-effects ; random-effects ; publication bias ; excise taxes ; pass-through rate ; alcohol
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Gelsenkirchen: Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: * Die digitale Fertigung bietet vielfaltige Chancen für Handwerksbetriebe und Designunternehmen, mit innovativen Produkten und Dienstleistungen auf veränderte Kundenanforderungen zu reagieren und sich wettbewerbsfähig im Markt zu positionieren. * Die Ausschöpfung der Potenziale ist nicht nur risikoreich, sondern für viele kleine und mittlere Unternehmen aus Handwerk und Design gänzlich unmöglich. * Mit W3 - Wissen.Werkstatt.Workshop hat das Projekt 'DigiMat' über drei Jahre gemeinsam mit Handwerker/innen und Designer/innen ein Geschäftsmodell entwickelt, um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen. * Im Fokus steht die gewerke-/branchenübergreifende wissensbasierte und innovationsorientierte Vernetzung von Handwerksbetrieben und Designunternehmen, um ihr Wissen zu bündeln, auszutauschen, neues Wissen zu generieren und dieses in der digitalen Fertigung materieller Gegenstande zu verwerten. * Damit lassen sich Kundenanforderungen und neue technologische und materialbezogene Entwicklungen leichter antizipieren und das Risiko der digitalen Fertigung reduzieren.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Automatisierte Produktion ; Handwerk ; Konstruktion ; Unternehmenskooperation ; Deutschland
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Agricultural commodity markets in developing countries are characterized by high transaction costs and risks that reduce trade flows among spatial markets. In this article, we examine whether institutionalized agricultural commodity exchange markets reduce transaction costs and hence spatial price dispersion using the introduction of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) as a quasi-experiment. We use a commodity level Difference-in-Difference identification strategy to compare the spatial price dispersion of cereals that are traded at ECX (maize and wheat) with a cereal traded only at the local market (teff). Results show that ECX significantly reduces the spatial price dispersion of maize and wheat compared to teff. This effect varies depending on crop type and the time length since the ECX started trading the commodity. The longer the duration, the larger the reduction in price dispersion. We also find that dissemination of price information is the main channel through which the commodity exchange affects spatial price dispersion.
    Keywords: O13 ; O18 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Commodity Exchange ; Difference-in-Difference ; Ethiopia ; Price Dispersion ; Spatial market
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Chair of International Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper aims to revisit the relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth using the largest, up-to-date macro database (2000-2015) available to corroborate the econometric findings of earlier work and to generate novel econometric evidence by accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013) and economic recovery (2014-2015). To achieve these aims, this paper employs a cross-country growth accounting econometric estimation approach using the largest, up-to-date database available encompassing 16 EU countries over the time-period 2000-2015. The paper accounts for times of crisis (2008-2013) and of economic recovery (2014-2015). It separately estimates the contribution of three distinct dimensions of intangible capital: i) computerized information, ii) innovative property and iii) economic competencies. First, when accounting for intangibles, the paper finds that these have become the dominant source of labour productivity growth in the EU, explaining up to 66 percent of growth. Second, when accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013), in contrast to tangible capital, the paper detects a solid positive relationship between intangibles and labour productivity growth. Third, when accounting for the economic recovery (2014-2015), the paper finds a highly significant and remarkably strong relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth. This paper corroborates the importance of intangibles for labour productivity growth and thereby underlines the necessity to incorporate intangibles into today's national accounting frameworks in order to correctly depict the levels of capital investment being made in European economies. These levels are significantly higher than is currently reflected in official statistics.
    Keywords: C23 ; G01 ; O34 ; O47 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; intangible capital ; labour productivity growth ; crisis ; recovery ; European Union
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: GlobalG.A.P. compliance has often become a key requirement for farmers to access high-value global markets. Yet, the global spread of certification is highly uneven among countries. We assess the drivers and dynamics behind these unequal patterns, applying panel data regressions. Findings show that global agricultural trade networks remain relevant, but are no longer sufficient in explaining certification. Fostering a favourable business environment - via providing secure land tenure and a functioning judicial system - as well as investing in transportation and information infrastructure may facilitate farmers' participation in certification schemes. Stringency of existing public regulations is helpful for overcoming entry barriers.
    Keywords: O31 ; Q13 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; global agricultural supply chains ; GlobalG.A.P. ; private food standards ; organisational innovations ; agricultural sector transformation
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: During the last years of his life, the mathematician Karl Menger worked on a biography of his father, the economist and founder of the Austrian School of Economics, Carl Menger. The younger Menger never finished the work. While working in the Menger collections at Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, we discovered draft chapters of the biography, a valuable source of information given that relatively little is known about Carl Menger's life nearly a hundred years after his death. The unfinished biography covers Carl Menger's family background and his life through early 1889. In this article, we discuss the biography and the most valuable new insights it provides into Carl Menger's life, including Carl Menger's family, his childhood, his student years, his time working as a journalist and newspaper editor, his early scientific career, and his relationship with Crown Prince Rudolf.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Carl Menger ; Karl Menger ; Austrian Economics ; Liberalism in Austria ; Crown Prince Rudolf ; Anton Menger
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Bioaerosols ; agriculture ; animal husbandry ; emissions ; review ; methods
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: It is often assumed that voluntary sustainability standards - such as Fairtrade - could not only improve the socioeconomic wellbeing of smallholder farmers in developing countries but could also help to reduce negative health and environmental impacts of agricultural production. The empirical evidence is thin, as most previous studies on the impact of sustainability standards only focused on economic indicators, such as prices, yields, and incomes. Here, we argue that Fairtrade and other sustainability standards can affect agrochemical input use through various mechanisms with possible positive and negative effects. We use data from farmers and rural workers in Cote d'Ivoire to analyze effects of Fairtrade certification on fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as on human health and environmental toxicity. Fairtrade increases chemical input quantities and aggregated levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, Fairtrade reduces the incidence of pesticide-related acute health symptoms among farmers and workers. Certified cooperatives are more likely to offer training and other services related to the safe handling of pesticides and occupational health, which can reduce negative externalities in spite of higher input quantities. These results suggest that simplistic assumptions about the health and environmental effects of sustainability standards may be inappropriate.
    Keywords: O12 ; Q01 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Agrochemicals ; certification ; Fairtrade ; pesticides ; sustainability standards ; toxicity
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper examines the effect of tax incentives in the form of bonus depreciation on the quality of investment. Using the expiration of tax incentives via bonus depreciation in East Germany and a representative panel of West German establishments, we show that bonus depreciation significantly lowers the quality of investment. The average quality of investments, measured by the responsiveness of future sales to current investment, reduces by 22.6-34.6%. This adverse effect of tax subsidies is greater for jurisdictions with higher tax rates as well as for large or high-productivity firms. Overall, while increasing investment quantity, as shown by prior literature, tax incentives such as bonus depreciation substantially reduce the quality of investments.
    Keywords: G11 ; H25 ; H32 ; M41 ; ddc:330 ; bonus depreciation ; tax incentive ; investment incentive ; investment quality
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: We examine whether tax audit regimes become more efficient if (i) there are audited financial statements and (ii) tax auditors have access to the internal statutory audit report revealing information about statutory audit adjustments. Our analysis is based on a standard tax compliance game that we extend to model the strategic interaction among a firm issuing financial and tax reports, a statutory auditor, and a tax auditor. We find that the efficiency effects of additional information depend on the strength of tax auditor incentives and the weight that firms place on book income. For high-powered tax auditor incentives, we obtain no information effect on our efficiency measures. For low-powered tax auditor incentives, we find an ambiguous effect, and for mediumpowered tax auditor incentives and firms that place a high weight on book income, tax audit efficiency increases if the tax auditor has access to additional information. In the latter case, we find that granting the tax auditor access to the internal statutory audit report increases firms' tax compliance, raises tax revenues, and decreases tax audit frequency.
    Keywords: H26 ; M41 ; M42 ; ddc:330 ; Tax compliance game ; Tax audit ; Statutory audit ; Tax audit efficiency ; Strategic auditing
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper discusses the development of Euroscepticism in France and the underlying actors and causes. First, the literature review presents a selection of distinct classifications, actors and sources for the analysis. Thus, the distinction between hard and soft Euroscepticism as well as diffuse and specific support for European integration guides the interpretation of Eurobarometer data, which show that there has been an actual increase of French discontent towards the European project since the early 1990s. The Front National represents the main actor within the Eurosceptic landscape. A socio-demographic analysis of the electorate describes the average frontiste likely to be a male, belonging to a household with lower levels of income and education, and besides immigration and security, ranking identity and national sovereignty very highly on their list of concerns. Eventually, the sources for rising Euroscepticism in France are examined in light of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors. Once more, Eurobarometer data reveal that while economic concerns tend to fuel EU-critical positions rather than fundamental opposition, cultural aspects like national identity, immigration and national security should also be deemed as a crucial source of Euroscepticism. Institutional dissatisfaction at the national and European level -particularly related to the mismanagement of the financial and sovereign debt crisis as well as the migration crisis - has also contributed to the amplification of EU-critical attitudes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Euroscepticism ; France ; Front National ; Rassemblement National ; Euro Crisis ; Migration Crisis
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The development of renewable energy sources is central to the goal of gaining independence from conventional fossil fuels and achieving a sustainable energy supply. As these technologies are not yetfully developed and due to multi-dimensional selection environments cannotalwayscompete with conventional energy sources in the market, renewable energy sources initially require temporary protective space. Although some research has identified important factors with regard to the development of renewable technologies, there have not been any clear empirical studies, especially focusing on the new Member Statesof the European Union. Bulgaria and Poland in particular showed divergent results with regard to the deployment of the renewables. One, Bulgaria, achieved an outstanding increase in the share of energycoming from renewablessince its target was set in 2009, while another, Poland, has seen a sluggish result with regard to its policies. The aim of this paper is to identifythe factors leading to the successful promotion of renewable energy in the new Member States by using a comparative study of the cases of Bulgaria and Poland. The comparative study is conducted based on the three protective spaces advocated by Smith & Raven (2012). As a result, two main factors can be seen as the determinants of the success of renewable energy policies; "mprovement of connection to grid networks in shielding process" and "schemes for a transition from a niche space to a socio-technical regime in an energy industry structure in empowering process." Additionally, the delay of effective renewable energy policy implementation, which in the case of Poland, led to a failure of policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bulgaria ; Empowering ; EU ; Evolutionary theory ; New Member States ; Nurturing ; Protective space ; Poland ; Renewable energy policy ; Shielding
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Der vorliegende Bericht sichtet die weltweit verfügbare Literatur zu Methoden und Ergebnissen von Bioaerosoluntersuchungen in und um Landwirtschaftliche Nutztierhaltung und fasst die wichtigsten Punkte zusammen. Der weltweite Trend der Industrialisierung der Tierproduktion mit regionaler Konzentrierung von Betrieben sowie steigenden Tierzahlen und Besatzdichten führt zu einem Anstieg der Bioaerosolemissionen. Wesentliche Quellen der Bioaerosole sind vor allem die Mikroorganismen auf den Tieren, in ihren Fäkalien, in der Einstreu und im Futter. Werden sie aufgewirbelt emittieren sie mit der Abluft aus den Ställen heraus auch in die Umwelt. Daher wächst die Besorgnis über eine gesundheitliche Beeinträchtigung der Bevölkerung im Umfeld von großen Tierhaltungsanlagen. In der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung sind weltweit hunderte verschiedener Viren-, Bakterien- und Schimmelpilzarten nachgewiesen worden, wobei Vertreter der Bakteriengruppe Staphylococcaceae besonders häufig in großer Zahl gefunden wurden. Diese Gruppe scheint somit als spezifischer Leitparameter für Bioaerosole aus der Tierhaltung geeignet. Bioaerosole können Online mit Partikelspektrometern und Offline mit klassischen Methoden gemessen werden, d. h. Probenahme vor Ort mit anschließender Auswertung über kulturbasierte oder molekularbiologische Methoden im Labor. Aufgrund des komplexen Aufbaus von Bioaerosolpartikeln in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung sind Partikelspektrometer nur bedingt zu deren Klassifizierung einsetzbar. Die klassischen Nachweisverfahren sind vor allem zur Detektion von Mikroorganismen besser geeignet. Dabei sollte die Probenahme aufgrund einer Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Sammelverfahren möglichst mit standardisierten Systemen durchgeführt werden, um eine Vergleichbarkeit der Daten zu gewährleisten. Die Systeme sollten zudem eine möglichst hohe physikalische und biologische Sammeleffizienz haben. Die Auswahl eines geeigneten Sammelsystems sollte primär abhängig von der Fragestellung erfolgen. Nach der Sammlung der Bioaerosole erfolgt die Auswertung der Proben meist über Kultivierung von Mikroorganismen und/oder verschiedene biochemische und molekularbiologische Tests. Besonders letztere erlauben, vor allem in Kombination mit kulturbasierten Verfahren, einen detaillierten Einblick in die Zusammensetzung von Bioaerosolen. Hier ist jedoch noch eine weitere Standardisierung der für Bioaerosole geeigneten Methoden notwendig. Endotoxine als Bestandteile von Bioaerosolen werden überwiegend mit dem LAL-Test nachgewiesen, der jedoch relativ störanfällig ist. Die meisten Daten zu Bioaerosolmessungen in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung stehen aus den USA und Deutschland zur Verfügung. Hier wurden in den Ställen von Schweinen, Rindern und Hühnern vor allem die Konzentrationen von Bakterien, Schimmelpilzen und Endotoxinen gemessen. Bei relativ großen Schwankungsbreiten der Ergebnisse bei allen Tierarten wurden die höchsten Konzentrationen luftgetragener Bakterien in Haltungssystemen für Hühner gefunden, gefolgt von Puten, Enten, Schafen, Ziegen, Schweine, Rinder, Pferde und Kaninchen, wobei die verschiedenen Haltungsverfahren und Produktionsstadien einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Höhe der Konzentrationen haben. Auch publizierte Emissionsfaktoren für luftgetragene Mikroorganismen unterscheiden sich für dieselbe Tierart und Haltungsform teilweise erheblich, hervorgerufen auch durch unterschiedliche Probenahmebedingungen, Sammelmethoden und verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Konzentrationen. Bioaerosole wurden bisher ausschließlich Tagsüber gemessen. In den Tierställen können die Konzentrationsunterschiede luftgetragener Bakterien zwischen Tag und Nacht jedoch erheblich sein. Emissionsfaktoren können sich sogar um bis zu 3 Zehnerpotenzen unterscheiden, abhängig von der Tierart. Dies sollte in Zukunft z. B. bei der Berechnung von Jahresmittelwerten berücksichtigt werden. Bei der Transmission, also dem Transport der Bioaerosole über die Luft, sind die Mikroorganismen weitgehend ungeschützt Wind und Wetter ausgesetzt. Wie weit sie getragen werden, ist neben den meteorologischen Bedingungen primär von zwei Parametern abhängig: Die Tenazität, also die Fähigkeit den luftgetragenen Zustand zu Überleben und dem aerodynamischen Durchmesser der Bioaerosolpartikel, der z. B. bestimmt wie schnell diese sedimentieren. Wie lange Mikroorganismen in der Luft lebensfähig bleiben ist wiederum von vielen Faktoren abhängig und nur unzureichend untersucht, letzteres vor allem aufgrund der bisher eingesetzten und nur bedingt geeigneten Testsysteme. Bezüglich der Partikelgröße werden in der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung die meisten luftgetragenen Mikroorganismen in deutlich größeren Partikelfraktionen gefunden, als es die Größe der Einzelzellen der Organismen vermuten lässt. Dabei sind 30 % bis 70 % der Bakterien auf Partikeln 〉 10 μm zu finden, wobei die Verteilung der verschiedenen Bioaerosolbestandteile sehr unterschiedlich sein kann. Auch korreliert die Größenverteilung der Mikroorganismen nicht unbedingt mit der Größenverteilung von Staubpartikeln. Die Konzentrationen von Bioaerosolen in der Immission fallen exponentiell mit der Entfernung zur Emissionsquelle ab. Dies ist primär abhängig von der Partikelgröße und meteorologischen Bedingungen. Anstelle aufwändiger Messungen kann die Ausbreitung von Bioaerosolen auch mit Computermodellen simuliert werden. Bisher überschätzen die Modelle die tatsächlichen Immissionen jedoch meist um ein Vielfaches, da Nachtabsenkung, Partikelgrößenverteilungen und Absterberaten der Mikroorganismen nicht berücksichtigt werden. [...]
    Description: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Bioaerosole ; Landwirtschaft ; Nutztierhaltung ; Emissionen ; Literaturübersicht ; Methoden ; Bioaerosols ; agriculture ; animal husbandry ; emissions ; review ; methods
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Contract farming is typically seen as a useful mechanism to help smallholders. However, despite economic benefits, high dropout rates from contract schemes are commonplace. We use data from Ghana to show that smallholders benefit from a resource-providing contract in terms of higher yields and profits, but most of them still regret their decision to participate and would prefer to exit if they could. The main problem is insufficient information from the company. Farmers do not understand all contract details, which leads to mistrust. We argue that lack of transparency may explain high dropout rates in Ghana and other situations too.
    Keywords: L29 ; L49 ; O12 ; O13 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; contract farming ; continuity ; attrition ; information ; transparency
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Cologne: University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Using a panel of survey-based annual investor relations (IR) rankings of European companies, we provide evidence suggesting that the marginal benefit of IR is greater in countries with capital markets that are less outside-shareholder oriented. For firms located in these countries, we find that IR quality is associated with significantly greater firm visibility, information assimilation, and valuation. The results hold for both the public and private functions of IR, and in terms of market reactions around conference presentations and analyst/investor days. Furthermore, using MiFID II as a shock to firms' information environment, we find a significantly incremental association between IR and information assimilation as well as cost of capital in those countries post 2017. Overall, the evidence suggests that IR is associated with greater marginal benefits in markets where demand for this type of shareholder communication has been historically lower.
    Description: Version 01/2020
    Keywords: G14 ; M41 ; ddc:330 ; Investor Relations ; Transparency ; Ownership Concentration ; Firm Visibility ; Information Asymmetry ; Cost of Capital
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: In the existing literature, the effects of contract farming on household welfare were examined with mixed results. Most studies looked at single contract types. This paper contributes to the literature by comparing two types of contracts - simple marketing contracts and resource-providing contracts - in the Ghanaian oil palm sector. We investigate the effects of both contracts on farm income, as well as spillovers on other household income sources. We use survey data collected with an innovative sampling design and a control function approach to address possible issues of endogeneity. Both contracts lead to large positive effects on total household income in a similar magnitude, yet through quite different mechanisms. Farmers under the marketing contract use the increase in oil palm profits to transition out of agricultural production and into off-farm employment. Farmers under the resource-providing contract have a stronger dependency on income from oil palm, which is considerably more profitable under the contract. The findings underline that contract characteristics matter for the effects and that disaggregated analysis of different income sources is important to understand the underlying mechanisms.
    Keywords: I31 ; O12 ; O13 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; contract farming ; contract comparison ; credit schemes ; household income ; spillover effects ; control function approach ; oil palm ; Ghana
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with Epstein-Zin (1989, 1991) recursive preferences calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the fi ndings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. In contrast, under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the same economy calibrated to Bulgarian data now displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "sink" dynamics.
    Keywords: H22 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; progressive taxation ; equilibrium (in)determinacy ; Epstein-Zin preferences ; Bulgaria
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Budrich UniPress Ltd.: Leverkusen
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: Alleinerziehende gehören in Deutschland konstant zu den am meisten von Armut betroffenen Bevölkerungsgruppen: Während die Armutsrate der gesamten Bevölkerung im Jahr 2016 bei 16,5% und die von Paarhaushalten mit Kindern bei ‚nur‘ 10% lag, waren doppelt bzw. dreimal so viele (32,5%) Alleinerziehende von Armut betroffen. 90% aller Alleinerziehenden sind Frauen. Obwohl das hohe Armutsausmaß alleinerziehender Mütter wissenschaftlich bestens dokumentiert ist, sind die Ursachen bisher wenig erforscht. Dieses Buch entwickelt anhand der Lebensverlaufsperspektive ein Theoriemodell, das sowohl die dynamischen Interdependenzen von Familien- und Erwerbsverläufen als auch den rahmenden Einfluss bestehender Familien- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik systematisch berücksichtigt. Es werden folgende Forschungsfragen beantwortet: Inwiefern ist dieses hohe Armutsrisiko das Ergebnis eines endogenen Selektionsprozesses ins Alleinerziehen oder des Alleinerziehens per se? Inwiefern trägt die Differenzierung von drei Wegen ins Alleinerziehen (Trennung einer Ehe, Trennung einer nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, außerpartnerschaftliche Kindesgeburt) zum Verständnis dieser Effekte bei? Inwiefern werden diese beiden Effekte vom bestehenden institutionellen Kontext moderiert? Diese Fragen wurden anhand von Daten des Sozio-Ökonomischen Panel (SOEP) mit verschiedenen quantitativen Methoden empirisch analysiert. Im Vergleich zu Frauen, die nicht alleinerziehend werden, weisen zukünftige Alleinerziehende bereits zwei Jahre vor dem Übergang ins Alleinerziehen ein substanziell höheres Armutsrisiko auf. Zusätzlich wird die Wahrscheinlichkeit, arm zu sein, durch den Übergang ins Alleinerziehen substanziell noch erhöht. Dabei gibt es jedoch deutliche Unterschiede je nach Weg ins Alleinerziehen. Weiterhin wird gezeigt, dass weder die Arbeitsmarktreformen der frühen 2000er Jahre noch der Ausbau der Familienpolitik zu einer substanziellen Reduktion der Armutsrate für Alleinerziehende beigetragen haben.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, 2018. Die Publikation wurde durch das Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) und den Leibniz-Publikationsfonds für Open-Access-Monografien gefördert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Alleinerziehende ; Selektionsprozesse ; Familienpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; SOEP ; UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) ; Understanding Society ; Deutschland ; Vereinigtes Königreich
    Language: German
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  • 23
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Hintergrund: In Deutschland gehören Rückenschmerzen zu den häufigsten Erkrankungen quer durch alle Bevölkerungsschichten. Rund 80 bis 85% der Bevölkerung berichten von Rückenschmerzen im Verlauf ihres Lebens und bei 10–15% der Patienten ist ein chronischer Verlauf festzustellen. Chronische Erkrankungen gehen einher mit Multimorbidität und verursachen hohe Krankheitskosten für das Gesundheitswesen. Hieraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit, die verfügbaren Ressourcen zweckmäßig einzusetzen. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie wurden u.a. 99 Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen in sechs Berliner Schmerzambulanzen konsekutiv rekrutiert und mit Hilfe eines standardisierten Fragebogens interviewt. Zielsetzung: Das primäre Ziel der Studie war, die Inanspruchnahme von Gesundheitsdienstleistungen durch Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen im Gesundheitswesen abzubilden und die hieraus resultierenden Krankheitskosten zu berechnen. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit chronischen Rückenschmerzen verursachten jährliche durchschnittliche Gesamtkosten in Höhe von 31.148, - Euro, wobei die direkten Krankheitskosten 8.862, - Euro sowie die indirekten Kosten 22.287, - Euro betrugen. Schlussfolgerung: Im Hinblick auf die Allokation knapper Ressourcen im Gesundheitswesen erscheint es geboten, dass die Behandlungswege von Patienten mit Rückenschmerzen evaluiert werden.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Direkte Krankheitskosten ; Indirekte Krankheitskosten ; Prävalenz ; chronische Rückenschmerzen ; Krankheitskostenanalyse
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:preprint
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  • 24
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    London: Taylor & Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This article revisits the effects of life expectancy (LE) on economic growth (IPC) reported in previous research. Maximum likelihhod (ML) estimates are obtained based on the monotonic nonlinear flexible Box-Cox power transformation regression model. This variance stabilizing model, unlike the a priori restrictive nested log and linear forms, is a parametrically richer flexible functional form for transforming the dependent and independent variables separately with different power parameters. The conditional life expectancy elasticity of income estimates are found to vary across fitted models and the more robust flexible Box-Cox power model outperforms the restrictive linear and log specifications fitted in past work. Contrary to past findings indicating large negative and highly elastic (statistically significant) life expectancy (LE) elasticity of income (INC), new results from the preferred fully flexible Box-Cox model incorporating the nonlinear effect yield a much smaller negative (statistically significant) and inelastic life expectancy elasticity of income estimate. Study explores some policy options for enhancing economic growth during periods of high or rising life expectancy.
    Description: This is the pre-print of the published article. Refer to the Applied Economics Letters for the published version of this work.
    Keywords: I1 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; flexible Box-Cox transformation ; non-linearity ; economic growth ; elasticity
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This paper studies the welfare effects of wholesale price discrimination between downstream firms operating under different regulatory systems. I model a monopolistic intermediate good market in which production cost differences between downstream firms may be due to regulatory or technological asymmetries. Price discrimination reduces regulatory distortions but may lower productive efficiency. Therefore, price discrimination increases welfare if regulation is the dominant source of cost differences. This provides a novel welfare rationale for exempting wholesale markets from the recent ban on geo-blocking in the EU.
    Keywords: D43 ; L11 ; L42 ; ddc:330 ; Price discrimination ; Intermediate good markets ; International price discrimination ; Geo-blocking
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Berlin: Springer Spektrum
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: In diesem Open Access-Buch werden fünf zentrale Themenbereiche des Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagement (UBRM) vorgestellt. Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagerinnen und -manager kennen die Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, wie sie zum Beispiel in der Agenda 2030 der Vereinten Nationen - den sogenannten nachhaltigen Entwicklungszielen (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) - formuliert wurden. Sie denken vernetzt und verfügen über fachliche, methodische und soziale Kompetenzen, die für eine inter- und transdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit erforderlich sind. Sie sind in der Lage, mit sich verändernden Anforderungen umzugehen und können sich in eine breite Palette von Fachbereichen vertiefen. Ihre Qualifikation wird in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen, in nationalen und internationalen Organisationen sowie in privaten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen nachgefragt. Die Leserinnen und Leser bekommen in jedem der hier vorgestellten Themenbereich Einblicke in verschiedene UBRM-Fachbereiche sowie darüber, welche Kompetenzen und Fertigkeiten erworben werden können. Dies wird anhand konkreter Fallbeispiele verdeutlicht. Abschließend veranschaulichen Porträts von Absolventinnen und Absolventen die Studien- und Berufspraxis und zeigen, wie nachhaltige Zukunftsgestaltung im Sinne der Agenda 2030 aussehen kann.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltmanagement ; Bioressourcen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Sustainability ; Universität für Bodenkultur ; Open Access ; UBRM
    Language: German
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  • 29
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: Dieses Open-Access-Fachbuch setzt sich empirisch und theoretisch mit Teilaspekten der digitalen Transformation und deren Konsequenzen für die Unternehmensführung auseinander. Die mit der Digitalisierung verbundenen neuen Technologien, Geschäftsmodelle sowie Denk- und Handlungsweisen verändern die Welt grundlegend und mit einer hohen Geschwindigkeit. Der Band greift aktuelle, praxisrelevante Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen des Megatrends Digitalisierung auf und bietet Informationen zu Themen wie plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen, Cybersicherheit, Ambidextrie, Big Data Analytics, Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts, Online Marketing Tools, Augmented Reality und Social Influencing. Die 15 Beiträge wurden durch Autorenteams erarbeitet. Diese setzen sich aus Lehrenden und Forschenden sowie Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der Unternehmenspraxis mit akademischem Background zusammen. Sämtliche Beiträge basieren auf empirischen Analysen, die zumeist ihren Schwerpunkt auf Gestaltungsprobleme aus der Unternehmenspraxis legen, und beinhalten somit ein breites Spektrum an konkreten Fallbeispielen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Digitale Transformation ; Digitalisierung ; Open Access ; Digitaler Wandel ; Digital Business ; Unternehmensführung ; Management ; Megatrend ; Big Data ; Geschäftsmodelle ; Cybersicherheit ; Digitales Zeitalter ; Virtual Reality ; Arbeitsmodelle ; Google AdWords ; Schweiz ; Social Influencing ; Augmented Reality ; Ambidextrie ; Kryptowährungen
    Language: German
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    Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: This open access book addresses an urgent issue on which little organized information exists. It reflects experience in Africa but is highly relevant to other fragile states as well. - Constantine Michalopoulos, John Hopkins University, USA and former Director of Economic Policy and Co-ordination at the World Bank. Fragile countries face a triple data challenge. Up-to-date information is needed to deal with rapidly changing circumstances and to design adequate responses. Yet, fragile countries are among the most data deprived, while collecting new information in such circumstances is very challenging. This open access book presents innovations in data collection developed with decision makers in fragile countries in mind. Looking at innovations in Africa from mobile phone surveys monitoring the Ebola crisis, to tracking displaced people in Mali, this collection highlights the challenges in data collection researchers face and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Data collection ; Fragile states ; Development economics ; Economic development ; African economics ; African innovations ; Mobile phone surveys ; Rapid emergency response survey ; Displaced people ; Central African Republic ; Geo-spatial sampling ; Rapid consumption surveys ; Vulnerable populations
    Language: English
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    Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer ISI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: [Zusammenfassung] Die Analysen zur Klimabilanz von in Deutschland genutzten Elektrofahrzeugen (BEV) gegenüber konventionellen Fahrzeugen zeigen, dass diese von verschiedenen Faktoren stark beeinflusst werden. Auf der einen Seite erhöht die derzeitige Tendenz zu Fahrzeugen mit höheren Batteriekapazitäten die Treibhausgasemissionen. Auf der anderen Seite zeigen die neuesten Studienergebnisse, dass die Batterieproduktion mit immer geringeren spezifischen Treibhausgasemissionen verbunden ist. Zusammen mit dem angestrebten Wandel im Stromsektor zu mehr Erneuerbarem Strom werden hierdurch die Emissionen an Klimagasen gesenkt. Wie sich die Effekte in der Summe auswirken, wurde in der vorliegenden Studie analysiert. In allen untersuchten Fällen weisen die BEV gegenüber den Diesel- und Benzin-Pkw eine positive Treibhausgasbilanz auf. Sie variiert allerdings sehr stark. Wird die Fahrzeugbatterie eines Mittelklasse-Pkw eher etwas kleiner gewählt (40 kWh) und liegen die spezifischen Treibhausgasemissionen bei der Batterieherstellung eher am unteren Ende der bekannten Studienwerte, dann muss ein in 2019 gekauftes BEV rund 52.000 km fahren, damit seine Treibhausgasbilanz gegenüber einem vergleichbaren Benzin-Pkw positiv wird. Dies gilt für die Nutzung des deutschen Strommixes beim Laden der Elektrofahrzeuge. Über die gesamte Fahrzeugnutzungsdauer werden die Treibhausgase in diesem Fall um 32 % reduziert. Wenn man auf der anderen Seite die Batteriekapazität sehr groß wählt (120 kWh bei einem Oberklassefahrzeug) und die höheren aus Studien bekannten Treibhausgaswerte der Batterieherstellung wählt, dann müssen schon rund 230.000 km zurückgelegt werden für eine positive Bilanz gegenüber einem vergleichbaren Diesel-Pkw (deutscher Strommix beim Fahrzeugladen, 2019 angeschafftes Fahrzeug). Die Einsparung an Klimagasen beträgt dann nur 4 % für die gesamte Nutzungszeit. Die Nutzung von nur Erneuerbarem Strom zum Laden der BEV hat einen sehr großen positiven Einfluss. Selbst hohe Batteriekapazitäten und hohe Treibhausgasemissionen während der Herstellung der BEV können damit vergleichsweise schnell kompensiert werden. Im Fall des Oberklasse-Pkw mit 120 kWh Batteriekapazität sind es dann ca. noch 100.000 km (66%ige THG-Einsparung über die Gesamtnutzung). Im Fall des Mittelklasse-Pkw (40 kWh Batteriekapazität) sind es unter 20.000 km (68%ige THG-Einsparung über die Gesamtnutzung).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Hamburg: Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Sport spielt in Städten ökonomisch eine immer größere Rolle. Wesentliche Treiber sind ein sich veränderndes Nachfrageverhalten von Menschen sowie ein sich differenzierendes Angebot an Sportmöglichkeiten. Diese Entwicklungen lassen sich besonders stark in urbanen Räumen beobachten. Sport wird damit zu einem Faktor für Lebensqualität und dadurch zu einem wesentlichen Aspekt von Stadtentwicklung.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: We use US household survey data from 2001-2017 to investigate whether monetary policy has heterogeneous effects on women's and men's financial portfolio decisions by analyzing their equity investment. On the one hand, monetary policy significantly affects the entry decisions of women, but not of men: after a contractionary shock, the probability of women entering the stock market decreases. On the other hand, monetary policy is gender-neutral for stock market participants: there are no significant differences in exit or in portfolio rebalancing decisions between women and men. Our results suggest that monetary policy does not have a heterogeneous effect on portfolio decisions across genders once women participate in the stock market.
    Keywords: E58 ; J16 ; G11 ; ddc:330 ; Monetary Policy ; Gender ; Stock Market Participation ; Portfolio Choices
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: This paper links banking systems development to the colonial and legal history of African countries. Specifically, we investigate the impact of differing legal traditions on the development of existing investor and creditor protection, and on African banking systems. Based on a sample of 40 African countries from 2000 to 2016, our empirical findings show a significant dependence of current financial institutions on the legal origin and the colonization type. Findings also reveal that current legal financial institutions are not the major determinants of banking system development, whereas institutional and regulatory quality significantly matter for banking system development in both common and civil law countries. Strong creditor rights reduce the cost of banking in African countries.
    Keywords: G21 ; G38 ; G39 ; K15 ; K40 ; ddc:330 ; legal origin ; colonial history ; financial institutions ; banking system ; Hausman-Taylor estimation
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Industrial demand response can play an important part in balancing the intermittent production from a growing share of renewable energies in electricity markets. This paper analyses the role of aggregators - intermediaries between participants and the electricity market - in facilitating industrial demand response. Based on the results from semi-structured interviews with German demand response aggregators, as well as a wider stakeholder online survey, we examine the role of aggregators in overcoming barriers to industrial demand response. We find that a central role for aggregators is to raise awareness for the potentials of demand response, as well as to support implementation by engaging key actors in industrial companies. Moreover, we develop a taxonomy that helps analyse how the different functional roles of aggregators create economic value. We find that there is considerable heterogeneity in the kind of services that aggregators offer, many of which do create significant economic value. However, some of the functional roles that aggregators currently fill may become obsolete once market barriers to demand response are reduced or knowledge on demand response becomes more diffused.
    Keywords: D22 ; L23 ; Q40 ; Q41 ; ddc:330 ; aggregator ; demand response ; barriers ; function ; roles ; industry ; interview
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: The (re-)introduction of rent regulation in the form of rent controls, tenant protection or supply rationing is back on the agenda of policymakers in light of rent inflation in many global cities. While rent control as social policy promises short-term relief, economists point to their negative long-run effects on new construction. This paper present long-run data on both rent regulation and housing construction for 16 developed countries (1910-2017) and 44 developing countries since the 1980s to confirm the economists' view generally, albeit with certain reservations. The negative effect of regulation can be offset by exemptions for new construction, by compensating government construction and by a flight of new construction into the owner-occupied sector. The overall magnitude of the effect is therefore not as high as expected and shows non-linearities. But, although rent control is usually introduced with good social-policy intentions, it generally risks to crowd out its object of regulation through inhibiting new construction.
    Keywords: C23 ; O18 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; residential construction ; rent control ; tenure security ; housing rationing ; panel data model
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Many industries are seeing an increase in concentration, leading to a discussion on the effectiveness of horizontal merger enforcement. The policy debate shows that one of the key arguments put forward when supporting potential mergers is the possibility of realization of merger efficiency gains, specifically in the transport industry. Yet, there exists little empirical evidence on the actual effects of realized mergers on cost efficiencies. We exploit a large and highly debated merger that took place in the French transport industry to evaluate whether a merger between two major transport groups may give rise to merger efficiency gains. We exploit the industry setting to employ a difference-in-differences methodology evaluating the effect of the merger on operating costs of merging transport groups. Our results show that the merger did not lead to any merger specific efficiency gains for the merging parties. Our study relies on the use of several control groups and is robust to a great number of robustness checks as well as to the introduction of heterogeneous treatment effects, depending on the identity of the merging party, the contract type in place, as well as the closeness of competition of local operators. Overall, our study contributes to a growing number of case studies undertaken by economists that can help determine whether horizontal merger policy is being properly enforced.
    Keywords: C31 ; L40 ; L50 ; L92 ; ddc:330 ; Ex-post Evaluation ; Mergers ; Transport industry ; Merger cost efficiencies
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) is a simple and powerful non-parametric technique that automatizes the selection of non-linear terms in regression models. Non-linearities and spatial effects are natural characteristics in numerous spatial hedonic pricing models. In this paper, we propose using the MARS data-driven methodology combined with the Instrumental Variables method in order to account for potential non-linearities and spatial effects in hedonic models. Using a large data set of more than 6,000 dwellings in Hamburg and about 17,000 in St. Petersburg, we confirm the presence of both effects (non-linearities and spatial autocorrelation). The results also show that there is a non-linear effect of the prices of neighboring houses on the price of each house. High prices for neighboring houses have a lower impact on the house price than low prices of neighboring houses. Finally, an extensive Monte Carlo exercise evaluates the ability of MARS to incorporate the correct spatial spillover terms in spatial regression models simultaneously including at same time non-linear effects.
    Keywords: C4 ; C5 ; R1 ; ddc:330 ; Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline ; spatial regression models ; hedonic models ; housing prices ; Hamburg ; St. Petersburg
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: [Einleitung ...] Um die zu erwartenden fiskalischen Effekte des Ausbaus der Ganztagsbetreuung für Kinder im Grundschulalter zu berechnen, wird in einem ersten Schritt die Wirkung dieses Ausbaus auf das Arbeitsangebot von Müttern abgeschätzt. Da die Veränderung des Erwerbsverhaltens von Müttern nicht mit Sicherheit vorhergesagt werden kann, werden dazu drei Szenarien entwickelt (siehe Kapitel 2). Im nächsten Schritt werden für diese drei Szenarien die mit dem zusätzlichen Arbeitsangebot verbundenen Erwerbseinkommen berechnet. Auf Basis eines Mikrosimulationsmodells werden danach die daraus resultierenden Auswirkungen auf das Aufkommen von Steuern, Sozialversicherungsbeiträgen und Sozialtransfers berechnet (siehe Kapitel 3). Die so ermittelten Mehreinnahmen für die öffentliche Hand werden abschließend für jedes Szenario den zu erwartenden Kosten des Ausbaus ganztägiger Betreuungsangebote für Grundschulkinder gegenübergestellt. Dabei werden zunächst nur die Kosten betrachtet, die mit den geschätzten Erwerbsveränderungen in Verbindung stehen (siehe Kapitel 4). Des Weiteren werden die Mehreinnahmen den von Alt et al. (2019) geschätzten Kosten des Gesamtausbaus gegenübergestellt. Daraus ergibt sich schließlich der Anteil an den Gesamtkosten, der durch die Erhöhung der Erwerbsbeteiligung von Müttern von Grundschulkindern finanziert werden kann. Die Studie schließt mit einer zusammenfassenden Bewertung (siehe Kapitel 5).
    Description: Gutachten für das Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: Mit dem avisierten Austritt Großbritanniens aus der Europäischen Union am 31. Januar 2020 bleibt Unsicherheit über die zukünftigen Handelsbeziehungen bestehen. In der Übergangsphase ab dem Austrittsdatum bleibt Großbritannien zwar im Europäischen Binnenmarkt und damit in einer Zollunion mit der EU, die Partner müssen aber in kürzester Zeit ein Freihandelsabkommen aushandeln. Ohne ein Abkommen würde eine Zollgrenze zwischen der EU und Großbritannien entstehen. Die Autoren zeigen, dass sich Großbritannien durch ein neues Zollregime eine starke Verhandlungsposition gegenüber der EU verschafft: Die Reduzierung der gewichteten Ad-Valorem-Zölle von 3,0 auf 1,2 Prozent sichert einerseits den Zugang zu Gütern und generiert andererseits dennoch Einnahmen in Höhe von 6,3 Mrd. Euro, wenn ein Abkommen mit der EU scheitern sollte. Bisher hat die EU 80 Prozent der Zölle auf britische Importe eingenommen, diese Einnahmen fallen in jedem Fall weg. Die geplante Nordirland-Lösung könnte zusätzliche Kosten verursachen.
    Description: With the announced withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on January 31, 2020, uncertainty about future trade relations remains. During the transition phase from the date of withdrawal, the United Kingdom will remain in the European single market and thus in a customs union with the EU, but the partners will have to negotiate a free trade agreement in the shortest possible time. Without an agreement, a customs border between the EU and the United Kingdom would be created. The authors show that a new customs regime gives the United Kingdom a strong negotiating position vis-à-vis the EU: the reduction of weighted ad valorem customs duties from 3.0 percent to 1.2 percent secures access to goods on the one hand, but on the other hand it generates revenues of EUR 6.3 bn if an agreement with the EU fails. So far, the EU has collected 80 percent of the customs duties on British imports, but this revenue will be lost in any case. The planned Northern Ireland solution could lead to additional costs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Großbritannien ; Europäische Union ; Brexit ; Zölle ; United Kingdom ; European Union ; Brexit ; tariffs
    Language: German
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: The authors analyze the economic consequences of the Economic and Trade Agreement (ETA) between China and the USA, also referred to as the Phase-I Deal, which was signed on January 15, 2020. It is a highly asymmetric treaty which commits China to open its markets and to purchase large quantities of US products in order for the US to refrain from imposing additional punitive tariffs. It requires Chinese imports of certain US goods to increase by about 95 bn USD in 2021 relative to the 2017 baseline. The authors show that compared to a 2021 benchmark without a US-China trade war and without the ETA, the EU is likely to lose about 11 bn USD in exports to China. The largest negative effects for the EU are expected in aircraft, vehicles, industrial machinery, optical and medical machinery, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural goods. The country in the EU most strongly affected by the possible trade diversion effects is Germany. They conclude that the ETA is very unlikely to be compatible with WTO law, because it violates the most-favored-nations principle and fosters managed trade thus undermining the multilateral trading system.
    Description: Die Autoren analysieren die wirtschaftlichen Folgen des Wirtschafts- und Handelsabkommens (ETA) zwischen China und den USA, auch als Phase-I-Deal bezeichnet, das am 15. Januar 2020 unterzeichnet wurde. Es handelt sich um einen ausgesprochen asymmetrischen Vertrag, der China verpflichtet, seine Märkte zu öffnen und große Mengen von US-Produkten zu kaufen, damit die USA auf zusätzliche Strafzölle verzichten. Das ETA verlangt, dass die chinesischen Importe bestimmter US-Waren im Jahr 2021 um etwa 95 Mrd. USD gegenüber dem Ausgangswert von 2017 steigen. Die Autoren zeigen, dass die EU im Vergleich zu einem Referenzwert für das Jahr 2021 ohne einen Handelskrieg zwischen den USA und China und ohne das ETA wahrscheinlich rund 11 Mrd. USD an Exporten nach China verlieren wird. Die größten negativen Auswirkungen für die EU werden bei Flugzeugen, Fahrzeugen, Industriemaschinen, optischen und medizinischen Geräten, Arzneimitteln und landwirtschaftlichen Gütern erwartet. Das Land in der EU, das am stärksten von den möglichen Handelsumlenkungseffekten betroffen ist, ist Deutschland. Sie kommen zu dem Schluss, dass das ETA mit dem WTO-Recht höchstwahrscheinlich nicht vereinbar ist, da es gegen den Grundsatz der Meistbegünstigung verstößt und einen gelenkten Handel begünstigt sowie damit das multilaterale Handelssystem untergräbt.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; US-China relations ; managed trade ; trade diversion ; multilateralism ; Beziehungen USA-China ; gelenkter Handel ; Handelsumlenkung ; Multilateralismus
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: This article comprehensively reviews Australia's corporate income tax complexity as faced by multinational corporations (MNCs) and compares it to the average of the remaining OECD countries. Building on unique survey data, I find that the Australian tax code is considerably more complex than the OECD average, which is mainly due to overly complex anti-avoidance legislation, such as regulations on transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance or controlled foreign corporations (CFC). In contrast, Australia's tax framework, which covers processes and fea-tures such as tax law enactment or tax audits, is close to the OECD average. A more granular analysis yields further interesting insights. For example, excessive details in the tax code and the time between the announcement of a tax law change and its enactment turn out to be serious issues in Australia relative to the remaining OECD countries.
    Keywords: H20 ; H25 ; C83 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; Tax Complexity ; Corporate Income Tax System ; Survey ; Australia ; OECD Countries
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-31
    Description: This paper analyzes the association between tax complexity and foreign direct investments (FDI) based on the newly developed Tax Complexity Index (TCI) and its components. For a sample of 15,607 new foreign subsidiaries, we find no association between total tax complexity, as proxied by the TCI, and the location probability. When we decompose the TCI into tax code complexity and tax framework complexity, we find opposing associations. Tax code complexity is positively related to the location probability, while tax framework complexity is negatively related to it. These associations are, for example, driven by the complexity of transfer pricing and loss offset regulations in the tax code and the dimensions guidance, audits, as well as filing and payments, in the tax framework. In additional analyses, we find that the associations are sensitive to certain characteristics, such as country-specific and firm-specific characteristics. For example, the positive tax code association diminishes when tax rates are high. Overall, we are the first to provide empirical evidence on potential cost-benefit tradeoffs of tax complexity for FDI and thereby enhance prior literature, which has primarily focused on the costs of tax complexity.
    Keywords: C21 ; F23 ; H25 ; O50 ; ddc:330 ; corporate taxation ; tax complexity ; foreign direct investments ; location choice ; multinational corporations
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: The construction industry is increasingly becoming a key pillar of the business cycle in Germany. DIW Berlin's construction volume calculation indicates a real expansion of construction services by around three percent each year over the next two years. In nominal terms, sales in the construction industry and its related sectors will grow by around 6.5 percent in 2020 and almost six percent in 2021. Residential construction remains the cornerstone of the upswing, but construction activity in the public sector will also expand significantly over the next two years. Due to the current weak state of the economy, commercial construction is developing somewhat less dynamically. A long-term investment program would be a sound method of increasing growth potential; it would also improve business prospects in the construction industry for the foreseeable future and make the industry more willing to increase construction capacity.
    Keywords: E32 ; E66 ; ddc:330 ; construction industry ; residential construction ; public infrastructure ; economic outlook
    Language: English
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    Freiburg i. Br.: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Allgemeine Wirtschaftsforschung, Abteilung für Wirtschaftspolitik und Ordnungsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: Es gibt öffentliche Investitionsbedarfe in Deutschland, etwa zur Bewältigung des Strukturwandels, im Rahmen der Klimapolitik oder der öffentlichen Infrastruktur. Deren genaue Höhe ist jedoch äußerst unsicher. Einer Erhöhung der Investitionen stehen die ausgelasteten Kapazitäten in der Bauwirtschaft und den Planungsämtern, kommunale Finanzprobleme sowie Regulierungen und lange Verfahrensdauern entgegen. Die sprunghafte Erhöhung der Investitionsausgaben in künftigen Haushaltsplänen durch eine Änderung oder Umgehung der Schuldenbremse dürfte nicht zu entsprechend höheren realen Investitionen führen. Vielmehr ist davon auszugehen, dass wie in den vergangenen Jahren die Preise steigen und überschüssige Mittel von einem ins nächste Jahr verschoben werden. Die Schuldenbremse bietet derzeit genug Spielräume für eine schrittweise Steigerung der Investitionen, die angesichts der Hindernisse und Unsicherheiten angezeigt ist. Die Änderung oder Umgehung der Schuldenbremse ist in der Diskussion um öffentliche Investitionen derzeit fehlplatziert. Vielmehr besteht die Gefahr, die Glaubwürdigkeit der europäischen Fiskalregeln aufs Spiel zu setzen, die für das Funktionieren der Europäischen Währungsunion und die unabhängigeGeldpolitik notwendig sind.
    Keywords: H62 ; H63 ; H54 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; Schuldenbremse ; öffentliche Verschuldung ; öffentliche Investitionen ; Kapazitätsengpässe
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: The 2008-2010 crisis has shown that authorities were missing crucial information necessary to identify risks to the financial system in an accurate and timely manner. To be prepared for future crises, a range of legislation in Europe and beyond was passed. The scope and depth of information being reported from across the financial system, including previously disregarded segments, have thus significantly increased. With a focus on stress tests, we examine how granular datasets increase the transparency of the financial system's interconnectedness as well as the health of its market participants. We show that risks propagate primarily in the asset class of equities and via strong domestic links. This makes the data collection necessary to identify previously opaque risk drivers and derive effective policy recommendations despite large costs. The oft-bemoaned compliance costs for market participants may be alleviated if reporting requirements can be harmonized and data collection processes can be standardized.
    Keywords: C82 ; G20 ; L14 ; ddc:330 ; network analysis ; interconnectedness ; financial stability ; stress-testing
    Language: English
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    Hamburg: Europa-Kolleg Hamburg, Institute for European Integration
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: Das Target-System, das zur Erleichterung von Geldüberweisungen zwischen Ländern der Eurozone etabliert wurde, stößt seit etwa zehn Jahren seitens einiger, insbesondere deutscher Ökonomen, auf vehemente Kritik, die durch Hans Werner Sinn ausgelöst wurde. Anlass für diese Kritik waren die beträchtlichen Ungleichgewichte zwischen erheblichen Netto-Zahlungseingängen in einigen Kernländern und Netto-Zahlungsausgängen in Ländern der Peripherie der Eurozone, die sich im Anschluss an die Finanz- und Staatsverschuldungskrise seit 2007/08 aufbauten. Allein Deutschland erreichte einen positiven Target-Saldo, d. h. Netto-Zahlungseingänge, in Höhe von ca. 1 Billionen Euro. Was bedeuten nun diese hohen positiven und negativen Salden für die betroffenen Volkswirtschaften? Um diese Frage zu beantworten, werden die den Zahlungsvorgängen zugrundeliegenden typischen Transaktionen sowie deren Auswirkungen auf die Target-Salden dargestellt. Dadurch wird transparent, wie die Target-Salden tatsächlich zustande kommen und welche möglichen Risiken mit ihnen verbunden sind. Es wird dann auch deutlich, welchen rechtlich-ökonomischen Inhalt die betreffenden Forderungen und Verbindlichkeiten haben. Während die Target-Kritiker in den hohen Target-Salden ein beträchtliches Risiko für den deutschen Steuerzahler sehen, zeigt das vorliegende Paper, dass es sich um ein Scheinproblem handelt.
    Keywords: E5 ; F0 ; H6 ; ddc:320 ; EZB ; Eurokrise ; Target2
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Neubiberg: Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fachgruppe für Volkswirtschaftslehre
    Publication Date: 2020-01-28
    Description: The authors set up a political economy equilibrium framework for personal income distribution. Located in status theory, their concept is able to explain what justifies a certain or optimal degree of inequality in the society. The authors present an empirical analysis of personal income distribution in 23 European countries. The time period covers the years before, during and after the great recession (2004-2017). Linear regressions, which make use of ex-post Gini coefficients, show that the hypothesis of the existence of an equilibrium value for the Gini-coefficient can be weakly confirmed, after controlling for a possible impact from the great recession as well as from EU membership.
    Keywords: D31 ; D60 ; D63 ; D71 ; D72 ; E62 ; H23 ; ddc:330 ; Political Economy ; Personal Income Distribution ; Equilibrium ; Convergence ; Redistributive Policies ; Great Recession ; EU Membership
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 50
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-30
    Description: We investigate the effect of an EU-wide consumer protection regulation on consumer trust as well as consumer behavior. The Unfair Commercial Practice Directive (UCPD) was implemented by EU member states between 2007 and 2010. We utilize data from the Special and Flash Eurobarometer for the years between 2006 and 2014 and experts' evaluation on consumer protection levels before the introduction of the regulation. This rich data set allows us to apply a difference-in-difference estimator with multiple time periods. We find a significant relationship between the introduction of the UCPD and consumer trust and cross-border purchases for countries with a low consumer protection level before the introduction of the UCPD. The relationship increases over time and stays then relatively constant.
    Keywords: D18 ; K20 ; L50 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; Consumer Protection ; UCPD ; B2C ; E-Commerce ; Consumer Trust ; Cross-border Purchase
    Language: English
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: Although it is not a new phenomenon, in recent years inequality has moved to the top of the political agenda given the concern that will result in political instability and social resentment. Persistence in inequality can further undermine economic growth and development by hindering educational opportunities, human capital formation, and intergenerational mobility. The persistent nature of inequality stands as one of the most serious challenges for the global economy. This paper analyses inequality persistence for a sample of 60 countries from 1984 to 2015. The authors conclude that inequality is persistent and government redistribution polices through taxes and transfers did not significantly reduce inequality persistence.
    Keywords: C23 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; persistence ; Gini index ; unit root ; panel
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: With the ECB's policy rate having reached the zero lower bound, traditional monetary policy tools became ineffective and the ECB was forced to adopt a set of unconventional monetary policy (UMP) measures. This paper examines the effects of the ECB's UMP on inflation expectations in the Euro area as inflation expectations play a key role for achieving the inflation target of below, but close to 2%. Quantifying the impact of UMP is not straightforward, as standard empirical tools such as VAR cannot be applied. Hence, we use the Qual VAR approach pioneered by Dueker (2005) to overcome this problem. We indeed find that UMP leads to a rise in inflation expectations in the short run but that this effect appears to evaporate in the medium term. Our results put some doubt on the common claim that UMP has consistently contributed to a re-anchoring and a stabilisation of inflation expectations at the zero lower bound. Nevertheless, they indicate a rise in medium-term real GDP growth triggered by UMP.
    Description: Nachdem der Leitzins der EZB die Nulluntergrenze erreicht hatte, wurden die traditionellen geldpolitischen Instrumente wirkungslos und die EZB war gezwungen, eine Reihe von unkonventionellen geldpolitischen Maßnahmen (UMP) zu ergreifen. Dieses Papier untersucht die Auswirkungen der UMP der EZB auf die Inflationserwartungen im Euroraum. Denn die Inflationserwartungen spielen eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Erreichung des Inflationsziels von unter, aber nahe 2 Prozent. Die Quantifizierung der Auswirkungen der unkonventionellen Geldpolitik ist nicht trivial, da standardisierte empirische Instrumente wie die VAR-Analyse nicht ohne Weiteres angewendet werden können. Wir verwenden den von Dueker (2005) entwickelten Qual VAR-Ansatz, um dieses Problem zu lösen. Wir stellen fest, dass die unkonventionelle Geldpolitik zwar kurzfristig zu einem Anstieg der Inflationserwartungen führt. Dies lässt sich jedoch nicht für die mittlere Frist bestätigen. Unsere Ergebnisse stellen die gängige These in Frage, dass die UMP konsequent zu einer Neuverankerung und Stabilisierung der Inflationserwartungen an der Nulluntergrenze beigetragen hat. Dennoch deuten sie auf einen durch die unkonventionelle Geldpolitik ausgelösten Anstieg des mittelfristigen realen BIP-Wachstums hin.
    Keywords: C22 ; E31 ; E44 ; E52 ; ddc:330 ; Bayesian VAR ; Qual VAR ; inflation expectations ; euro area ; quantitative easing ; unconventional monetary policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: We investigate the predictive power of several leading indicators in order to forecast industrial production in Germany. In addition, we compare their predictive performance with variables from two competing categories, namely macroeconomic and financial variables. The predictive power within and between these three categories is evaluated by applying Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA) which allows for timevarying coefficients and model change. We find that leading indicators have the largest predictive power. Macroeconomic variables, in contrast, are weak predictors as they are even not able to outperform a benchmark AR model, while financial variables are clearly inferior in terms of their predictive power compared to leading indicators. We show that the best set of predictors, within and between categories, changes over time and depends on the forecast horizon. Furthermore, allowing for time-varying model size is especially crucial after the Great Recession.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag vergleicht die Prognoseeigenschaften konjunktureller Frühindikatoren, makroökonomischer Indikatoren und unterschiedlicher Finanzmarktindikatoren, um die Industrieproduktion in Deutschland vorherzusagen. Die Prognoseeigenschaften, innerhalb und zwischen diesen drei Variablen-Kategorien, werden mit Hilfe von Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA) evaluiert. Innerhalb dieses Ansatzes können sich sowohl die Koeffizienten als auch das gesamte Vorhersagemodell in Bezug auf seine Größe und Zusammensetzung über die Zeit verändern. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass konjunkturelle Frühindikatoren hierbei die besten Prognoseeigenschaften aufweisen. Makroökonomische Variablen verfügen im direkten Vergleich über deutlich schwächere Prognoseeigenschaften, da ihre Prognosefehler größer sind als die des Benchmark AR-Modells, während Finanzmarktindikatoren lediglich im Vergleich mit den konjunkturellen Frühindikatoren schlechter abschneiden. Die Untersuchung zeigt zudem, dass sich die Zahl und Zusammensetzung der besten Prädiktoren, innerhalb und zwischen den Kategorien, über die Zeit verändert und vom entsprechenden Prognosehorizont abhängt. Des Weiteren zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass sich insbesondere die durchschnittliche Modellgröße seit der Finanzkrise spürbar erhöht hat.
    Keywords: C11 ; C52 ; E23 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; forecasting ; industrial production ; model averaging ; leading indicator ; time-varying parameter
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: First-past-the-post elections in single-member districts make legislators more accountable to their district of election compared to proportional electoral systems. Accountability makes politicians more sensitive to voters' preferences when deciding where and how to allocate public expenditure, and also reduces rent extraction. On the other hand, first-past-the-post elections generate overrepresentation of majority parties in parliament, potentially hurting minorities and democratic legitimacy. The mixed system used for Italian Senate elections in 1994, 1996 and 2001 mitigates this tradeoff: 3/4 of the seats are assigned to winners in single-member district elections (majoritarian tier), while the rest to the best runners-up based on party-level vote counts (proportional tier). The system mechanically compensates opposition parties, while keeping all legislators equally accountable to their district. In fact, our empirical analysis based on close elections does not find significative differences in targeting of legislative activity to the district, and in absenteeism between senators of different tiers, contrary to what other studies find for mixed systems with two separate ballot lists.
    Keywords: D72 ; ddc:330 ; electoral rules ; mixed electoral systems ; comparative political economy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Göttingen: Volkswirtschaftliches Institut für Mittelstand und Handwerk an der Universität Göttingen (ifh)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: Die aktuellen Diskussionen um die Stärkung des dualen Ausbildungssystems streben eine stärkere Gleichstellung beruflicher- und akademischer Bildungswege an. In diesem Kontext steht die Frage nach der Rolle der beruflichen Ausbildung im Handwerk für den gesamten Arbeitsmarkt und damit für die Volkswirtschaft. Die Rolle der dualen Ausbildung kann dabei über die veränderten empirischen Ausbildungsmuster sowie die veränderten Funktionszuschreibungen im Zeitverlauf beschrieben werden. In dieser Studie werden Zeitreihen zur beruflichen Bildung sowie die vorhandenen Studien zur Funktionsweise des dualen Bildungssystems genutzt, um für den Zeitverlauf seit 1950 die zentralen Charakteristika und Funktionen des Ausbildungssystems des Handwerks zu beschreiben. Hierbei werden vier Phasen und drei Funktionsverschiebungen identifiziert, die jeweils mit strukturellen Veränderungen im Ausbildungsmarkt einhergehen. Im Ergebnis benennt die Studie folgende zentrale volkswirtschaftliche Funktionen des handwerklichen Qualifizierungssystems: Erstens gilt das Handwerk mit seiner überproportionalen Ausbildungsleistung traditionell als "Ausbilder der Nation". 28 % der Auszubildenden werden derzeit im Handwerk auf die Tätigkeit auf dem regulären Arbeitsmarkt vorbereitet, wobei tendenziell die Schwerpunktlegung der Ausbildung auf der eigenständigen und problemlösungsorientierten Arbeitsweise als besondere Stärke des handwerklichen Qualifizierungssystems gilt. Zweitens wird dem Handwerk eine arbeitsmarkt- und sozialpolitisch maßgebende Rolle als "sozialer Integrator" zugeschrieben. Als Integrator übernimmt das Handwerk insbesondere in Zeiten der gesellschaftlichen Umbrüche die Aufgabe, benachteiligte Bevölkerungsgruppen (Geflüchtete, Leistungsschwächere, Altbewerber) systematisch in das Arbeitsleben zu integrieren. Als für diese Aufgabe besonders relevante Stärke des Handwerks gilt die (oft familiengeführte) kleinbetriebliche Betriebsstruktur sowie die Vernetzung und ehrenamtliches Engagement in lokalen Gemeinschaften. Drittens gilt das Handwerk auch zunehmend als Impulsgeber für die transdisziplinären Innovationsprozesse. Als Ergänzung zu akademisch-technologiebasierter Fortentwicklung der Technologien und Produkte, bringen handwerklich qualifizierte Fachkräfte Innovationsimpulse ein, die auf berufsspezifischer Spezialisierung, erfahrungsbasiertem Können und hochentwickelten Fertigkeiten basieren. Die Studie verdeutlicht und diskutiert die Bedeutung und Veränderung dieser Funktionen im Zeitverlauf.
    Description: Recent discussions on an increasing support of the German system of dual vocational education and training (VET) aim at achieving an equal advancement of academic and vocational training. In this context, the role of VET in the craft sector for the entire labor market and the economy as a whole is discussed. Its relevance can be shown by looking at the empirical structures of vocational training as well as the changing ascriptions in past years. In this study, we use time series on vocational training in Germany to describe the central characteristics and functions of the crafts sector. We identify three separate phases and four fundamental shifts in function that go along with structural changes in the VET market. As a result, this study defines the following economic functions of the craft VET system. First, the craft sector is considered to be the most important VET actor due to its over-proportionate share of all VET contracts. 28 % of all apprentices are currently trained by craft firms. Its specific strength is considered to be the independent and problem-oriented way of working and training. Second, craft training is considered to foster social integration into the labor market for disadvantaged groups such as refugees or lower attaining students. This is derived from their particular properties: craft firms are often smaller, owner-managed and locally embedded. Third, the craft sector is increasingly considered as fostering trans-disciplinary innovation processes. Complementing science- and research-based technological development, skilled craft workers contribute sector-specific knowledge and experience-based skills to the innovation system. This study emphasized and discusses the meaning and changes of those functions in the past decades.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Duale Ausbildung ; Innovationssystem ; Integration ; Qualifizierung ; Vocational Education and Training ; National Innovation System ; Integration ; Qualification
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Digital Layer to empirically investigate inter-firm relations at any geographical scale of analysis. The Digital Layer is created from large-scale, structured web scraping of firm websites, their textual content and the hyperlinks among them. Using text-based machine learning models, we show that this Digital Layer can be used to derive meaningful characteristics for the over seven million firm-to-firm relations, which we analyze in this case study of 500,000 firms based in Germany. Among others, we explore three dimensions of relational proximity: (1) Cognitive proximity is measured by the similarity between firms' website texts. (2) Organizational proximity is measured by classifying the nature of the firms' relationships (business vs. non-business) using a text-based machine learning classification model. (3) Geographical proximity is calculated using the exact geographic location of the firms. Finally, we use these variables to explore the differences between innovative and non-innovative firms with regard to their location and relations within the Digital Layer. The firm-level innovation indicators in this study come from traditional sources (survey and patent data) and from a novel deep learning-based approach that harnesses firm website texts. We find that, after controlling for a range of firm-level characteristics, innovative firms compared to non-innovative firms maintain more numerous relationships and that their partners are more innovative than partners of non-innovative firms. Innovative firms are located in dense areas and still maintain relationships that are geographically farther away. Their partners share a common knowledge base and their relationships are business-focused. We conclude that the Digital Layer is a suitable and highly cost-efficient method to conduct large-scale analyses of firm networks that are not constrained to specific sectors, regions, or a particular geographical level of analysis. As such, our approach complements other relational datasets like patents or survey data nicely.
    Keywords: O30 ; R10 ; C80 ; ddc:330 ; Web Mining ; Innovation ; Proximity ; Network ; Natural Language Processing
    Language: English
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: We show that the discontinuity in the distribution of surveyed female income shares at the margin where a woman would outearn her partner is primarily driven by norm induced misreporting in surveys. We draw on unique Swiss data combining survey and administrative information for the same individual and their partner. We demonstrate that individuals misreport incomes in surveys to comply with the male breadwinner norm. The male breadwinner norm does, however, not affect real labor market decisions around this margin. The resulting survey bias leads to a considerable overestimation of policy relevant measures like the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: D10 ; J01 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; gender norms ; female income shares ; combination survey and administrative data ; income misreporting ; gender earnings gap
    Language: English
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