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  • 1
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Romanian
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  • 3
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The general objective of the study is to strengthen the strategic framework, to consolidate policies and to support actions aimed at promoting energy security by exploiting Romania’s potential in terms of unconventional gas resources. The specific objectives aim to facilitate the understanding of exploration and exploitation of shale gas processes in Romania and coordinate opportunities in order to meet the energy demand, the environmental and human health risks, taking into consideration the European and international context. The study provides policy analysis, data and carries comprehensive research by addressing the issue of exploitation of natural gas resources, especially the unconventional shale gas. It takes into consideration several issues such as Romania’s need to increase the security of gas supply, concerns to comply with environmental standards and safeguard the populations in areas where exploration and exploitation take place, particularly in relation to maintaining soil and drinking water quality for household consumption and farms. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Romanian
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  • 4
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German , English , Polish , Turkish , Romanian , Russian
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  • 6
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: This study contributes to the literature on the competitiveness of Romanian exports with a new perspective over the decade 2001-2011, by overlapping of two complementary analyses: of the export performance dynamics and of the domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers. The analyzed period includes the period of global economic growth (mainly 2003-2007) and the first years of the economic crisis (2009-2011 ). The year 2007, when Romania joined the European Union, is in the middle of the analyzed period. The dynamics of Romania's export performance was assessed through a specific method combining three different research lines(1) changes in the ranking of exported products in the reference years 2001 and 2011, (2) evolution of the performance of key products exported in 2001 and (3) the position in 2001 of key products exported in 2011. The analysis of domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers provides, for the first time for Romania a brief study on the position of the country on the global value chain, following the logic proposed by the European Commission in its last two European Competitiveness Reports (2012 and 2013). When corroborated, the results of the two analyses can be used to discuss the extent to which the current structure of exports contributes to the generation of domestic revenues and as such might prove useful in the debate on the identification of a country brand for Romania. In order to achieve the latter goal, we conducted two detailed case studies on two reference sectors of the Romanian economy: motor vehicles and creative industries. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Performance-Messung ; Einnahmen ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; EU-Binnenmarkt ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 7
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The aim of the study is to offer to decision-makers the necessary data regarding European policies of social inclusion for the Roma, with focus on the practices which have shown a positive impact in the fields of education, employment, housing and health, and to accompany the analysis with policy recommendations for a more efficient and effective action in promoting Roma inclusion. The second chapter, Social Inclusion Policies at the European Level: Mainstreaming versus Targeting offers a brief historical overview of the European policy framework within which social inclusion was conceptualised and its corresponding policies were articulated, along with preoccupations with the situation of the Roma, defined as a European minority subject to centuries-long discrimination. It reminds the reader the definition of „social inclusion” mentioned in European documents and connects the development of the concept and its corresponding social policies to the discourse on the risks of poverty and social exclusion, which can be found already in the 1984 documents of the Council of European Communities. The first part of the chapter presents the emergence and evolution of the Lisbon agenda (2000) and the Open Method of Coordination in the Domain of Social Policies (OMC) that became operational soon after, along with the main indicators aimed to measure the extent and depth of poverty and social exclusion in EU member states, i.e. the Laeken indicators and the currently employed AROPE indicator. It discusses the role of the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion, launched in 2010 as part of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable development that fosters social inclusion. The Platform aims to stand for a political commitment of EU member states to promote social innovation and more efficient use of European funds for the objectives of social inclusion. Recently, the European Commission also recommended adding a series of social indicators (i.e. the rate of long term unemployment and the neither-in-work-nor-in-education rate among the youth) in the monitorization of the European common market. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Soziale Integration ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; EU-Politik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 8
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energiemarkt ; Erdgasmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Energiepolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 9
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: In this study, we analyse the manner of developing a particular system of coordination of European affairs at national level, as well as its efficiency, the aim being to provide suggestions for improving it. The introductory section highlights the need for such a study, given the current political and institutional context of Romania, and it states the objectives of the study. Special attention is given to presenting the theoretical approach (expressing, on the one hand, the authors' vision that European affairs - distinctly from foreign affairs - are part of the complex governance process specific for the European Union (EU) and, on the other hand, operationalizing the idea of efficiency within a national system for coordinating European affairs, etc.) and the research methodology (reasons for choosing a comparative research design to support the presented arguments, as well as the qualitative research performed). In the first part, the paper also provides information on the legislative and institutional configuration of the EU, following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, because the novelties and reforms brought by this regulatory framework (supperior to the one of the Nice Treaty, but inferior to the proposals stipulated within the Constitutional Treaty) have a direct impact on designing the structure for coordinating European affairs in the Member States. Given that in Romania the European affairs coordination system was initially inspired by the French model, while later suffering a series of institutional changes (some inspired by models from other EU states), an important part of the study addresses the need to know, from a comparative perspective, the best practices in European affairs coordination and cooperation mechanisms in other EU Member States. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 10
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The study "Perspectives of the Migration Policy in Romania's Current Demographic Context" belongs to the thematic series of papers dedicated to migration initiated by the European Institute of Romania. If initially the issue of migrations analysed the relationship between the Romanian migrants and the European common space ("Free Movement of People" - 2002, "The Migration Phenomenon in Romania from the Perspective of Romania's Adherence to the European Union" - 2004 and "European Perspectives on Asylum and Migration" - 2008), the new suggested themes sought to expand the migrations' topic. In this respect, after analysing and assessing the effects of external migrations in the context of free movement within the communitary space, the European Institute of Romania (EIR) suggests a new scientific challenge, which is also of public interest, namely the analysis of migrations and the relative policies in the context of profound transformations of demographic structures in Romania. The topicality of this issue is confirmed by the increasing interest shown by numerous representatives of the scientific environment, as well as by experts within public institutions or interested politicians. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Migration ; Freizügigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Migrationspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 11
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 12
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The severity of the global financial crisis has highlighted major structural limits not only at the level of credit institutions' risk management strategies, but also in the financial safety net. There were very few rules at the onset of the international financial crisis, to determine the actions to be taken by the authorities in case of distressed banks. Lender of last resort funding by central banks, deposit guarantee schemes and the prudential regulatory framework, as they were before the crisis, failed to stem the propagation of systemic shock that spread to the entire European banking system, after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, in the mid-September 2008. The newly created situation showed that public authorities do not have adequate means to handle the situation of distressed banks on today's globalized markets. When a bank had been under stress, there was the risk of contaminating other financial institutions, including those beyond the borders of a country. During the systemic events, several major banks were in such a situation (Fortis, Lehman Brothers, Icelandic banks, Anglo Irish Bank, Dexia), which indicated that existing mechanisms were not effective, being necessary the design of additional elements, in order to allow a proper management of distressed financial institutions. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanztransaktionssteuer ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Öffentliche Finanzen
    Language: Romanian
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  • 13
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 14
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Description: The current financial and economic crisis has highlighted the inadequacy of existing institutional and policy arrangements at the EU level. Even before this crisis, the EU economic growth was low, by international standards, revealing deep structural problems across EU countries, especially in the Southern flank. Macroeconomic imbalances have been building up, exposing a stratified EU with divergences in productivity and competitiveness, with rigidity of labour markets, impeding efficient market responses to shocks. The Monetary Union does not have adequate institutional arrangements, which may help it manage a major crisis, such as that of a last-call borrower, depreciation and burden-sharing mechanisms of asymmetric shocks, etc; various sui generis formulas are now being tested. Fiscal reactions vary depending on the level of the debts and on the speed these accumulate; at the same time, these are linked to the size of the budgetary expenditure and fiscal revenues as percentage in the GDP. The sooner the growth picks up, the more acceptable is the downsizing of the certain expenditure and/or the rise of some taxes, so that the ratio between the public debt and the GDP stabilizes (reduces, when it is the case).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 15
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 16
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 17
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-03
    Description: Práce se zaměřuje na podporu energie z fotovoltaických článků v České republice a výpočet nákladů plynoucích z podpory obnovitelných zdrojů energie. Česká republika se zavázala do roku 2020 zvýšit podíl obnovitelných zdrojů energie na spotřebě mezi lety 2010 a 2020 na 13 %. Tento nárůst nebude možný bez zvýšení nákladů, které budou především obsaženy v regulovaných složkách cen elektrické energie. Hlavním cílem autorů je tyto náklady odhadnout. Největší podíl příspěvku na obnovitelné zdroje bude spadat na podporu fotovoltaiky. Kumulované náklady obsažené v příspěvku na OZE, KVET a DZ přesáhnou 330 miliard korun v cenách roku 2010. Mimo samotného odhadu se práce zaměřuje na stručný popis fotovoltaického trhu v České republice a nástin jeho historického kontextu, potenciálu a budoucího vývoje. Práce shrnuje nejdůležitější prvky legislativy České republiky a Evropské unie. Samostatná analytická část je věnována analýze a výpočtu nákladů na podporu jednotlivých obnovitelných zdrojů včetně fotovoltaiky, kogenerace a druhotných zdrojů.
    Keywords: Q28 ; Q42 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; fotovoltaika ; FVE ; obnovitelné zdroje energie ; OZE ; energetická politika ; výkupní ceny ; Förderung erneuerbarer Energien ; Photovoltaik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: Czech
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  • 18
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Tato studie se zabývá otázkou, zda nekoordinovaná opatření některých států měnící parametry národních systémů pojištění vkladů zavedená v polovině roku 2008 mohla vést k přesunu vkladů mezi členskými státy Evropské unie. Pozornost je věnována především důsledkům zavedení neomezené výše pojistných limitů a možnému přesunu vkladů do zemí, které je zavedly. Detailně jsou rozebrány změny z podzimu 2008 a novelizovaná Směrnice o pojištění vkladů. Provedená empirická analýza naznačuje vliv zavedených garancí na tempa růstu vkladů v jednotlivých zemích. Studie se dále soustřeďuje na důsledky zavedených opatření a posuzuje možnosti budoucího vývoje.
    Keywords: G01 ; G21 ; G38 ; ddc:330 ; pojištění vkladů ; pojistný limit ; Evropská unie ; státní garance ; finanční krize ; morální hazard ; Einlagensicherung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
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  • 19
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: V článku navrhujeme tři metody přepočtu hlasů na mandáty pro volby do Poslanecké sněmovny Parlamentu ČR (PS PČR) založené na metodách matematického programování. Důvod pro jejich zavedení spatřujeme v tom, že běžně používané metody přepočtu hlasů na mandáty často vedou k podstatným odchylkám od dokonalé proporcionality a to nad rámec, který je dán uzavírací klauzulí. Ztráta proporcionality je přímým důsledkem nejen nutnosti alokovat politickým subjektům celé mandáty a nikoliv jejich části, ale také rozdělení voleb do volebních obvodů, v nichž probíhá přepočet hlasů na mandáty samostatně.
    Keywords: D71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; disproporcionalita ; volební systém ; uzavírací klauzule ; volební obvod ; Poslanecká sněmovna ; celočíselné programování
    Language: Czech
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  • 20
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: E24 ; F43 ; H23 ; H52 ; I28 ; I38 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Europe ; strategy ; employment ; education ; reforms ; poverty ; greenhouse gas ; school early leaving
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 21
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 22
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; EU-Staaten ; Mittelmeerraum
    Language: Romanian
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  • 23
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper examines the evolution of the EU's trade in services over the 2004-2008 period in comparison with its trade in goods. It aims to disentangle the main trends shaping the EU's services trade flows under the impact of increasing globalisation and the last two waves of EU enlargement. Relying on BoP trade statistics published by Eurostat and the WTO, it highlights the recent changes in the EU's services flows in terms of dynamics, composition, trade balance as well as patterns of specialisation and integration into the internal and global market. It also reveals the main trends prevailing in the evolution of extra and intra-EU trade flows, and their relevance for the process of economic integration within the EU. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of the issues related to services trade in the EU since this topic is focusing to a far lesser extent the attention of current economic literature than trade in goods. Hence, our empirical investigation attempts to find the answers to the following questions: What is the significance of services trade flows for the EU as compared with trade in goods, and which is their role in the global economy? How relevant is trade in services from the perspective of European economic integration? What are the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on the EU's trade in services, and which are its future prospects? Following the answers to these questions, the paper is structured around five sections. The last one summarizes the main findings of the authors.
    Keywords: F14 ; F15 ; L80 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; trade in services ; trade in goods ; economic integration ; global financial and economic crisis ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Außenhandel mit Industriegütern ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Finanzkrise ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Regionale Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 24
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 25
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English , Romanian
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  • 26
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The theory of endogenous money supply forms one of the cornerstones of Post Keynesian economics. It has been developing rapidly during the last twenty years, but is still neglected as a theoretical background for practical central bank policy. This may be (among other reasons) due to the existence of different approaches to money endogeneity within Post Keynesian economics. Post Keynesian economics hus lacks a general formulation of money endogeneity. Naturally, one may ask whether reinterpretation of current approaches to endogeneity - structuralism and horizontalism - into more general theoretical framework is possible. This paper aims at finding an answer to this question. Two approaches to reinterpreting structuralism and horizontalism into more general theoretical framework are identified and discussed. Despite some progress in this area, however, the paper argues that a general formulation of money supply endogeneity is still an impossibility.
    Keywords: B50 ; E12 ; E51 ; ddc:330 ; Post Keynesian economics ; Money supply ; Structuralism ; Horizontalism ; Postkeynesianismus ; Geldmenge ; Strukturalismus ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
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  • 27
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: In this paper we study three crucial questions of economic decision-making: a) How are the people motivated in the choice of profession (career) and schools? This is also a decision that deals with the criteria for building the human capital of various specialisations. b) Can enterprises rely on the supply of new workers that should be qualified by skills for filling the future specialised demands of enterprises? c) Do the admissions into secondary schools, as intermediaries between the previous two, adjust to labour inputs with specific skills as required by firms? We have found by analysing the data for the agglomeration of Prague that the specialisation structure the supply of new cohort of workers (i.e. the school leavers) was highly consistent with the structure of expected demand of empoyers (i.e. enterprises). Our analysis working with 28 professional types of secondary schools in Prague reveals that the choice of school and profession depends primarily on the industrial structure of both employment opportunities and unemployment threats. As a secondary observation, the structure of new admissions to schools is related to the level of wages, profits, unemployment rates and R&D expenditures in industries. At the same time we could see that the existing official statistics about educational specialisation are insufficiently structured for serving as an efficient instrument for underpinning the labour market-dependent decision making in both families and schools.
    Keywords: I21 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; education ; human capital ; supply and demand for working skills ; employment in industries ; Berufswahl ; Schule ; Bildung ; Humankapital ; Qualifikation ; Arbeitsangebot ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Prag
    Language: Czech
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  • 28
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Stárnutí obyvatelstva se stalo v poslední době jedním z důležitých témat v mnoha rozvinutých zemích. Důchodové systémy a systémy financování zdravotnictví založené na solidaritě jsou výrazně citlivé na demografické změny související s klesající porodností a rostoucí střední délkou života. Cílem tohoto článku je ukázat a vyčíslit možnou budoucí nerovnováhu v systémech financování veřejného zdravotnictví a prezentovat jej i z pohledu jednotlivých generací. Abychom lépe vyjádřili problém stárnutí obyvatelstva v systémech financování veřejného zdravotnictví, obohacujeme tak standardní přístup k dlouhodobým projekcím o prvky generačního účetnictví. Výběr reprezentativních systémů financování zdravotnictví, a to České republiky, Dánska, Estonska, Francie, Itálie, Nizozemí, Švýcarska a Velké Británie, umožňuje srovnání systémů financování z hlediska mezigenerační solidarity. Výsledek modelu ukazuje na neudržitelnost současných systémů financování. Má-li být poptávka po zdravotních službách uspokojena, budou systémy založené na veřejném zdravotním pojištění nebo na daních z příjmu klást rostoucí nároky na pracující populaci a zvyšovat tak pnutí a požadavky na další redistribuci podmíněnou rostoucí daňovou zátěží, aby nedošlo k omezování zdravotních služeb. Míru ohrožení starší populace omezením poskytované zdravotní péče v jednotlivých letech a zemích vyjadřujeme indexem soběstačnosti, který ukazuje na některá rizika vybraných systémů.
    Keywords: E62 ; H51 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; financování zdravotnictví ; udržitelnost ; generační účty ; stárnutí obyvatelstva ; Gesundheitswesen ; Gesundheitsfinanzierung ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Generationengerechtigkeit ; Solidarität ; Europa
    Language: Czech
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  • 29
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: The underlying rationale in shifting the analytical focus of the competitive development policy rests on the political-economic and socio-cultural characteristics of a habitat that indeterminably amplify or scale down the benefits of economic activities. The permanence of spatial developmental disparities suggests that the strategic directions of any initiative targeting regional competitiveness should follow the lines of (1) maximizing its competitive impact and (2) matching the territorial specificity. According to this perspective, the paper discusses an original theoretical construct and points to graphical representations of operational forms that may configure a policy of territorial development along four co-existent levels: (1) urban fields, (2) clusters, (3) development areas, and (4) disadvantaged areas. The main implication for public policy initiatives resides in smoothing the progress towards building up such a potential for growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regionalentwicklung ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Räumlicher Wettbewerb ; Regionalpolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 30
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    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: Due to the enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe, the EU's external policy priorities have changed. Its frontier moving further to the East, it was necessary to adapt, and even reshape the institutional framework and the policies addressing its new immediate neighbourhood. In this context, a European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was put in place. Later on, the ENP consolidation and reform aims led to the setting up and promotion of new initiatives such as the Union for Mediterranean, the Eastern Partnership, which, together with the Black Sea Synergy project, intend to focus more upon the regional and multilateral dimension of the neighbourhood policy, being complementary to the bilateral basics of ENP. Romania has endorsed and continues to support the goal of a secure and stable area in its Eastern neighbourhood, mostly given its increased responsibilities derived from the Member State status at the Eastern border of the Union. An active supporter of the European perspective of the Republic of Moldova, and also a promoter of the regional and cross-border cooperation, Romania has set off a series of cooperation initiatives for the Black Sea area. It will be important to follow to what extent these projects will prove their efficiency in practical terms, especially in the new framework, generous in instruments, work mechanisms and actions, proposed by the European Neighbourhood Policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 32
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The article deals with the export credit promotion in the Czech Republic. The development and structure of Czech trade and export support is presented first and it is followed by the econometric analysis of the gravity model of Czech trade. The econometric results show that the credit support provided by specialized government agency, Czech Export Bank, has a positive but statistically weak influence on export. The other determinants of the Czech export in our model are GDP, distance, gross fixed capital formation, and policy risk.
    Keywords: F14 ; G28 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Credit ; Export ; Government Support ; Exportkredit ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung ; Gravitationsmodell ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Three original microeconomic models of an externality market are described: (1) model of the marketable permits for exhalations emission, (2) model of optimal financial satisfaction of a damage caused by a negative externality in the economy with agents maximizing probability of their survival (generalized Coase theorem) and (3) model of optimal financial favor for agents provided a positive externality.
    Keywords: D62 ; D01 ; ddc:330 ; negative externalities ; marketable permits for exhalations ; generalized Coase theorem ; maximizing of the probability of an economic survival ; positive externalities ; Externer Effekt ; Coase-Theorem ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Kooperativní chování je nezbytnou podmínkou pro existenci moderních komplexních společenství a ekonomik, jak je známe dnes. Z pohledu společenských věd je proto zajímavé porozumnět, jak takové chování může převažovat i v situacích, kdy jednoduchá úvaha vede k opačnému očekávání, tedy že chování jedinců bude spíše charakterizované tendencí sledovat vlastní, raději než společenský zájem. Model vývoje kooperativního chování, který je prezentován v této práci, navazuje na studie, kde struktura interakcí má podobu sítě ([31], [23], [22]) a vznikl rozšířením jednoduchého modelu popsaného v [31]. Na rozdíl od původního modelu je v naší práci kladen důraz na prvek imitace a jeho vliv na rozvoj kooperativního (resp. nekooperativního) chování v simulované populaci agentů. Hlavní motivací pro nás bylo otestovat, zda evoluční dynamika vězňova dilematu hraného na komplexních sítí je skutečně ovlivňována především samotnou topologií sítě nebo je spíše souběžně determinovaná jak topologií tak dalšími evolučními mechanismy, v našem případě konkrétní podobou imitace.
    Keywords: C15 ; C73 ; D85 ; C15 ; C73 ; D85 ; ddc:330 ; kooperativní chování ; vězňovo dilema ; sítě ; simulace ; Gefangenendilemma ; Kooperation ; Simulation
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: In this paper I am trying to provide the reader with a brief overview of contemporary discussion about recently frequently mentioned topic of economics and happiness. In the last few years the number of publications related to happiness from the economic perspective growth exponentially. As the importance of this topic seems to grow significantly, I modestly intend to provide Czech public with a very starting reference point for further research in this field. In the first part I sum up the basic terms of subjective well-being and Easterlin paradox and give an overview of the most striking empirical observations. The second part shortly describes approach to the happiness problem of selected key historical personalities, namely Aristotle, Smith and Genovesi. In the third part I outline present key challenge for the economic theory - tackling with the reciprocity phenomenon.
    Keywords: A11 ; B19 ; B59 ; D64 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; Easterlin paradox ; reciprocity ; Anthonio Genovesi ; history of economic thought ; Zufriedenheit ; Lebensqualität ; Austauschtheorie (Soziologie) ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Dogmengeschichte
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: V tomto článku překládám nástin jednoho z možných přístupů, jakým může ekonomická teorie reagovat na aktuální výzvu, kterou představuje Easterlinův paradox. Klíčové téma vyžadující hlubší pochopení a uchopení ekonomickým aparátem je sociální povaha člověka, charakterizovaná reciprocitou v mezilidských vztazích. Ta je však individualistickou metodologií ekonomie hlavního proudu neuchopitelná. Inspirován postklasickými směry ekonomického myšlení vycházím z metodologického realismu vedoucího k organistickému chápání člověka. Jako reakci procedurálně racionálního jedince na prostředí fundamentální nejistoty identifikuji zvykové chování, a to nejen na úrovni behaviorální, ale i percepční. Použitá motivační teorie vychází z Maslowova přístupu hierarchizace potřeb a teorie posilování založené na zvykové povaze jednání. V rámci navrženého modelu, který výše uvedené postřehy odráží, identifikuji jako optimální chování formu altruismu charakterizovanou sledováním pravidla maximalizace součtu užitků. Srovnáním modelu a reality docházím k problematice vlivu společenství na zvykovou výbavu jedince a dále aplikuji závěry plynoucí z modelu na kooperativní a nekooperativní chování.
    Keywords: B41 ; D6 ; ddc:330 ; Easterlinův paradox ; reciprocita ; procedurální racionalita ; zvyky
    Language: Czech
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  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The paper reviews (in Czech) the main qualitative tools applied by (micro)economic analysis and surveys the main literature on the topic. Economics is often being criticised by its opponents for the use of unrealistic assumptions. On the contrary, my claim is that if economics has anything to contribute to legal analysis, it is above all exactly these assumptions and their unrealism. Not in the sense in which assumptions help economic modelling but in the sense that by spelling out expressly what our world is not like, economics alerts the lawyer to imperfections and frictions that he or she all too often fails to reflect in his or her legal analysis. I call this up-shot of the assumptions used by microeconomics a reversed codification of the imperfections of our world and in the paper, I go over the bulk of the more important ones and try to show how the fact that the world is not as assumed by the various economic schools of thought might affect human behaviour and therefore the rules of law aimed at regulating that behaviour. I start the review with the rational maximisation assumption and then go over the many carve-outs from it. First, I discuss the limits of rationality and of human cognitive abilities and how they impact on contracts and legal rules. Secondly, I turn to what might go wrong when people act too rationally - i.e. when adverse selection and moral hazard are introduced. In this part, I deal with Jensen and Meckling's agency problems, with collective choice issues and with several game theoretical concepts that help predict the effects of self-interested human behaviour. I then explain how the Coase theorem might enlighten the legal mind not in its original expression but rather in its reversal, i.e. in the claim that in a world in which transaction costs are pervasive, rules of law may very well determine how rights will be allocated. In this context, I also mention externalities. In the third part, I introduce normative law and economics and its main tools, Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. I briefly review the philosophical controversy about the normative use of economics in the law and explain my own provisional stance on the issue. I close the paper with several observations on how the methodology used by positive economics may assist the legislator, whether it follows paternalistic or liberal policies. I conclude by saying that while that methodology should not be expected to displace other frames of reference used by lawyers, without it, legal theory, in particular in the private law field, will be incomplete while the legislator and the judiciary may promulgate rules that will complicate rather than facilitate private ordering.
    Keywords: B41 ; K00 ; ddc:330 ; economic analysis of law ; microeconomic methodology ; assumptions used in microeconomics ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Mikroökonomik ; Rechtsökonomik ; Privatrecht ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 39
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The theory 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) is characterized in the paper. The paper expresses the authors' opinion, that CSR as a mere proclamation of necessity of the firms' ethic behavior does not enforce this into praxis. The internal economic motivation to CSR it is the necessary condition to firms to invest in CSR. The conditions for such motivation are than formulated.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; ethic firms' behavior ; trust ; credibility ; economic motivation ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Unternehmensethik ; Glaubwürdigkeit ; Firmenimage ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Stadtentwicklung ; Rumänien ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Employment or, more precisely, participation of women on the labor market is one of the most apparent gender inequalities on the labor market. Economic theories explaining the segregation can be divided into three broader categories: neo-classic and human capital theories, theory of discrimination and finally institutional theory and labor market segmentation theory. The elimination of causes of these inequalities by appropriate policies implementation would help the better use of women working potential and the higher labor market effectivity. There are applied several policies in the Czech Republic which not only does not support the female participation but have rather negative influence. In this study, I investigate the impact of the two policy means, which can negatively influence the labor supply of women in the Czech Republic. First, joint taxation of spouses was enabled. The marginal tax-rate of women increases very often in case of profiting spouses; women might therefore lower their labor supply. Second, the system of the parental leave influences the female participation. The current Czech system can create significant barrier to women in entry and return to the labor market. Therefore, it leads to an excessive loss of the women human capital which markedly lowers their further employability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; gender inequality ; female participation ; neo-classic theory ; human capital theory ; theory of discrimination ; institutional theory ; labor market segmentation theory ; joint taxation ; parental leave ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktsegmentierung ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Familienbesteuerung ; Elternzeit ; Familienpolitik ; Tschechische Republik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 42
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The fact that Europe is lagging behind in comparison with its main competitors in the research and innovation activities is generally known. In 2000 EU countries launching the Lisbon strategy linked with the opening of the European research area were expecting to do away with the remaining barriers between them also in the area of knowledge, technology and research personnel mobility. The paper analyzes research initiatives presented by the Commission, the proposal of the 7th framework programm for research and technological development, the new financial perspective of the EU for the period 2007-2013, the report by an expert group headed by the former Finish prime minister Esko Aho (Creating an Innovative Europe) and finally the follow-up communication of the Commission presenting a broad-based innovation strategy for the EU.
    Keywords: O3 ; O5 ; ddc:330 ; Research and development ; European Research Area ; EU research policy ; 7th framework program for research and technological development ; innovation strategy ; Forschung ; Europäische Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik ; Innovationspolitik ; Innovationswettbewerb ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 43
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Deutsch ; Wörterbuch ; Tschechisch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1002 S. , 16 cm
    Edition: völlige Neubearb., 1. [Dr.]
    ISBN: 9783468113635 , 3468113633
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    DDC: 491.86331
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 44
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1005 S.
    Edition: 2. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3468113617
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 45
    Book
    Book
    Cluj-Napoca : Presa Univ. Clujeana
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 400 S.
    ISBN: 9739261299
    Language: Romanian
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  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Das Verhältnis zwischen Deutschen und Tschechen ist schwierig geblieben, auch wenn die Außenminister der beiden Länder am 20. Dezember endlich die Versöhnungserklärung unterschreiben wollen. Das überlange Zögern hat auch die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen schwer belastet. Die beiden Sozialwissenschaftlerinnen Gerlinde Dörr und Tanja Kessel von der Forschungsgruppe Transformation und Globalisierung am Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin beschreiben dies am Beispiel des Joint-Venture Skoda-Volkswagen. Neue Probleme bringen in jüngster Zeit der Lopez- Konflikt bei VW und der Unfalltod des tschechischen Vorstandsvorsitzenden Kalma.
    Description: Ursprünglich erschienen unter dem Titel "Es quietscht und bremst auf dem Tandem VW/Skoda", in: Frankfurter Rundschau, Dokumentationsseite, 14.12.1996
    Description: Vztahy mezi Německem a českem zůstaly problematické, i když ministři zahraničních věcí chtějí 20. prosince konečně podepsát "Česko-německou deklaraci". Přiliš dlouhé průtahy mají negativní dopad i na ekonomické vztahy. Socioložky Gerlinde Dörr a Tanja Kessel z výzkumního týmu Transformace a globalizace na Vědeckém centru v Berlině to popisují na příkladě Joint-Venture Škoda-Volkswagen. Nové problémy vznikají v současnosti konfliktem kolem Lópeze u VW a tragickou smrtí českého předsedy představenstva Kalmy.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Kraftfahrzeugindustrie ; Internationale Unternehmenskooperation ; Tschechische Republik ; Deutschland
    Language: German , Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 47
    Book
    Book
    Leipzig : Verl. Enzyklopädie
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XVIII, 194 S.
    Edition: 10., unveränd. Aufl.
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: Czech , German
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