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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Anglo-American Publications LLC
    free Journals Online: 1(1)2017 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: Anglo-American Publications LLC
    Print ISSN: 2475-6156
    Electronic ISSN: 2475-6164
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Keywords: Städtebau
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  • 2
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Using a large panel of Hungarian firms, we study the relation between firm size and net job creation. Categorizing firms in size groups with the traditionally used measure of employment size in the base year suggests that small firms create a disproportionally higher number of jobs than large enterprises. This relation declines when average employment size is used instead, and it reverses when firm age is controlled for. The crisis brought about large declines in employment across all types of firms. The analysis reveals that the main reason for this declines is the increased job destruction rates. Whole job creation rates were stable during the crisis, job destruction increased by about 4 percentage points. We find that the net growth of exporting and foreign-owned firms was reduced the most by the crisis, while state-owned firms kept most of the pre-crisis jobs.
    Keywords: L11 ; L25 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Small and Medium Enterprises ; employment ; job creation ; growth ; Hungary ; Zweiter Arbeitsmarkt ; Betriebsgröße ; Unternehmenswachstum ; KMU ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Ungarn
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: In economics and other social sciences, complex processes are often represented by numerical models of reality which more or less well reflect behavioral relationships and interactions. Such attempts are the subject of a lecture course 'Mathematical Theory of Democracy' by the author at the Faculty of Economics of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One new result in this field is presented here in the form of a statistical test to decide whether a political party or coalition of parties represents a majority of the population. For this purpose, party or coalition positions on a sample of policy issues, like introduction of a legal nationwide minimum wage, privatization of railways, and others, are compared with the results of public opinion polls on the same issues. The test is based on estimating the statistical significance of the coincidence observed (i.e. how likely is the coincidence by chance) to the end of accepting or rejecting the representativeness hypothesis. The test is developed for single parties and coalitions of two or three parties. It is illustrated with an estimation of representativeness of five major German parties and their potential coalitions basing on the official party manifestos published before the German parliamentary elections 2009 and on relevant polls of public opinion.
    Description: In der Ökonomie und den anderen Sozialwissenschaften wird immer wieder versucht, komplexe Prozesse der Wirklichkeit durch numerische Modelle abzubilden - was mit Abstraktionen für z. B. Verhaltens- und Wirkungsrelationen mehr oder weniger gut gelingt. Solche Versuche sind Gegenstand einer Vorlesungsreihe 'Mathematische Theorie der Demokratie' des Autors an der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät des Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie. Ein neues Ergebnis in diesem Bereich wird hier vorgelegt in Form eines statistischen Tests, der entscheiden soll, ob eine politische Partei oder eine Parteienkoalition repräsentativ im Sinn der Bevölkerungsmehrheit agiert. Zu diesem Zweck wird die Übereinstimmung von Parteien- oder Koalitionspositionen mit Ergebnissen von Meinungsumfragen in der Bevölkerung verglichen, etwa zur Einführung eines bundesweiten gesetzlichen Mindestlohns oder der Privatisierung des Schienenverkehrs und anderem mehr. Der Test basiert auf der Einschätzung der statistischen Signifikanz der beobachteten Übereinstimmung (d.h. wie wahrscheinlich ist eine nur zufällige Übereinstimmung), um die Hypothese von der Repräsentativität der Politik zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen. Die Studie spielt die Repräsentativität von einzelnen Parteien sowie von Zweier- und Dreier-Koalitionen durch. Darunter ist auch die Konstellation der fünf großen deutschen Parteien und ihrer potentiell möglichen Koalitionen auf der Basis der Bundestagswahl von 2009.
    Keywords: C12 ; C44 ; C63 ; D71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; mathematical theory of democracy ; statistical test ; parties ; coalitions ; representativeness ; Bernoulli matrices ; sums of random vectors ; Demokratie ; Politische Partei ; Öffentliche Meinung ; Wahlverhalten ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Vienna: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Under favourable external conditions, the economies of the New EU Member States (NMS) fared even better in the first quarter of 2006 than in 2005. Investment accelerated sharply and industry is proving buoyant. Labour productivity has registered strong gains, unit labour costs declined. This is one of the reasons for the highly successful expansion of foreign trade, the second being the ongoing upgrading of exports and production. Foreign trade contributed positively to overall growth in Central European NMS already in 2005. In 2006, the growth contributions of both consumption and investment are also rising, thus making room for a more balanced overall GDP growth. Industrial production will continue to expand rapidly in 2007, also on account of robust domestic consumption and investment growth. With the exception of Hungary, fiscal policy will not interfere substantially with real growth. Trade expansion is likely to be supported by the continuing gains in unit labour costs. Weaker growth in the EU-15 will not restrict NMS exports too much also in view of ongoing structural changes and quality improvements in both NMS production and exports. The generally positive outlook for the next two years assumes an absence of major turbulence on the exchange rate markets. This assumption is not risk-free - especially where Hungary is concerned. It is to be hoped that the recently announced fiscal consolidation programme proves credible and pre-empts excessive adjustments. The labour market situation is improving across most NMS and accession countries as accelerated GDP growth has at last started to generate more substantial job creation. Migration to the UK and Ireland after accession was also significant, both in magnitude and in its effects on the sending countries, in the cases of Poland, Slovakia, Lithuania and Latvia. The effects on the UK and Ireland of migration from these countries have so far been modest but broadly positive. We expect similar outcomes for the next enlargement that will bring in Romania and Bulgaria. Growth, driven primarily by domestic demand, is expected to continue to be strong throughout Southeast Europe. The external balances should deteriorate due to strong demand for imports, which is sustained by exchange rates that are appreciating in real terms. Macroeconomic stability will be maintained, though inflation is picking up; and is a serious problem in Serbia and Romania. Inflation is a major concern in Turkey, as is macroeconomic stability more fundamentally. At the end of 2006 it should be decided whether Bulgaria and Romania will join the EU on 1 January 2007, as is widely expected; whether the EU will start negotiations with Macedonia, which at the moment seems unlikely; whether the other Western Balkan countries will sign Stabilization and Association Agreements with the EU; and what is the EU¿s strategy for further enlargement. The momentum has been lost when it comes to the Balkans, but the accession of Bulgaria and Romania and later on of Croatia may still make it possible for the rest of the Balkans to join the EU by 2015. Russian GDP growth is slowing down as the real sector weakens. Domestic demand is strong, yet the contribution of net exports to GDP growth is negative. Nominal exports are booming thanks to the high prices of energy and metals. Paris Club debt repayments are ahead of schedule. GDP growth will be about 6% in both 2006 and 2007; disinflation will be only gradual. The restructuring and institutional reforms are running late. WTO accession may be postponed yet again; it is unclear what course future EU Russia relations will take. In Ukraine the slowdown in economic growth has been reversed in 2006; domestic demand has picked up. But exports are performing badly, and the current account is expected to switch to a deficit. The hike in gas prices in early 2006 did not have any sizeable impact on the economy, not least because it has yet to be fully passed on to the final consumers. However, given the planned tariff hikes, inflation is expected to remain in double digits. The new government is likely to be less inclined to implement liberal reforms and its stability is questionable. The Chinese economy has kept fast growth in the first quarter of 2006. The expansion was mainly driven by a surge of investment and supported by a record foreign trade surplus. Private consumption developed at a stable pace, inflation remained low. Government measures to dampen growth and to prevent an overheating of the economy may become more effective in the near future. Nevertheless, we expect GDP growth close to 10% in both 2006 and 2007.
    Keywords: O52 ; O57 ; P24 ; P27 ; P33 ; P52 ; ddc:330 ; Central and East European new EU member states ; Southeast Europe ; Balkans ; former Soviet Union ; China ; Turkey ; GDP ; industry ; productivity ; labour market ; foreign trade ; exchange rates ; inflation ; fiscal deficits ; EU integration ; structural and technological change ; fiscal and monetary policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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