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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Toroudshomal Reseach Company
    free Journals Online: 1.2013 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: Toroudshomal Reseach Company
    Electronic ISSN: 2345-4954
    Topics: Economics
    Keywords: Allgemeine Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Thermally resistive PV glazing (TRPVG), which is a recently developed technology for low/zero carbon buildings, is in the centre of interest worldwide as a consequence of multifunctional benefits of this novel product such as remarkably better thermal insulation performance compared to conventional PV and other fenestration technologies in market, clean energy generation, self-cleaning, sound insulation, UV and IR absorption, etc. In this study, thermal insulation performance of TRPVG is numerically optimised through a well-known CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. Optimisation is based on determining the optimum inert gas (argon) thickness (τ) behind the amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module which yields to minimum overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value) for the entire structure. For a typical case (τ=16 mm), CFD results are compared with the experimental data derived from the standardised co-heating tests, and a good accordance is achieved. CFD results are also compared with the findings of thermal resistance approach, which assumes heat conduction takes place in the inert gas medium only. The results reveal that natural convection effects become notable for the values of τ over 10 mm. In other words, τ stands as a parameter that needs to be optimised for its values greater than 10 mm. For the typical TRPVG sample with τ=16 mm, the overall U-value from the CFD research is determined to be 1.19 W/m2K, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The optimised value of τ for the TRPVG structure introduced is determined to be 20 mm, which guarantees the minimum total heat transfer rate (Q) across the glazing and maximum temperature difference between internal and external glazing surfaces.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; CFD ; Co-heating test ; PV glazing ; Thermal insulation ; U-value ; Windows
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2021-09-04
    Description: Currency crises are a significant feature of the present-day world economy, in which financial transactions are many times larger than monetary flows in the "real economy", so that defending a currency's exchange-rate is a major challenge for the governments of countries which may be smaller than a single large corporation. It is made even more difficult due to the United States government and its agents openly using economic pressures to try to force other countries to obey its orders, even including regime change. Guaranteed convertibility of a currency, such as maintaining a gold standard, can in principle help to stabilise its value, but this has been absent since the end of US dollar convertibility in 1971. The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility was not planned as a counter-measure for currency crises. However the simulation of its operation demonstrated in this paper shows clearly how its automatic counter-cyclical stock-holding in response to movements in commodity prices-and so to exchange-rate movements that alter domestic commodity prices-causes monetary flows that would resist large exchange-rate movements (among other effects), and thereby tend to ameliorate a currency crisis. Moreover, it would achieve this without the need for international negotiations, agreements or other geopolitical trade-offs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Grondona system ; currency convertibility ; commodity price stabilisation ; currency crisis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Bruegel
    Publication Date: 2021-08-25
    Description: Global trade and finance data indicates that the pre-2008 pace of economic globalisation has stalled or even reversed. The European Union has defied this trend, with trade flows and financial claims continuing to grow after the recovery from the 2008 global economic and financial crisis. Immigration, including intra-EU mobility, has also continued to increase. Our analysis of public opinion in EU countries shows that support for globalisation, free trade and immigration, is on the rise. EU public opinion on these issues does not differ greatly from the rest of the world. Our panel-model estimates for EU countries from 2009 to 2019 find a strong association between the unemployment rate and the prevailing view on whether globalisation is an opportunity for economic growth. A regression for 19 non-EU countries shows the unemployment rate is significantly associated with public support for trade. These findings suggest that cyclical economic factors partially drive views about globalisation. Our analysis suggests younger and better-educated people in the EU view globalisation more positively, as do those in better economic situations, those who feel politically included and those with a positive view of the EU. Increased support for globalisation among EU citizens might also have been boosted by policies to improve social fairness, and by some success in containing asylum-seeker pressure. However, the EU continues to have pressing social problems, concentrated in some member countries with weaker economic outlooks. With global and European economic growth slowing and the risk of a European recession increasing, unemployment tensions could re-emerge, which might reverse recent increases in support for globalisation.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: This study focuses on the hegemonic ascendancy of neoliberalism encountering contestations and social unrest in Istanbul (Turkey).Through the case of Sulukule (Istanbul), our aim is to illustrate how gentrification as a neoliberal instrument utilized by a conservative/Islamist local government intervene the urban space not only for economic purposes but also culturally. This study analyzes this process, which went through in Sulukule, a former low-income neighborhood, mainly inhabited by a Gypsy community, sustaining livelihoods through a historically created entertainment culture, which was not welcomed by the conservative political cadres. This study turns the attention to the dynamics generated at the interstices of economy, politics and society, and delivers a tale of resistance and contestation to the uneasy marriage between conservative Islamism and neoliberalism. The concept of gentrification/re-generation is very much employed and referred to the diffusion of neoliberal urban policies in the context of neighborhoods as it is also put forth in this study. The case of Sulukule is a representative case in the Turkish context, especially when the urban and metropolitan transformation of Istanbul is taken into account. The way neighborhoods transform and serve the interests of the market and the capital is similar to the historical functioning of capitalism. Thus, the globalization of gentrification arguments made in the literature should not surprise us given that it is a neoliberal strategy to extract value whenever and wherever possible, in the form of gentrification aiming to revalorize usually decayed spaces or slum areas. In general, what we gather from the literature on gentrification is seen as a quick solution, or in Slater's terms as a savior for cities, its content has been depoliticized, and proposed as a key strategy to approach complex urban problems. They are complex because they are creating both winners and losers, and the irony is that nobody is really keeping track of what is happening to communities who are dislocated because of disruptions through investment in their area. While gentrifiers are shown as the primary actor of this process, the "gentrified" (both the community and the physical space) constitute the other half.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 6
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    Lund: Lund University, School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2022-06-10
    Description: This paper analyses the political determination of transportation costs in a new economic geography model. In a benchmark case with certainty about where agglomeration takes place, a majority of voters favour economic integration and the resulting equilibrium is an industrialised core and a de-industrialised periphery. Allowing for uncertainty, a high level of trade costs may win the election and maintain the initial distribution of industry. The reason is that a coalition of risk-averse immobile factors of production votes for the status quo due to uncertainty about which region will attract industry if economic integration is pursued. Finally, the standard view that agglomeration is unambiguously beneficial to residents in the industrial centre is challenged by introducing costs of undertaking economic integration.
    Description: This paper replaces WP 2005:32.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F12 ; F15 ; R12 ; footloose entrepreneur model ; majority voting ; new economic geography ; regional policy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-09-24
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q42
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Several studies have shown that dictator-game giving declines substantially if the dictator can exploit situational excuses for not being generous. In this experimental study we investigate if this result extends to more natural social interactions involving reciprocal behavior. We provide the second mover in a reciprocal game with an excuse for not reciprocating, an excuse which has previously been shown to strongly reduce giving in dictator games. We do not find that the availability of the excuse has any effect at all on reciprocal behavior, and conclude that reciprocity is a more stable disposition than dictator game generosity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C72 ; C9 ; reciprocity ; moral wiggle room
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Jena: Friedrich Schiller University Jena
    Publication Date: 2016-08-19
    Description: By now there is substantial experimental evidence that people make use of "moral wiggle room" (Dana et al., 2007), that is, they tend to exploit moral excuses for selfish behavior. However, this evidence is limited to dictator games. In our experiment, a trust game variant, we study whether moral wiggle room also prevails, when reciprocity is a potential motivation for being generous. Trustees´ back transfer choices are elicited for five different transfer levels of the trustor. Moreover, we ask trustees to provide their back transfer schedule for different scenarios that vary the implementation probability of the back transfer. This design allows us to identify subjects who reciprocate and analyze how these reciprocators respond to the provision of moral wiggle room. Our results suggest that moral wiggle room exists as well in the context of reciprocity. Among our subjects, 40% of the reciprocators exploited moral wiggle room.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C72 ; C91 ; D03 ; D80 ; experiments ; moral wiggle room ; pro-social behavior ; reciprocity ; self-image concerns ; social preferences
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University Frankfurt, SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe
    Publication Date: 2019-01-15
    Description: Although the "financial meltdown" between 2007 and 2009 can be substantially attributed to herding behaviour in the subprime market for credit default swaps, a "mindless" IT implementation of participating financial services providers played a major role in the facilitation of the underlying bandwagon. The problem was a discrepancy between two core complementary capabilities: (1.) the (economic-rationalistic) ability to execute financial transactions (to comply with the herd) in milliseconds and (2.) the required contextualized mindfulness capabilities to comprehend the implications of the transactions being executed and the associated IT innovation decisions that enabled these transactions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; IT innovations ; financial services
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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