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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
    free Journals Online: 1(1)2016 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
    Electronic ISSN: 2456-8058
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Keywords: Pharmazie
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  • 2
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    Jena: Univ. [u.a.]
    Publication Date: 2012-04-12
    Description: In this paper we focus on proximity as one of the main determinants of international collaboration in pharmaceutical research. We use various count data specifications of the gravity model to estimate the intensity of collaboration between pairs of countries as explained by the geographical, cognitive, institutional, social, and cultural dimensions of proximity. Our results suggest that geographical distance has a significant negative relation to the collaboration intensity between countries. The amount of previous collaborations, as a proxy for social proximity, is positively related to the number of cross-country collaborations. We do not find robust significant associations between cognitive proximity or institutional proximity with the intensity of international research collaboration. Moreover, there is no robust and significant relation between the interaction terms of geographical distance with social, cognitive, or institutional proximity, and international research collaboration. Our findings for cultural proximity do not allow of unambiguous conclusions concerning their influence on the collaboration intensity between countries. Linguistic ties among countries are associated with a higher amount of cross-country research collaboration but we find no clear association for historical and colonial linkages.
    Keywords: R10 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; international cooperation ; pharmaceuticals ; proximity ; Pharmazeutische Forschung ; Forschungskooperation ; Unternehmenskooperation ; Entfernung ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: A comparative study is undertaken that explores Chinese and Indian pharmaceutical industries under different patent regimes. It is found that relative to India, which had implemented process patent until 2005, China with a product patent regime since 1993 suffers from both lower drug accessibility and availability (the latter is a missing parameter in the literature). Also, China lags behind in both lower R&D investment and patents filed by Chinese nationals. Based on these findings and associated legal interpretation, we conclude that higher patent protection in China generates negative impacts on the pharmaceutical industries. Thus, governments should utilize TRIPS flexibilities and other regimes like price control to offset the anticompetitive effect in designing patent policies.
    Keywords: O34 ; L65 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; product patent ; process patent ; TRIPS ; pharmaceutical industries ; China ; India ; TRIPS ; Patentrecht ; Wohlfahrtseffekt ; Pharmazeutische Industrie ; China ; Indien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Stockholm: The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IUI)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: We consider policy issues regarding parallel imports (PIs) of brand-name pharmaceuticals in the European Union, where such trade is permitted. We develop a simple model in which an original manufacturer competes in its home market with PI firms. The model suggests that for small trade costs the original manufacturer will accommodate the import decisions of parallel traders and that the price in the home market falls as the volume of parallel imports rises. Using data from Sweden we find that the prices of drugs subject to competition from parallel imports fell relative to other drugs over the period 1994 - 1999. Econometric analysis finds that parallel imports significantly reduced manufacturing prices, by from 12 to 19 percent. There is evidence that this effect increases with multiple PI entrants.
    Keywords: F12 ; I11 ; L12 ; ddc:330 ; Parallel Imports ; International Arbitrage ; Drug Pricing ; Pharmaceutical Products ; Pharmazeutisches Produkt ; Betriebliche Preispolitik ; Import ; EU-Staaten ; Grauer Markt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate the joint effects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than their cheaper counterparts, resulting in large differences in patient benefits from the reform.
    Keywords: I18 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; pharmaceutical markets ; regulation ; co-payments ; reference pricing ; asymmetric welfare effects ; Pharmazeutische Industrie ; Regulierung ; Pharmazeutisches Produkt ; Preis ; Wohlfahrtseffekt ; Dänemark
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an external (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an internal (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs - for which they have strong preferences - to generics and parallel imports. This substitution also explains the small increase in consumer welfare despite a substantial decrease in expenditures.
    Keywords: I18 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; pharmaceutical markets ; regulation ; co-payments ; reference pricing ; welfare effects
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
    Description: Does life have a different price according to the country where people are born? Should there be a customized definition of ethics in function of the country where clinical trials are being carried on? The actual international regulatory environment proves to be inadequate to guarantee a fair treatment of patients involved in drug trials around the world, a situation which is proven by the case of India. The incapacity of Indian national regulators to efficiently monitor trials and enforce the law, as well as the increasing use of outsourcing in clinical trials gives place to abuse of patients’ rights in the name of science or for corporate profits. The article aspires to make a modest contribution to this field by analyzing to what extent pharmaceutical companies are interested in perpetuating the diffuse area around the responsibility and ethics of drug trials in developing countries. Moreover, it offers suggestions as to how they can improve their CSR practices.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs - for which they have strong preferences - to generics and parallel imports. This substitution also explains the small increase in consumer welfare despite a substantial decrease in expenditures.
    Keywords: I18 ; C23 ; D22 ; ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: Recent developments in the literature on market structure have allowed the generation of a few key testable predictions from the theory of strategic behaviour. The seminal model considers one simple but general relationship, that between market structure and market size, focusing on the competitive roles of the endogenous sunk costs of advertising and/or research and development (R&D). Evidence presented in this case study, building on earlier econometric work, shows that such endogenous sunk costs do play a crucial role in the formation of market structure in the global pharmaceutical industry.
    Description: Jüngere Entwicklungen der Literatur zum Thema „Marktstruktur“ ermöglichen es, robuste testbare Hypothesen aus der Theorie des strategischen Verhaltens abzuleiten. Das grundlegende industrieökonomische Modell geht von einer einfachen, aber allgemein gültigen Beziehung zwischen Konzentration und Marktgröße aus. Dabei wird insbesondere der Einfluß endogener versunkener Kosten für Werbung und/oder Forschung und Entwicklung (FuE) auf den Wettbewerb untersucht. Die empirischen Ergebnisse dieser Fallstudie zeigen, daß endogene versunkene Kosten tatsächlich eine entscheidende Rolle für die Herausbildung der Marktstruktur in der pharmazeutischen Industrie spielen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen jedoch auch, daß unternehmensspezifische Fähigkeiten geeignet sind, die Reaktionsweisen der Unternehmen im Wettbewerb zu erklären.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Pisa: Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-06
    Description: This paper reconstructs Revealed Comparative Advantages (RCA) and Economic Complexity Indices (ECI) for a large number of countries in the second half of the 19th century, by using data from the catalogues of five universal exhibitions held in Paris in 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900. This allows overcoming the lack of finely product-disaggregated comparative export data, on which such indices are typically constructed. The analysis of exhibition-based RCAs and ECIs reveals structural change and development processes experienced by countries during those decades, pointing out the relevance of countries' productive structures for long-run growth.
    Keywords: F14 ; F43 ; N10 ; O10 ; O47 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; patterns of specialisation ; revealed comparative advantage ; economic complexity ; universal exhibitions
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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