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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Nacionalen Statistič | eski Institut
    free Journals Online: 2009 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: Nacionalen Statistič , eski Institut
    Topics: Economics , Sociology
    Keywords: Demographie ; Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistik Osteuropa
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    CEEOL | Institut Drutvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istraivanja
    free Journals Online: 36.1998 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: CEEOL , Institut Drutvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istraivanja
    Print ISSN: 0038-982X
    Electronic ISSN: 2217-3986
    Topics: Sociology
    Keywords: Demographie ; Länderbericht Osteuropa
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  • 3
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-27
    Description: How does a shock to sex ratios affect marriage markets and fertility? I use the drastic change in sex ratios caused by World War II to identify the effects of unbalanced sex ratios on Russian women. Using unique data from the Soviet archives, the results indicate that male scarcity led to lower rates of marriage and fertility, higher nonmarital births and reduced bargaining power within marriage for women most affected by war deaths. The impact of sex ratio imbalance on marriage and family persisted for years after the war's end, and was likely magnified by policies that promoted nonmarital births and discouraged divorce.
    Keywords: J12 ; J16 ; N34 ; P23 ; ddc:330 ; sex ratios ; marriage ; family ; fertility ; divorce law
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: his paper examines an important anomaly in the internal migration history of the former Soviet Union (FSU). While many cities were closed in the sense of explicitly limiting growth of city population from migration, it was difficult to assess the effectiveness of these controls. We analyze a sample of 308 Soviet cities to isolate the impact of closure regulations controlling for city size. We find that while there are pervasive patterns of city growth, the rate increasing through the 1960s and declining thereafter, there are also pervasive differences between controlled and uncontrolled cities, the later growing significantly faster in almost all cases, controlling for city size.
    Keywords: J6 ; P20 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; cities ; city growth ; fsu ; migration ; urbanization
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: This paper examines the political economy of Russian city growth. For the 1980s, we model the growth of 168 Russian cities located in 71 Russian provinces (oblast level). We examine the role of both general socio-economic characteristics and specific state controls. Our goal is to understand the extent to which state controls on city growth actually limited city growth, controlling for the usual types of forces used to explain the attractiveness of different cities. We find that even with considerable variation of model specification, direct controls remain important as a factor explaining the growth of Russian cities in the immediate pre-transition era.
    Keywords: J6 ; P20 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; cities ; city growth ; migration ; Russia ; urbanization
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: After the price liberalization in 1991, the Russian economy was faced with a jump of costs of transportation in real terms. New Economic Geography (NEG) gives answers to questions that are related to changes in transport costs. However, the outcomes of NEG models are very sensitive with respect to their basic assumptions. Using an alternative model framework including urban costs, it is shown that also increasing costs of freight transportation may give incentives to migration of skilled workers from remote, small urban units to central, large cities. Therefore, concentration of urban population should have been increased. But, one cannot expect that this process is reversible, if transportation costs are decreasing in the future due to improvements in the transportation sector. On the contrary, large agglomerations will then grow even more. Research questions are: What were the relations between urban growth and urban size in Russia during the transformation period? Are migration flows correlated to changes in concentration of urban population? In the empirical investigation, population figures 1993?2004 of all Russian cities and urban settlements have been used, together with geographical coordinates of all urban units. On the regional level, demographic data (natural growth, matrices of urban and rural migration, external migration) were available for the federal subjects of Russia. The peculiarities resulting from so called ?secret cities? have been considered. The empirical part of the paper contains two regression analyses using OLS method: firstly, urban size and geographical position are regressed on urban growth; secondly, migration volumes are regressed on changes in urban concentration. Urban-rural as well as rural-urban migration has been introduced into the statistical models as control variables. The main results of this analysis are: Firstly, urban growth in Russia is positively correlated to the initial size of cities and settlements as well as to their geographical position. Secondly, there is a link between increasing concentration of urban population and migration flows of urban dwellers who reside in different federal subjects of Russia. Although internal migration flows in the 1990ties and the early 2000s were relatively weak, they influenced urban concentration as NEG predicts. From the viewpoint of New Economic Geography, urban costs are an important factor that has strong dispersing effects. Therefore, to make use of the advantages of large agglomerations in Russia, it is required to improve the performance of the transportation sector, to diminish the costs of transportation between cities, as well as within cities.
    Keywords: O18 ; P25 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Russia ; Urban Systems ; Migration ; New Economic Geography
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: It is known that cities are the engines of growth of the modern economy and society. Herewith we highlight the national and regional characteristics of urbanization as a global process. Somewhere the urbanization is stimulated, in China for example, somewhere it is limited, as we see in Russia. But it is a long-term trend, which will qualitatively change the life of humanity in the 21st century. There is a special interest in the comparative analysis of models of development in the northern cities of the world and Russia. They all have growth restrictions, such as the environment, the demographic capacity of the area, the high level of technological hazards. Thus, many have similar conditions: - Located near the water (sea and river), respectively, these are ports; - There is a highly developed transport infrastructure, including bridges; - The population is small; - Most are the educational and research centers; - Most are the administrative centres of the province (region), metropolises. In contrast to the sustainable state of the northern cities in Europe and America, where the dynamics of the main indicators remain stable for a long time, the state of the cities in the Russian North is differentiated. Yakutsk is the biggest city in terms of population, located in the permafrost zone. Now it is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Over the past 15 years, the population of the city increased by 50%, from 195.4 thousand people in 2000 to 294.2 thousand people in 2014. In contrast, the other cities of the North of Russia (Norilsk, Vorkuta and Magadan) show population decline, deterioration of the economic situation. Fast growth, as well as a rapid decline, entail an increase in social risks. In addition, growth is also accompanied by an increase in technological and environmental risks. Currently, the most pressing issues for Yakutsk are: - Lack of social, communal and engineering infrastructure, poor quality of the land improvement. - Poverty of the population due to the weak labor market. - Growth of social tensions by reason of no high-quality social services and the emergence of wealth (income) limit for access to quality services. - Increase of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. - High costs on production. Yakutsk needs to shape its own, unique in many respects model of sustainable development, which should absorb world experience as well as its own properties. Development of the city is largely determined by quality management decisions and research projects.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 8
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    London: Taylor & Francis
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: This article presents evidence of a global trend of autocratization. The most visible feature of democracy – elections – remains strong and is even improving in some places. Autocratization mainly affects non-electoral aspects of democracy such as media freedom, freedom of expression, and the rule of law, yet these in turn threaten to undermine the meaningfulness of elections. While the majority of the world’s population lives under democratic rule, 2.5 billion people were subjected to autocratization in 2017. Last year, democratic qualities were in decline in 24 countries across the world, many of which are populous such as India and the United States. This article also presents evidence testifying that men and wealthy groups tend to have a strong hold on political power in countries where 86\% of the world population reside. Further, we show that political exclusion based on socio-economic status in particular is becoming increasingly severe. For instance, the wealthy have gained significantly more power in countries home to 1.9 billion of the world’s population over the past decade.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; democracy ; autocratization ; V-Dem ; inclusion ; backsliding ; gender equality ; egalitarian democracy ; social group inclusion ; economic inequality
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: This paper analyses Russian city growth during the command and transition eras. Our main focus is on understanding the extent to which market forces are replacing command forces, and the resulting changes in Russian city growth patterns. We examine net migration rates for a sample of 171 medium and large cities for the period 1960 through 2002. We conclude that while the declining net migration rate was reversed during the first half of the 1990s, restrictions continued to matter during the early years of transition in the sense that net migration rates were lower in the restricted than in the unrestricted cities. This pattern seemingly came to an end in the late 1990s.
    Keywords: R23 ; J6 ; P20 ; ddc:330 ; cities ; city growth ; migration ; Russia ; urbanization ; Stadtwachstum ; Binnenwanderung ; Urbanisierung ; Übergangswirtschaft ; Russland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: This paper argues that there is a complex socio-economic, spatial and political trend towards increasing unevenness among Russian cities against the shortage of researches about Russian urbanized space. In addition to this Russia experiences a lack of studies taking into account that, in modern globalized world, cities are considered as a power machine stimulating the country?s development. The urban researches on Russian cities mainly are focusing on Moscow and Saint Petersburg, or on some regional capitals and cities hosting mega-events such as Vladivostok and Sochi. As a matter of fact, a considerable part of Russian cities have lost themselves in the new market conditions since the general vector of urban development has changed after the USSR breakup. Great transformations have occurred in both inter and intra urban levels. The disparity of country?s development has increased: European Russia and Northern regions with rich oil and gas deposits are becoming more affluent, while Far East and Siberian regions are undergoing population loss and resources outflows. In spite of contemporary Russian policy is mainly focused on the national and regional issues, world economy is more and more aware that cities are the growth poles for a whole country. Therefore an updated development policy demands a re-scaling at the urban level and requires a precise analysis of urban condition and dynamics. The paper aims to classify the whole Russian urban system on the base of some socio-economic characteristics: demographic dynamics, housing quality, economic performance at two temporal thresholds. The adopted method, the Neural Network Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), is able to single out groups of cities with high internal resemblance. The paper starts with a brief overview of the urban networks formation during soviet period, its transformation after the breakup of the USSR and the consequences of these two processes for the contemporary cities. The second section explains the data which will be used for the analysis and describes the used SOM algorithm. The subsequent section presents the analysis of the results describing spatial urban patterns in terms of quantities and geographical characteristics. The conclusions discuss the nature of those patterns. Due to SOM implementation it has been possible to identify twenty five groups of cities, with similar socio-economic trends during the last decade, where each group is characterized by an appropriate profile (a codebook). Moreover the empirical results have allowed sketching a new urban hierarchy in Russia, outlining four layers: ?urban engine?, ?strong cities?; ?potential cities? and ?weak cities?. The outcomes will allow the definition of appropriate urban development strategies.
    Keywords: P21 ; P25 ; ddc:330 ; Russia ; urban network ; SOM ; urban policy
    Language: English
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