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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Young avian migrants of many species are able to find their species- or population-specific wintering area without the help of conspecifics. In orientation tests hand-raised birds have been demonstrated to choose appropriate population-specific migratory directions, suggesting a genetic basis to this behaviour. I here report results of a cross-breeding experiment between individuals of two blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) populations with widely different migratory directions. The orientation of the F1 offspring was intermediate between and significantly different from that of both parental populations (Fig. 2). The variance of individual mean directions in the F1 generation did not increase compared with the parental groups, and the inheritance of migratory directions was not sex-linked. The data provide direct evidence for a genetic basis of migratory directions in birds and demonstrate a phenotypically intermediate mode of inheritance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 77-83 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Migratory orientation of robins (Erithacus rubecula) at sunset was recorded using orientation cages, under clear autumn skies. The aim of the experiments was to examine the importance of different visible sky sections for the orientation of robins. I obtained the following results: (1) Robins tested with the visible sky section limited to 90° around zenith (≥45° above the horizon) showed a mean orientation that coincided with the average sunset azimuth, with little scatter around the mean angle (Fig. 2). (2) When the birds were allowed a more extensive field of sky vision (maximum 160°), they chose headings on an approximate north-south axis, significantly different from tests with a restricted view of the sky (Fig. 3). (3) Experiments were also performed in which the response of robins to a mirror deflection (about 120° counterclockwise) of visual cues in the lower parts of the sunset sky was examined. The outcome indicated that visual information in the lower part of the sky may be critical for the orientation of robins (Fig. 5). These results, together with recent findings that robins captured and tested at two nearby sites show distinctly different orientation behavior in relation to experimental manipulations of the magnetic field, suggest that priorities among orientation cues may differ depending on the migratory situation encountered.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 91-96 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary There is high within-nest relatedness for functional queens (with corpora lutea), nonfunctional queens (without corpora lutea), and workers in polygynous nests of Leptothorax acervorum. The high functional queen relatedness suggests that young mated queens are adopted back to their mother nest. Functional queen relatedness does not change with the number of queens present in the nest, suggesting that the number of generations of queens, on average two to three, is rather stable. Worker relatedness decreases with increasing number of functional queens per nest (Tables 5, 6). The number of queens contributing offspring to the nest (mothers), estimated from worker and functional queen relatedness, is lower than the number of functional queens, particularly in highly polygynous nests. Estimates of number of mothers in monogynous nests indicate that these nests previously were polygynous (Table 7). There is no correlation between nest relatedness and distance between nests, and budding-off, if present, thus appears to be a rare mode of nest founding (Table 8). There are no indications of inbreeding in the two populations studied since the frequency of heterozygotes is as high as expected from random mating (Table 4). Most likely, polygyny is the rule in L. acervorum and serves to secure the presence of queens in the nest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 125-131 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mating behavior of the European common frog, Rana temporaria, was studied experimentally. Female body length was correlated with body mass as well as with fecundity. However, males showed no mating preference with regard to either female body length, body mass, or fecundity. In successive multiple matings, male readiness to re-mate as well as fertilization success did not vary among the first four matings. Further, fertilization success was not correlated with either the number of days since the previous fertilization, water volume in the experimental container, testes mass, female/male body length ratio, or female fecundity. However, there was a positive correlation between fertilization success and male fat reserve status. Sexual competition and mating patterns were studied in tanks in which operational sex ratio (OSR) and male density were manipulated, and time for sexual competition was allowed to vary. Successful take-overs and nonrandom mating (large male advantage) were observed only at a combination of a four-fold male bias in OSR and an unnaturally high male density (30–50/m2). I argue that in natural populations of Rana temporaria: (1) There is considerable intraspecific variation in the opportunity for sexual competition, (2) OSR influences mating pattern more than male density and time (duration of the prespawning period), and (3) nonrandom mating should be rare.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 141-152 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Paternity determination by DNA fingerprinting is reported for a long-term study group of semi-free-ranging ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta), together with behavioral data collected independently. In 1985, fraternal twin males unfamiliar and unrelated to the resident ringtailed lemurs were introduced to the forest enclosure. Every mature resident male attacked the immigrants frequently across the next 5 months, whereas no female ever did. All observed estrous females showed sexual proceptivity toward the' immigrant males; three solicited copulation exclusively from them. Each female repelled sons, matrilineal brothers, and other resident males from attempting to copulate. Over a 5-year period, four of five females always reproduced with distantly related or unrelated males (Fig. 3). Despite low dominance status throughout the case study, an immigrant sired the off-spring of each female that was proceptive toward only the immigrants, demonstrating that female choice can override male dominance relations to determine reproductive success among male ringtailed lemurs. In the birth season following the 1985–1986 immigration, each of four females targeted one or two particular adult males for consistent attack across the period of infant dependency, beginning days after parturition. Paternity determinations, colony records, and subsequent study of two groups allowed 66 cases of this mode of maternal aggression to be documented. In each, the targeted male had not fathered the protected infant, and almost invariably, he was unrelated to the infant's mother. New mothers attacked every male that immigrated following their infants' conceptions and a few familiar males with whom they had not been seen to copulate during the previous breeding season. Recent attempts by immigrant males to kill infants confirmed the anti-infanticidal function of maternal targeting of males. All results were interpreted together to advance a prospective model of the mating system of ringtailed lemurs. Female avoidance of incest has led to the evolution of natal male dispersal. Subsequently, males should prefer to transfer into groups containing few and/or status-vulnerable males. We predict that, by killing others' infants, males simultaneously increase chances for success in females' next reproductive efforts and terminate current fathers' reproductive eligibility in a group. Basic hypotheses that await testing are that (a) raising an infant through weaning reduces a female's chances for reproductive success the following year and (b) males that demonstrate the capacity to promote the survival of infant offspring are most attractive to females as mates.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 171-178 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We collected pregnant female Peromyscus leucopus from natural populations during the summer of 1987 and 1988 and allowed these females to give birth to their field-conceived young in the laboratory. Blood samples were taken by suborbital puncture and phenotypes of five genetic loci (Esterase-1, trasferrin, hemoglobin, albumin and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were studied using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis to detect multiple paternity in single litters. Only esterase-1 was found to be highly polymorphic, with four alleles in samples of both years. One litter out of 29 in 1987 and 6 litters out of 32 in 1988 contained three different paternal alleles and served as direct evidence of multiple paternity in the field. The proportion of females engaging in multiple matings in natural populations of P. leucopus, assuming that all males were involved in every multiple mating, is 25%–100% (mean 68%). Because it is unlikely that all males are involved in every multiple mating, the actual proportion of females engaging in multiple matings should be greater.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 203-213 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The behaviour of a small male passerine bird over a typical winter day is studied by a dynamic programming model. The bird can be either unpaired or paired; an unpaired bird can forage in a flock, forage alone or sing to attract a mate. Foraging increases his reserves, while singing reduces them. The optimal policy and the expected behaviour of birds depend both on time and reserves. The model predicts that birds will flock, especially in the morning, if flocking birds find more food (“foraging efficiency”), and also more flocking can be expected when the predation risk is lower in a flock (“antipredator benefit”). Where flocking gives lower variance in food intake, with the same mean (“reduced variance benefit”), birds with low reserves at the end of the day choose to forage alone (high variance option), while otherwise they are risk-averse and forage in a flock. The cost of flocking increases with time in a day and with the probability of mate attraction through singing. Decisions inevitably involve trade-offs. Where flocking results in antipredator benefit, but also lower foraging gain, birds with low reserves forage alone, but birds with high reserves flock.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 221-226 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In many species, socially subordinate individuals frequently remain in a group despite their lower priority of access to food and mates. This is expected to occur when the net benefits of staying in the group exceed those of a solitary existence. Analogously, territorial foragers surrounded by conspecific competitors are faced with tradeoffs as to patch tenacity. In either case, spatio-temporal variability in resource availability directly affects behavioral patterns and payoffs, particularly of individuals with low priority of access to the resource. However, such individuals may take advantage of natural environmental fluctuations in resource supply in cases where dominants are preoccupied. This arises regularly if two resource items cannot be handled simultaneously and if a second item arrives before handling of the first has been completed. I advance a heuristic model that predicts that foraging or mating success of individuals with low priority of access to resources may increase both with higher variance in inter-arrival times of the resource (given the same mean) and with an increase in the average handling time of the resource. I tested both predictions with two associations of individually marked, naturally foraging water striders (Gerris remigis) in the field. In natural streams individual water striders tend to occupy consistent positions that they may defend, resulting in priority of access to prey items floating downstream for individuals further up front. I manipulated the variance in prey inter-arrival times given the same mean, and the prey handling times by offering larger prey. The outcome was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 243-246 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The evolution of cooperation requires either (a) nonrandom interactions, such that cooperators preferentially interact with other cooperators, or (b) conditional behaviors, such that individuals act cooperatively primarily towards other cooperators. Although these conditions can be met without assuming sophisticated animal cognition, they are more likely to be met if animals can remember individuals with whom they have interacted, associate past interactions with these individuals, and base future behavior on this information. Here we show that guppies (Poecilia reticulata), in the context of predator inspection behavior, can identify and remember (for at least 4 h) the “more cooperative” among two conspecifics and subsequently choose to be near these individuals in future encounters.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 28 (1991), S. 271-276 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Winners of aggressive interactions often continue to win in future encounters. I propose that this phenomenon is a by-product of two other phenomena occurring simultaneously: first, initiators of aggressive interactions typically win those interactions and, second, winners of aggressive encounters often become more likely to initiate future interactions. I propose that these phenomena can be explained, in turn, by selection favoring an individual's initiating an interaction only when it is likely to win that interaction. I found support for this two-step explanation for the winning begets winning phenomenon by observing aggressive interactions among captive dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis oreganus). First, initiators of interactions almost always won. Second, based on characteristics of winners in birds' home aviaries, I could predict which birds would initiate against novel competitors — winners were long-winged males with dark hoods, and birds with these characteristics were more likely to be the first to initiate in novel triads. In addition, aggression was directed preferentially towards other dark-hooded males. The results of this study may expand our understanding of the dynamics of aggressive interactions.
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