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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Hooded, conscious, male, laboratory rats were subjected to an ambient dry bulb temperature cycle between 12°C and 35°C over a period of approximately 5.5 h. The same procedure was followed using rats in which the temperature surrounding the tail was held constant, and using dead rats.2. Temperature of the ambient air, and the rectum, flank skin, tail base and tail tip were measured during each ambient temperature cycle.3. In both living and dead rats, a hysteresis loop was demonstrated for the relationship between all body temperatures measured and ambient temperature.4. The hysteresis loops for tail temperature differed between living and dead rats in such a way as to indicate that tail temperature began to increase, as a result of an active process, at approximately 30°C, but this response ceased at a lower temperature.5. The results on rats in which tail ambient temperature was held constant agreed with the preceeding observations.6. Clear evidence of a counter-current heat exchange system in the vasculature of the rat's tail was not obtained.7. It is concluded that the tail of the rat resembles an on/off controller in its mode of operation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Patients were grouped into categories of ‘no airways disease’, ‘obstructive airways disease without response to bronchodilator’ and ‘obstructive airways disease with bronchodilator responsiveness’.2. Cyclic nucleotides were assayed in specimens of lung tissue that were excised during surgery.3. Reduced levels of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) were found in pulmonary tissue obtained from patients with reversible obstructive airways disease, lending support to the β-adrenergic theory of asthma.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The biliary excretion of a tracer pulse of sodium [14C] taurocholate injected into the portal vein was compared in adult and near-term foetal sheep.2. Biliary excretion was virtually complete in both adult and foetus, although appreciably faster in the adult.3. These results indicate that at birth the mechanisms for bile salt uptake and excretion in the sheep liver are well established.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Gastrointestinal Physiology II. Edited by Robert K. Crane.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Pressure-volume relationships of the left atria were studied in thoracotomized dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone and ventilated artificially. Controlled volumes of saline were injected into the left atrium using a method by which the injections were triggered by the R wave of the normal ECG, during the period of the V wave of the left atrial pressure waveform.2. The change in the amplitude of the V wave was found to be linearly related to the injected volume. Similar observations made while the pulmonary artery was occluded revealed that this linearity in the pressure-volume relationship of the atrium extended down to small volumes.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Ischaemia of a portion of the myocardium in the dog heart was produced by tying off a small branch of a coronary artery: flow in the occluded region was reduced from 5 to 82% of the initial value.2. The effect of inhalation of 5% CO2 in air on relative tissue PO2 and perfusion in normal and partially ischaemic myocardium was determined.3. After 10 min inhalation of 5% CO2, there was an increase in tissue perfusion as measured by hydrogen desaturation; the increase was inversely proportional to the degree of flow reduction.4. Relative intramyocardial PO2 measured polarographicafly, decreased with occlusion and increased after CO2 inhalation; the changes were inversely proportional to the degree of reduction in Po25. The increase in flow after CO2 inhalation suggests that partially ischaemic myocardial tissue is capable of further vasodilation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Radioactively labelled microspheres were used to determine glomerular blood flow in glomerular populations with distinct vascular characteristics. Two batches of microspheres (15 ± 5.0 μm diameter and 7.0–10 μm diameter) were utilized.2. The results show that the larger microspheres overestimate the superficial glomerular blood flow (414 ± 61 nl/min, mean ± s.e.m.) and underestimate the deep glomerular blood flow (98 ± 10 nl/min), when compared with the data obtained with 7.0–10 μm diameter microspheres (317 ± 30 nl/min and 209 ± 23 nl/min, respectively).3. The rheological artefact associated with the use of larger microspheres is confirmed by finding an uneven size distribution of microspheres lodged in the glomeruli. In each of three experiments, the mean diameter of 200 microspheres lodged in the superficial glomeruli (16.43 ± 0.27 μm, 15.87 ± 0.23/mi and 16.58 ± 0.27 Jim) was significantly greater than that found in the deep glomeruli (15.36 ± 0.15μm, 15.25 ± 0.21 μm and 15.73 ± 0.24μm; P〈0.01, 〈0.05 and 〈 0.01, respectively). No such difference was detected when the 7.0–10 μm spheres were used.4. Glomerular blood flow can be measured at all depths of the rat's cortex and the demonstrated rheological artefact associated with use of the larger spheres is circumvented with the use of 7.0–10 μm microspheres.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. In anaesthetized dogs, α-methylpropranolol was less potent than propranolol in antagonizing both vascular (hind limb perfusion pressure) and cardiac heart rate) responses to isoprenaline.2. α-Methylpropranolol was more potent in antagonizing vascular than cardiac responses to isoprenaline, but this selectivity was no greater than that seen also with propranolol.3. Isoprenaline sensitivity was greater in the hind limb than the heart and vascular-selective antagonism was more pronounced in those dogs in which this differential sensitivity was the greatest.4. Introduction of an a-methyl group into propranolol decreases its 0-adrenoceptor antagonist potency but does not enhance vascular selectivity.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to 5-(1-hydroxy-2-iso-propylaminobutyl)-8-hydroxycarbostyril hydrochloride hemihydrade (procaterol) and salbutamol have been compared to noradrenaline and isoprenaline in isolated blood-perfused canine atrial and ventricular preparations.2. All four compounds induced dose-related positive chronotropic and inotropic effects, but different individual response patterns were observed.3. Procaterol and salbutamol were partial agonists compared to noradrenaline and isoprenaline for causing chronotropic and inotropic responses. The order of efficacy for the adrenoceptors mediating both chronotropic and inotropic responses was isoprenaline, noradrenaline, salbutamol and procaterol. The slopes of the salbutamol dose-response curves were flatter than those for isoprenaline and noradrenaline; the slopes of the procaterol dose-response curves were flatter than those for salbutamol.4. Because of these differences, the order of activity depended upon the level of response chosen for the comparison. When doses producing small chronotropic and inotropic responses were compared, the order of activity was isoprenaline, noradrenaline, procaterol and salbutamol; whereas with doses producing large responses the order was isoprenaline, noradrenaline, salbutamol and procaterol.5. Procaterol was longer acting than salbutamol, and salbutamol was longer acting than noradrenaline.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Infusion of salbutamol (3.0 μg/min after a bolus injection of 100 μg) produced hypokalemia in conscious dogs.2. Measurement of arterial and coronary sinus potassium differences revealed no significant potassium loss from the heart with established hypokalaemia.3. Shortly after the initial salbutamol bolus and before steady-state hypokalaemia had been achieved during salbutamol infusion, a prolongation of QTC occurred; this corresponded to a significant myocardial potassium loss of -0.12 mmol/1 plasma.4. Urinary electrolyte excretions indicated that the hypokalaemia was not due to urinary potassium loss.5. It was deduced that potassium had moved intracellularly. No change in hydrogen ion status occurred to account for this. Pronounced rises in plasma insulin immunoreactivities during salbutamol infusions suggested this as one mechanism for potassium shifts.
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