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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Vaccines ; Communicable diseases ; Biotechnology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The World Health Organization is playing a major international role in encouraging, coordinating, and where appropriate commissioning, research and development activities relevant to the control of high priority infectious diseases. The Expanded Programme on Immunization would be the vehicle for the introduction of new or improved vaccines. In many parts of the developing world the health infrastructure is strained to breaking point by the heavy load of disease. It has failed to make the best use of the already available technology. Immunization provides the simplest, least expensive and most effective intervention technology. Every effort is therefore needed to extend immunization coverage and lighten the burden on the health infrastructure and accelerate the overall development of the vast rural and peri-urban communities in the developing world. WHO has, on the one hand, to call on the most eminent scientists to give effective and simple interventions, and on the other, on the politicians, social leaders, economic managers, medical profession and all public health workers to build up the infrastructure to put intervention technologies into action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 234-234 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 232-233 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Tularemia ; Epidemiology ; Outbreak
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A family cluster of tularemia is described. In a family of three members different clinical type of the disease occurred after having been exposed to a sick wild hare. From the hare kidney Francisella tularensis type 1 was isolated. Pneumonic, typhoid-like tularemia occurred in the father who inhaled hare skin hairs and an ulceroglandular form in the mother and in the child who had direct contact with the animal.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 202-231 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two kinds of microorganisms are found in tissue of leprosy patients: Mycobacterium leprae (ML) and leprosy derived corynebacteria (LDC). ML from untreated patients has an alcohol-acid-fastness, which is lost upon treatment with antibiotics and immune response (tuberculoid leprosy). Vulnerable ML thus produced can be reversibly de-stained by organic solvent: in tissue sections from tuberculoid and treated patients, more bacteria are, thus, revealed by the Wade-Fite than by the Ziehl-Neelsen procedure. Organisms of genera Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Nocardia (CMN group), have DNA with %GC contents of 50–70, 69–72, and 68–70 respectively. GC values of DNA from ML and LDC are close to 56%. DNA from. different LDC strains display high homology among them and low homology with reference corynebacteria. CMN cell wall consists of interconnected peptidoglycan and polysaceharidemycolate complex. Peptidoglycan of LDC (and known CMN) has the polysaccharide backbone linked to a tetrapeptide of L-Ala, D-Glu, m-DAP (meso-diaminopimelate), D-Ala. In ML, L-Ala is replaced by glycine. Mycobacterial wall polysaccharides (that of ML is unknown) are branched arabinogalactans with end arabinoses linked to C70 to C90 mycolates. LDC. peripheral polysaccharides are arabinogalactomannans with arabinose and mannose lateral strands. Mycolic acids of LDC are of corynomycolic type (C32, C34 and C36 with 1–4 double bonds) and those of ML are of mycobacterial type. Components of CMN wall and- cytoplasm are immunologically active as antigens (polysaccharides, , proteins), haptens (lipids) and adjuvants (peptidoglycans). Strong intrageneric and weak intergenera crossreactions are observed among CMN bacteria: LDC preparations, however, crossreact strongly with ML and mycobacteria, and weakly with reference corynebacteria. LDC in leprosy tissues can, thus, be revealed as well by fluorescent anti-LDC antisera as by anti-ML antisera. The main crossreacting component is antigen M1. of LDC, which corresponds to antigens Ag 7 of ML and Ag60 of BCG, the active components of lepromin and tuberculin (known reagents for cutaneous tests). Antigen M1 has a polysaccharide moiety crossreacting with the wall polysaccharide of LDC. Immunological reactivity in leprosy apparently is directed toward the polysaccharide moiety during the tuberculoid phase, and the polypeptide moiety during the lepromatous phase. Immunological kinship of LDC and ML suggests their possible cooperation in leprosy development. Injection of small number of LDC in one foot pad of mice, which were challenged in both foot pads with ML, produced a faster proliferation of ML suggestive of synergism. Leprosy is thus a disease produced by ML, organisms of incertain taxonomic position, possibly helped by LDC, a unique group of corynebacteria which are well characterized both biochemically and immunologically. LDC have now been renamed Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum sp. nov. (Intl. Comm. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985), as proposed by L. Barksdale, on the basis of their property to produce tuberoulostearic acid. A collection of these organisms is deposited at the Amer. Type Cult. Collect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 235-256 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis ; Plasmid chlamydial infections ; C. trachomatis ; diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular energy parasitic bacterium with a genome of 660 × 106 daltons, possessing a plasmid and unique life cycle which includes the differentiation of the infective elementary body to a replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is the etiological agent of trachoma, which affects approximately 500 million people in developing countries. Recently it became evident that in industrialised Western nations certain strains of C. trachomatis are the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections such as non-gonoccocal urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis and subsequent ectopic pregnancies or infertility, perihepatitis, neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia, adult conjunctivitis and epididymitis. Since C. trachomatis infections are often asymptomatic, widespread screening of sexually active young people is needed in order to initiate early antibiotic treatment which may prevent serious complications such as ectopic pregnancies and infertility. Development of sensitive and simple techniques for mass screening for detection of Chlamydia in excretions as well as techniques for detection of specific markers of chronic internal infections (such as Chlainydia specific IgA antibodies) is of great importance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 54-61 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Mould allergy ; House dust mites ; Mouldy odours ; Xerophilic fungi ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The occurrence of saprophytic moulds in indoor environments and their potential hazards to human health are discussed. In addition to mesophilic species, xerophilic moulds appear to be common, often developing together with mites. Allergic and non-allergic symptoms are reported when patients are exposed to moulds in homes, schools and working places. Airconditioning systems are consistently involved with mould development. Complaints of eye-, nose- and throat-irritation as well as fatigue seem to be correlated with unpleasant odours produced by abundant mould growth, but the relationship between the symptoms and the odours is not understood. The role of air-borne mycotoxins is discussed. Methods to detect moulds in indoor environments are described. Because no single method or cultivation medium is sufficient to detect all the various indoor moulds, a combination of air sampling, direct microscopic examination and cultivation on both standard and low water activity media is recommended.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 281-287 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: DNA ; Restriction endonuclease ; Digest patterns ; Nitrate negative campylobacters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract High molecular weight chromosomal DNA was isolated from ten nitrate-negative campylobacters of human origin (gastric biopsies and faecal specimens). The DNA was digested with various restriction endonucleases and the patterns obtained were compared with those of Campylobacter coli, C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni and C. laridis reference strains. Electrophoresis of Hae III digests of DNA in 0.5% agarose gave excellent patterns which comprised at least 25 well-resolved bands with fragment sizes between about 4 and 40Kb. There were distinct differences between strains from different geographical locations. The six gastric strains from West Germany formed a relatively homogenous group with respect to their band patterns (type I and I1), whereas the U.K. gastric isolate had a slightly different pattern (type III) as did the three Australian faecal isolates (types IV, V and VI). No plasmids were detected in these nitrate-negative campylobacters and differences in DNA digest patterns between strains and representatives of allied species were attributed to variations in the distributions of Hae III recognition sequences within the genome. The patterns provided further evidence that the strains were atypical C. jejuni.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 288-293 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: AIDS ; HTLV-III ; Epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An epidemiological survey on the presence of serum antibodies to human T lymphotropic retrovirus III (HTLV-III) is reported. The study was carried out on people living in large as well as small cities in different Italian regions. Serum samples of 21 patients with AIDS, 402 with ARCS, and 920 from individuals at risk for these diseases were analyzed. The percentage of positive sera varied from 81% in AIDS, to 100% −33.3% in ARC according to the different geographical areas and/or the various categories of people with ARC. The percentage of positive sera in individuals at risk for AIDS or ARC varied from 11.9% in homosexuals, to 21% in drug abusers and 23.1% in haemophiliacs. No positive sera were observed among 660 normal individuals, relatives of patients with AIDS or ARC and in 114 patients suffering from immunological or infectious disease and among people at risk living in small cities. Sera were also negative in patients with classical Kaposi's sarcoma or T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Since none of the 660 unselected normal adults were positive while a significant percentage of people at risk for AIDS showed antibodies to HTLV-III, we may presume that this infection is prevalent in the Italian categories in which AIDS and ARC are most likely to develop.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 294-300 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Tetracycline resistance ; Plasmid ; N. gonorrhoeae ; U. urealyticum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A young man who acquired gonococcal urethritis in the Far East was not cured by repeated i.v. treatment with a broad-spectrum penicillin. Cultures of pre- and post-treatment urethral specimens grew tetracycline-resistant penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and tetracycline-resistant Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient was successfully treated with erythromycin, to which both isolates were sensitive. The strain of N. gonorrhoeae carried a novel plasmid of 10.5 Md molecular mass in addition to plasmids previously observed in this organism. The strain of U. urealyticum carried two distinct plasmids, one with mass 4.9 Md and the other one with mass 8.1 Md. This report demonstrates that ureaplasmas can contain plasmids and raises the question if tetracycline resistance is controlled by plasmids or by the chromosome.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 84-89 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Histoplasmosis farciminosi ; Histoplasma farciminosum ; Equine epizootic lymphangitis in Egypt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Isolation of Histoplasma farciminosum from five horses, showing typical signs of histoplasmosis farciminosi (epizootic lymphangitis) was successfully attempted. The mycelial form of H. farciminosum was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar enriched with 2.5% glycerol, brain heart infusion (BHI) agar enriched with 10% horse blood and PPLO dextrose glycerol agar. The last medium proved to be the most effective, both for primary isolation and subculturing of the fungus. It was found that on primary isolation, the lag phase of the mycelial form of the fungus was relatively long, involving 4–8 weeks at 25°C. Colonies of the mycelial form of H. farciminosum appeared on subculture as a yellowish, light brown to deep brown, convoluted, waxy, cauliflower-like growth tending to form scant aerial growth. Conversion of the mycelial form to the yeast form of H. farciminosum was successful by subculturing either on BHI agar with 5% blood or on Pine's medium and incubating at 35–37°C. Complete conversion to the yeast form was achieved only after 4–5 repeated serial transfers onto fresh media every 8 days. The yeast colonies were flat, raised, slightly or deeply wrinkled, white to light gray to grayish brown, and were pasty in consistency.
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