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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 635-643 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: biological control ; grey mould ; Trichoderma harzianum ; tomato
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effectiveness ofTrichoderma harzianum in suppression of tomato stem rot caused byBotrytis cinerea was examined on tomato stem pieces and on whole plants. Ten days after simultanous inoculation withB. cinerea andT. harzianum, the incidence of infected stem pieces was reduced by 62–84%, the severity of infection by 68–71% and the intensity of sporulation by 87%. Seventeen days after inoculation of wounds on whole plants, the incidence of stem rot was reduced by 50 and 33% at 15 and 26 °C, respectively, and the incidence of rot at leaf scar sites on the main stem was reduced by 60 and 50%, respectively. Simultanous inoculation and pre-inoculation withT. harzianum gave good control ofB. cinerea (50 and 90% disease reduction, 10 days after inoculation). The rate of rotting was not reduced by the biocontrol agent once infection was established. However, sporulation byB. cinerea was specifically reduced on these rotting stem pieces. Temperature had a greater effect than vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the efficacy of biocontrol. Suppression ofB. cinerea incidence byT. harzianum on stem pieces was significant at 10 °C and higher temperatures up to 26 °C. Control of infection was significantly lower at a VPD of 1.3 kPa (60% reduction), than at VPD〈1.06 kPa (90–100% control). Reductions in the severity of stem rotting and the sporulation intensity of grey mould were generally not affected by VPD in the range 0.59–1.06 kPa. Survival ofT. harzianum on stems was affected by both temperature and VPD and was greatest at 10 °C at a low VPD and at 26 ° C at a high VPD.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 697-705 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: aphid ; host range ; seed-transmission
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two isolates of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV-Sp and MDMV-Spl) obtained from maize in the northeast of Spain were studied. Both isolates induced similar reactions on 6 sorghum cultivars, johnsongrass and oat (cv. Clintland), with the exception of MDMV-Sp which produced a different reaction on one sorghum cultivar. Thirty-three grass species were tested as possible hosts (16 previously untested) and 18 were found to be susceptible. Among those, eight were previously unidentified hosts for MDMV:Aegilops ovata, A. ventricosa, Avena barbata, Bromus alopecurus, B. diandrus, B. fasciculatus, Echinaria capitata andLolium rigidum. Both isolates were transmitted from maize to maize nonpersistently byRhopalosiphum maidis, R. padi, Schizaphis graminum andSitobium avenae. The virus was not seed-transmitted in Mo17 and B73 maize inbred lines. Pinwheels, scrolls and short curved laminated aggregates were observed in the cytoplasm of maize cells infected by MDMV-Sp or MDMV-Sp1. In addition, laminated aggregates were observed in cells infected by MDMV-Sp1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 743-746 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: cyst nematode ; histopathology ; host-parasite relationships ; Solanum tuberosum L
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A case of heavy infestation on tubers of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L) cultivars (Nicola, Spunta and Sieglinde) by the cyst nematodeGlobodera pallida Stone, 1973 was observed in Southern Italy on early producing potato cultivars in spring. Tubers were covered by white females and cysts but no other external symptoms were detectible on their surfaces. Detailed observations were directed to study the response of phellem and secondary cortex tissues induced by the expansion of syncytia during nematode feeding activity. The micro details of histological changes observed on serially sectioned infected tissues are described and illustrated. The nematode's feeding activity was confined to the outer part of the tuber while the host-parasite relationships were similar to those induced by the same nematode in the feeder roots.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 765-771 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: grey leaf spot ; fungicide responses ; maize hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Grey leaf spot disease of maize (Cercospora zeaemaydis) has seriously decreased grain yields in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and has spread to infect maize in neighbouring provinces. No commercial hybrids, resistant to the disease have so far been identified, and fungicides have been shown to reduce disease severity. The response of sixty-four commercial hybrids to grey leaf spot under fungicide treatment were studied over two seasons. Overall, fungicides reduced disease severity and linear regression of gain in yield against disease severity enables the identification of hybrids with optimum responses to fungicides. Under low disease levels hybrids responded less to fungicides than under high disease levels. The most susceptible hybrids had the highest responses in control of leaf-blighting and gain in yield. Hybrids with lower-than-predicted leaf-blighting also had lower-than-predicted yield responses, indicating these to be less susceptible to grey leaf spot. These less susceptible hybrids are likely to require fewer fungicide treatments than more susceptible hybrids and are at lesser risk of serious yield losses.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 779-786 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: Cucumovirus ; Peanut stunt virus ; satellite RNA ; nucleotide sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two peanut stunt virus isolates from Poland (PSV-Ag and PSV-P) have been studied. The isolates produce similar systemic symptoms onNicotiana tabacum plants but the symptoms onN. benthamiana, Pisum sativum andDatura stramonium plants are much stronger for the PSV-P isolate. Analysis of the RNA extracted from purified virions by gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR amplification allowed the detection of a satellite RNA in the PSV-P isolate. The nucleotide sequence of this European PSV satellite was determined and found to have a high degree of identity with the sequences of the four American PSV satellites previously studied, which were found to have either no effect or ameliorate the PSV symptoms in tobacco plants (Collmer et al., 1985; Naidu et al., 1991). The possible role of the European PSV satellite in the modulation of viral symptoms has been studied but no effect was observed when the purified satellite was used with the PSV-Ag isolate as helper virus on any of the three hosts cited above.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 807-816 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: avirulence genes ; detoxification ; disease resistance genes ; gene-for-gene relationship ; host selective toxins ; phytoanticipins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Fungal phytopathogens have evolved efficient mechanisms that enable them to exploit the plant nutrient reservoir for the purpose of growth and propagation. These are counteracted by the plants to arrest fungal development. Two general principles control the specificity of host/fungus interactions. In several cases, the interplay between fungus-produced toxins and either plant toxin targets or detoxification mechanisms determine the outcome of the interaction. An analogous principle appears to be operative in the opposite direction; deposition by plants of fungitoxic compounds that can be detoxified by pathogenic fungi. Presumably of more general importance is the recognition-based plant defense system. The ensuing resistance is frequently controlled by single genes in both interacting organisms. Originally observed in many crop plants at the sub-species level, it has recently also been described in wild plants and at the species level. The structures of disease resistance genes cloned to date from different plants allow the conclusion that the plant protective system against pathogens is based on a general principle that appears to be as effective as the animal disease protection system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 823-830 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: foot rot ; fungal populations ; Fusarium culmorum ; Fusarium graminearum ; head blight ; population structure ; seedling blight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Fusarium graminearum andF. culmorum are capable of infecting winter cereals at all growth stages. From natural field epidemics of wheat head blight and rye foot rot, three fungal populations were collected with 21, 38 and 54 isolates, respectively; their aggressiveness was analyzed in comparison to collections ofF. graminearum (25 isolates) andF. culmorum (70 isolates) that represent a wide range of geographical locations and host species. All isolates were tested for aggressiveness on young plants of winter rye in the greenhouse and scored for disease severity on a 1–9 scale. Disease ratings of individual isolates ranged from 1.5 to 5.7 indicating quantitative variation of aggressiveness. Genotypic variance was highest in the twoFusarium collections. No substantial difference was found in the amount of genotypic variation betweenF. graminearum andF. culmorum. Individual field populations revealed 57–66% of the total genotypic variation of the collections. This implies a high degree of diversity of aggressiveness within single field populations ofF. graminearum andF. culmorum causing natural epidemics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 837-846 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe ; viroid diagnosis ; viroid extraction methods ; non-isotopic detection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe specific for hop stunt viroid (HSVd) diagnosis has been developed. The high sensitivity and specificity of this RNA probe in dot blot hybridizations to nucleic acids from field samples, allowed the confirmation of the presence of HSVd in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its detection in two fruit tree species not previously described as hosts of this pathogen, almond (Prunus dulcis Miller) and pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). This result supports and extends the notion of the world wide distribution of HSVd, infecting cultivated fruit trees. HSVd was also found to accumulate to much higher levels in mature apricot fruits than in leaves. Additionally, a sample processing procedure which does not involve the use of organic solvents was demonstrated to render faithful results when used for viroid detection. The combined reliability and facility of use of both this extraction procedure and the non-radioactive probe will benefit agronomic investigations addressing the detection and eradication of HSVd. Other applications of the work described here, as the study of possible causal relations between specific disorders and HSVd infection, are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 855-858 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum ; resistance gene ; locus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The inheritance of resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum race 1 was determined in the cucumber cv. WIS-248 by analyzing segregation of F1, F2, and BC populations of crosses with the susceptible cv. Straight-8. Resistance was conferred by a single dominant gene. In an allelism test, it was proven that theFcu-1 gene, which confers resistance toF. oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum races 1 and 2 in cucumber cv. SMR-18 and theFoc gene, which confers resistance toF. oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum race 2 in cucumber cv. WIS-248, are indistinguishable.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plant pathology 102 (1996), S. 875-881 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: hybrid ; Melampsora ; plant-pathogen interactions ; resistance ; Salix
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Pure species and F1 hybrid families ofSalix viminalis andS. dasyclados were tested for resistance to four single uredinium isolates ofMelampsora rust in laboratory experiments using excised leaves. Rust isolates were derived from:S. viminalis, S. dasyclados, aS. viminalis x triandra hybrid, andS. daphnoides. Incidence of infection, number of uredinia per leaf, and numbers of spores per uredinium were measured. As expected, the isolate fromS. daphnoides did not infect any of the willow species or hybrids tested. For the other three rust isolates that were tested, the parent from which the isolate was derived was susceptible, the other parent was resistant, and hybrids were intermediate in resistance for incidence and uredinia per leaf. These patterns indicate additive inheritance of these resistance traits in hybrids. Numbers of spores per uredinium were similar on the hybrids and the susceptible parent for one rust isolate, suggesting dominant inheritance of this trait in the hybrids.
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