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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary Historians of science in Britain lack a firm institutional base. They are to be found scattered around in various departments in universities, polytechnics and museums. Their history over the last thirty-five years can be seen as a series of flirtations with those in more-established disciplines. Beginning with scientists, they then turned to philosophers, moving on to historians and then to sociologists: from each of these affairs something was learned, and the current interest determined which aspects of the history of science were seen as most interesting. At first it was settling who really discovered what; then an interest in concepts, methods and case-studies; then understanding the broader historical context of science; and after that seeing science in its social context, with special emphasis on institutions and professionalization. Where we shall go next is unclear: these vagaries may be no more than examples of intellectual fashion, but we may hope that they represent a zig-zag route towards deeper understanding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Zusammenfassung HegelsPhänomenologie des Geistes schließt mit dem Begriff des absoluten Wissens. Nicht zuletzt deswegen war dieses Werk Hegels wie seine Philosophie überhaupt seitdem immer Gegenstand grundlegender philosophischer Kontroversen. Dennoch gab es überraschend wenige Versuche zur Klärung dieses umstrittenen Begriffes. Das Ziel dieses Artikels besteht in einer recht elementaren und einführenden Diskussion einiger Gesichtspunkte der Theorie Hegels vom Absoluten, ohne die Absicht einer Interpretation irgendwelcher durch seine Phänomenologie aufgeworfenen wirklich schwierigen Probleme. Der Zweck liegt darin, eine verständliche Einführung zu bieten und eher die Skizze einer adäquaten Annäherung an die Probleme zu liefern als diese mit allen ihren philosophischen Implikationen zu diskutieren. Teil I unternimmt es, eine bestimmte Interpretation von Hegels eigener Einleitung in die Phänomenologie in solchen Termini zu kritisieren, von denen ein durch Hegel vorläufig umrissener Begriff des Absoluten irrtümlich mit seinem richtigen Begriff identifiziert zu werden vermag. Teil II bietet eine Begründung der Idee Hegels vom Absoluten als Selbstbewußtsein, indem auch einige der Ursachen für eine Annahme des absoluten Selbstbewußtseins als ein überindividuelles gesucht wird. Schließlich diskutiert Teil III einige Probleme, die mit dem phänomenologischen Versuch im Zusammenhang stehen, das absolute Wissen zu rechtfertigen.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary This article analyzes the possibility of cooperation between philosophy and the history of philosophy. It approaches this task more precisely than has been the case in the discussion heretofore, seeing in this relationship an ideal case, typifying the relationship of systematic to historical disciplines in general. To begin with, a distinction must be made between a naively received history of philosophy and the critical study of philosophy's history. Further distinctions to be made are among receivedcontent, receptionprocesses and the five main categories of the history of philosophy'sfunctions for systematic philosophy (primary information, hermeneutics, heuristics, genetic reflexion and validity tests). Heuristics and validation may be subsumed under the category ofintegration and be brought into relation to the truth criteria of coherence and consensus. The hermeneutical and reflective functions may be understood as proto-heuristics and proto-validation and thereby receive secondorder functionalization. The increasingly indispensable service of the critical study of the history of philosophy to systematic philosophy is established by the three constellations in which historical material iscollected, systematically interpreted andadjudged, as to its accuracy. A formal plasticity must be assumed as a pre-requisite from the start, corresponding not to a particular philosophical instance, but rather to the instancing character of all systematic philosophy and therefore with a thematic domain, which is defined by philosophicality, in terms of its problematical, fundamental, categorial and systematical character. A critical science of philosophy would be required to explicitly formulate these characteristics, but the normative function would have to be assumed by a theory of philosophy which would take on the role of a meta-philosophy regarding particular philosophical schools, corresponding to the role of philosophy of science as an applied logic. Such a theory of philosophy would also be in a position to determine the formal relationship of such a critical history of philosophy (including philosophy's historiography and philology) to systematic philosophies.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary First of all some problems of a scientifical dialogue between the different systems in the East and the West are being presented. In such a dialogue symmetry and reflexivity as principles of orientation have an important function. These principles are close to reality in the field of the philosophy of science and history of science in the DDR. By the controversy between the philosophy of science and the history of science in the DDR and by the way of discussing the Kuhnian theory within the Marxist-Leninist-philosophy of science, together with an apologetical demarcation a real westernoriented willingness of dialogue in the DDR can be remarked. Even farreaching positions can be found so that an intensification of the dialogue is possible.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary If identity is to be taken as a relation, not between any object and itself, nor between expressions (individual constants), but between “intensions” or Fregean “Sinnen” of individual constants (which seems to me to be Frege's mature position in 1892 and, furthermore, a satisfying solution to the philosophical problem of identity), then not only definite descriptions but also grammatically proper names ought to have intensions. This, however, has been repudiated by J. St. Mill and, more recently and more persuasively, by Saul Kripke. So an attempt will be made to interpret proper names as definite descriptionssui generis, namely, “rigid” descriptions referring to the way the bearer of the name is called, in certain contexts, in the real world. To avoid circularity or a vicious regressus in infinitum, however, one has to do this on the basis of a distinction between “names” and “name-radicals”.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary In this paper it is shown that the attempt by Gerhard Seel to give a positive solution to the problem of absolute justification of socalled practical sentences has failed. His attempts to explicate his central concepts and the conditions of adequacy of his fundamental practical sentence are analyzed in detail. And his proposals for the formulation of a sentence of this kind are shown to lead to absurd consequences, so that consistent fallibilism is saved from his attack.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Arbeit betrachtet die verschiedenen Ansichten, die über wissenschaftliche Objektivität bestehen: Etwa als Charakteristik einer gesamtwissenschaftlichen Praxis, als Gesamtfortschritt, der durch die Struktur der Institution bestimmt ist, oder als etwas, was auf subjektivem Glauben, subjektivem Verfahren und kollektiven Meinungen begründet ist. Sie betrachtet die Objektivität der Wissenschaft auch in bezug auf den Sinn wissenschaftlicher Behauptungen und bezüglich des allgemeinen erkenntnistheoretischen Hintergrundes. Mit Blick auf einige neuere Thesen innerhalb der Quantenphysik und in der Sprache der Quantenphysik versucht die Arbeit herauszustellen, daß die Praxis der tatsächlichen Wissenschaft über historische und logisch-methodologische Rechenschaftsablegung hinausgeht, um ihre Glaubwürdigkeit in einer kontinuierlich sich erweiternden Erfahrung unter Beweis zu stellen. Wissenschaft als ein systematisches öffentliches Unternehmen, dessen Zweck es ist, Behauptungen über die Natur zu formulieren, erreicht dies durch einen Bedeutungswandel von Objektivität und indem sie neue „Sprachen“ übernimmt, die durch solchen Wandel erfordert werden.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary A new reply to the old question as to meaning and foundations of the Lorentz transformations is given by passing over to non-linear equations. Thus, it is possible to show that the theory of special relativity can be based upon the Galilei transformations, i. e. on the classical assumptions concerning space and time, if terms of the fourth order are neglected. The new theory will probably give rise to a revision of relativistic mechanics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8587
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Philosophy , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Summary This paper is about 1. cognitive science's claim to obtain an empirically theory of human (natural) intelligence by experiments with intelligent machines; 2. the question, whether simulation yields/is explanation (S:E), i.e. whether the theory explaining the behaviour of a thing A, appropriately abstracted, as well explains the behaviour of a thing B, different in type from A, when A's and B's behaviours are indistinguishable; 3. the question, whether the Aristotelian ontic distinction between the natural and the artificial was in fact extinguished by Descartes' materialistic intensional ontology; this question is denied by evidence of the existence of different theories of artificial and natural magnetism in current physics; 4. and about the comparison of the current theories of magnetism, of artificial or electromagnetism and of natural or ferromagnetism with the result that there is no uniform theory explaining all kinds of magnetism to be gained out of Maxwell's theory. Thus by counterexample is demonstrated that cognitive science's claim to obtain a theory of natural intelligence by the S:E-strategy is to be refused. Descartes' premise of the ontic indifference of the size of physical magnitudes is introduced as basis of the S:E-claim and its refutation as cause of the partial continuation of the ontic distinction between natural and artificial things in physics.
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