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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 3-28 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 73-81 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Free amino acids and cholinergic enzymes were investigated in the cerebellum of reeler and weaver mice in an attempt to identify the neurotransmitter characteristic of the granule cell population and to clarify any neurotransmitter abnormalities of their pre- and postsynaptic neurons induced by their depletion. The data indicate that glutamic acid may be the neurotransmitter of the granule cells. Pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmitter activity seemed not to be markedly altered in cerebellar granule cell dysgenesis.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 133-140 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The sensitivity of cerebral glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity to hypotonic homogenization medium, centrifugation, Triton-X-100, and preincubation at 37°C was studied in the developing mouse. In newborn and 5-day-old animals, GAD activity was markedly inhibited by all these conditions. From 5 days to adult age, the sensitivity of the enzyme to the experimental conditions used decreased progressively, with the greatest change between the 10th and 15th days. It is concluded that the newborn form of the enzyme, which is unstable and shows a relatively high affinity for pyridoxal phosphate, is substituted by the adult form during the maturation of the brain. The activity of the adult form is much more stable and more dependent on free pyridoxal phosphate. The implications of these findings in the regulation of cerebral excitability during development are discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 141-152 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cerebella of rats were exposed to selective doses of low levels of x-irradiation beginning on day 4, 8, or 12 following birth. The doses of x-irradiation given on days 12, 13, and 15 (12–15X group) resulted in a 24% reduction in the wet weight of the cerebella; the doses given on days 8, 9, 11, 13, and 15 (8–15X group) resulted in a 57% weight reduction; the doses given on days 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 (4–15X group) resulted in a 67% weight reduction. The schedule of x-irradiation begun on day 12, which prevented the acquisition of the late-forming granule cells, reduced the levels (nmole/mg dry tissue weight) of alanine (22%) and glutamate (10%), and increased the levels of glycine (15%), GABA (13%), and taurine (71%), with respect to control values. The schedule begun on day 8, which prevented the acquisition of stellate and granule cells, reduced the levels of alanine (15%), glutamate (12%), and taurine (21%), and increased the levels of glycine (102%) and GABA (56%). The schedule begun on day 4, which prevented the acquisition of basket, stellate, and granule cells, reduced the level of glutamate (15%) and increased the levels of glycine (186%) and GABA (78%). The levels of alanine and taurine in the cerebella of the 4–15X group were the same as control values. The level of aspartate in the cerebella of the 3 groups of x-irradiated animals was not significantly different from control values. The consistent reduction in the level of glutamate as a function of the number of doses of x-irradiation is suggestive that glutamate may have a higher level in the granule cells than in other cells in the cerebellum, and that the higher level may be a reflection of a possible excitatory transmitter role for glutamate. In addition, the data are interpreted in terms of taurine being associated with the stellate cells and possibly serving as a transmitter for these inhibitory interneurons.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 191-200 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports that addition of cGMP results in an increase of the amount of32Pi incorporated into thiamine triphosphate in nerve roots and sympathetic trunks. The effect is present both at rest and during electrical stimulation. Other nucleotides were less effective. Theophylline increased the incorporation, possibly because of phosphodiesterase inhibition. A blocking effect of atropine was noted in sympathetic trunk preparations that contain ganglion cells.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 201-215 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clonal lines of glial, neuronal, and nonneural origin accumulate choline via a high-affinity carrier-mediated transport system withK m in the range of 10–14 μM. These cell lines also accumulate choline by a second system that is not saturable at 10 mM choline, and that may represent diffusion. The transport of choline in glial cells differs from that seen in neuronal cells with respect to its Na+ requirement. The omission of Na+ from the incubation medium reduces high-affinity choline transport in neuronal cells and enhances it in glial cells. Kinetic analysis of the data indicates that reversible cholinesterase inhibitors and hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibit the high-affinity transport system for choline. On the other hand, the diffusional or low-affinity component of choline transport in either cell type appears to have no Na+ requirement and is unaffected by either cholinesterase inhibitors or 10−4 M HC-3. The neuronal-glial differences in the Na+ requirement of choline transport may be related to the coupling of transport to choline metabolism, which differs in the two cell types. The presence of a high-affinity transport system for choline in clonal glial lines used as models of normal glia suggest that glia may modulate the availability of choline for acetylcholine synthesis at cholinergic synapses.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 251-259 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Studies of the subcellular distribution ofγ-glutamyl transpeptidase from sheep brain by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that 40% of the transpeptidase activity associated with the mitochondrial-synaptosomal fraction was localized with the synaptosomal-enriched fraction. The microsomal fraction was found to have the highest specific activity whenγ-glutamylp-nitroanalide was used as substrate. This activity, however, represented only 5% of the totalγ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Approximately 90% of the total enzyme activity was apparently associated with the fraction containing cell debris and membrane fragments. The 160,000g supernatant fluid (soluble supernatant fraction) represented the least total activity, with only 1.2% recovery; however, this fraction contained two apparent forms of the enzyme. One form had a highK mand the other a lowK m for the substrate,γ-glutamylp-nitroanilide. It was observed that the enzymeγ-glutamyl transpeptidase was not evenly distributed in all areas of brain when the homogenate was used as the enzyme source. The brain region with the highest enzyme activity was the thalamus, which was able to form 1.10 μmolp-nitroanaline/min/g wet brain tissue. The cortex was found to have the lowest activity. The 40,000g supernatant fluid from each region, however, exhibited only slight distribution differences.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 299-312 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bulk-prepared neuronal perikarya and glial fractions have been used to study developmental changes of some enzymic activities concerning glycolysis and synthesis of neurotransmitters. Somewhat higher pyruvate kinase activity was found in neuronal perikarya than in glial cells, and its rapid rise was observed during early developmental stages. Increased K+ concentration ord-glutamate addition to the incubation medium enhanced consumption of phosphoenolpyruvate. This activation of the enzyme was small just after birth, but it increased in parallel with development to adult level, where the activation in glial fractions was over twice that in neuronal fractions. Choline acetyltransferase activity was found in purified neuronal fractions and increased with age; glutamate decarboxylase was also found in high activity in purified neuronal fractions and increased with development. However, some enzymic activities were also found in glial fractions, and possibilities of contamination by synaptosomal, myelin, or other subfractions are discussed.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 313-327 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Density profiles of protein patterns from cortical tissue exhibit an increase in only one peak when mice are rendered epileptic by application of cobalt to the cortex. The increase and diminution in peak height, attributed to a change in the concentration of a single protein (protein 3), coincides with the severity of seizure activity; with the degree of abnormality of the cortex region affected; and with the time of onset, duration, and disappearance of the epileptic condition. Thus, the concentration of protein 3 is highest in tissue from the site of cobalt application (up to 10× normal), is increased less in the focus (up to 5× normal), while in the mirror focus (contralateral, not exposed surgically), the increase in the concentration of protein 3 is still detectable, but not as pronounced. The concentrations in these cortex regions decrease to normal in reverse order to their elevation when the epileptic signs begin to diminish. Furthermore, the increase of protein 3 in all three areas is proportional to the severity of epilepsy. The concentration of protein 3 also becomes enhanced when the cortex is injured, but no progressive increase in the concentration occurs with time, nor does the concentration reach that observed in the site of cobalt application or the focal region. These mice do not exhibit spontaneous seizures, but injection of pentelynetetrazol confirms that animals with brain injury only are more susceptible to seizures. The results of this study suggest that both the area of cortex affected and the intensity of metabolic alterations may be precipitating factors in establishing an epileptic condition. This view is in agreement with clinical observations on epilepsy.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 1 (1976), S. 403-408 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dopamine-β-hydroxylase has been purified from human serum. The amino acid composition has been determined and found to be similar to that of the enzyme purified from human pheochromocytoma. Human serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase is a glycoprotein, containing 13.11 g carbohydrates/100 g protein. Individual sugar determinations showed the presence of fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose,N-acetylglucosamine,N-acetylgalactosamine andN-acetylneuraminic acid.
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