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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Gabler
    Keywords: Unternehmensgründung ; Interkulturelles Management ; Globalization ; International economics ; Rumänien ; Emerging Markets ; International Economics ; Rumänien 23.12.1861- ; Unternehmensgründung ; Interkulturelles Management
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XI, 55 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658245030
    Series Statement: essentials
    DDC: 381
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Bucharest: The Research Institute for Agricultural Economy and Rural Development (ICEADR)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Agrarökonomik ; Ländliche Entwicklung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: This paper considers the education of the labour force based on an analysis of trends in and the relationships between job polarization and skills mismatch. Both job polarization and skills mismatch have become topics of increasing interest, but relationships between the two have been relatively neglected in the literature. We argue that the relationship between polarization and skills mismatch is an empirical matter, which we analyse at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic level in European countries. A novel job polarization index (JPI) is proposed to measure imbalanced job polarization. It takes into account not only the change in the share of medium-level jobs, as is typical for measuring pure polarization, but also the imbalance between the change in high-level and low-level jobs. Skills mismatch at macro-level is measured by a skills mismatch index (SMI), while traditional measures of undereducation and overeducation are used at the microeconomic level. At the macroeconomic level, we estimate a system of two equations, one for each of the country-level variables gauging polarization and mismatch, respectively. Imbalanced job polarization measured by the JPI negatively affects skills mismatch at the macroeconomic level (SMI), but there is no significant reverse effect. Thereafter we consider the microeconomic level and study the determinants of mismatch using multi-level mixed effects logistic models. The effect of imbalanced job polarization on individual-level mismatch was arguably favourable for individuals in non-crisis time, decreasing overeducation risk although also increasing the chances of undereducation, both gauged using the normative measure, but unfavourable during the global financial crisis of 2008 - 2009 and the following two years.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Berufsstruktur ; mismatch - internationaler Vergleich ; Überqualifikation ; Unterqualifikation ; Qualifikationsanforderungen ; Arbeitskräftenachfrage ; Qualifikationsstruktur ; Arbeitskräfteangebot ; Europa ; Luxemburg ; Portugal ; Frankreich ; Irland ; Slowenien ; Kroatien ; Schweiz ; Litauen ; Schweden ; Ungarn ; Belgien ; Norwegen ; Polen ; Dänemark ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Island ; Rumänien ; Lettland ; Estland ; Österreich ; Finnland ; Spanien ; Niederlande ; Griechenland ; Tschechische Republik ; Italien ; Slowakei
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 5
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Agrarentwicklung in Mittel- und Osteuropa (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Searching for possible viable economic pathways for small-scale farms in Eastern Europe, this study is concerned with Community Supported Agriculture (CSA). We are mainly interested in the costs and benefits for both sides, the farmers and the consumers, when entering into a direct, trust-based market relationship in the form of CSA. The study is theoretically embedded in the concept of solidarity economy. The analysis is based on three cases of farmers pioneering the CSA concept in Romania by offering organic vegetable to their local contracted consumers in the Western part of the country. All three CSA groups were initiated by a local NGO. Our empirical results shed light on CSA partnerships in Romania. With regard to consumers we find that they are drawn from a specific group of urban dwellers with higher education and income, and a particular interest in health and nutrition. Consumers show a high level of trust to their partner farmers: this is the basis for a functioning economic relationship. Solidarity is a value that is aspired by the initiating NGO. It is existing as one of the values sought by consumers when taking part in CSA. More important than solidarity is, however, the consumers' wish for organic-quality fresh products, which are not available elsewhere. On the producers´ side, the need for a stable market with fair prices is the main motivation to get involved in CSA. Thus, both farmers and consumer compensate for market failures through the CSA partnership.
    Description: Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Phänomen der Solidarischen Landwirtschaft, welche einen möglichen Ausweg aus der schwierigen Situation für Kleinbetriebe in Osteuropa bieten könnte. Der Schwerpunkt des Interesses liegt auf den Kosten und dem Nutzen für die Akteure - Landwirte und ihre Konsumenten - wenn diese eine auf Vertrauen basierte Marktbeziehung in Form der Solidarischen Landwirtschaft eingehen. Die Studie ist theoretisch in das Konzept der Solidarischen Ökonomie eingebettet. Die Analyse basiert auf drei Fallstudien rumänischer Kleinbetriebe, die als Pioniere das Konzept der Solidarischen Landwirtschaft in Rumänien anwenden, indem sie Gemüse ökologisch anbauen, und an ihre urbanen Vertragspartner liefern. In allen drei Fällen war eine lokale Nichtregierungsorganisation Initiator. Unsere empirischen Ergebnisse geben Einblick in rumänischen Partnerschaften der Solidarischen Landwirtschaft. Die Konsumenten rekrutieren sich aus einer spezifischen Gruppe urbaner Verbraucher. Diese zeichnet sich durch relativ hohe Bildung und Einkommen sowie ihr ausgeprägtes Interesse an Gesundheits- und Ernährungsfragen aus. Die Verbraucher zeigen einen hohen Grad an Vertrauen in ihre landwirtschaftlichen Vertragspartner, was wohl als einer der Schlüsselfaktoren für das Funktionieren der Partnerschaft gesehen werden kann. Solidarität stand im Mittelpunkt des Interesses der initiierenden Organisation. In der praktischen Umsetzung zeigt sich, dass Solidarität in der Tat einer der Werte ist, den die teilnehm enden Konsumenten realisieren wollen. Gewichtiger ist allerdings der Wunsch nach frischen Nahrungsmitteln aus ökologischer Landwirtschaft, die sonst kaum auf dem Markt zu erhalten sind. Die Motivation der Produzenten liegt vornehmlich in dem Wunsch begründet, einen stabilen Absatzmarkt mit fairen Preisen zu betreten. Beide Seiten kompensieren also durch die Partnerschaft bestehendes Marktversagen.
    Keywords: Q13 ; P13 ; O18 ; P32 ; ddc:330 ; community supported agriculture ; CSA ; small farmers ; organic farming ; Romania ; solidarity economy ; rural development ; solidarische Landwirtschaft ; kleinbäuerliche Familienbetriebe ; ökologische Landwirtschaft ; Rumänien ; Solidarische Ökonomie ; ländliche Entwicklung
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: This study contributes to the literature on the competitiveness of Romanian exports with a new perspective over the decade 2001-2011, by overlapping of two complementary analyses: of the export performance dynamics and of the domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers. The analyzed period includes the period of global economic growth (mainly 2003-2007) and the first years of the economic crisis (2009-2011 ). The year 2007, when Romania joined the European Union, is in the middle of the analyzed period. The dynamics of Romania's export performance was assessed through a specific method combining three different research lines(1) changes in the ranking of exported products in the reference years 2001 and 2011, (2) evolution of the performance of key products exported in 2001 and (3) the position in 2001 of key products exported in 2011. The analysis of domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers provides, for the first time for Romania a brief study on the position of the country on the global value chain, following the logic proposed by the European Commission in its last two European Competitiveness Reports (2012 and 2013). When corroborated, the results of the two analyses can be used to discuss the extent to which the current structure of exports contributes to the generation of domestic revenues and as such might prove useful in the debate on the identification of a country brand for Romania. In order to achieve the latter goal, we conducted two detailed case studies on two reference sectors of the Romanian economy: motor vehicles and creative industries. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Performance-Messung ; Einnahmen ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; EU-Binnenmarkt ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energiemarkt ; Erdgasmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Energiepolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 8
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: In this study, we analyse the manner of developing a particular system of coordination of European affairs at national level, as well as its efficiency, the aim being to provide suggestions for improving it. The introductory section highlights the need for such a study, given the current political and institutional context of Romania, and it states the objectives of the study. Special attention is given to presenting the theoretical approach (expressing, on the one hand, the authors' vision that European affairs - distinctly from foreign affairs - are part of the complex governance process specific for the European Union (EU) and, on the other hand, operationalizing the idea of efficiency within a national system for coordinating European affairs, etc.) and the research methodology (reasons for choosing a comparative research design to support the presented arguments, as well as the qualitative research performed). In the first part, the paper also provides information on the legislative and institutional configuration of the EU, following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, because the novelties and reforms brought by this regulatory framework (supperior to the one of the Nice Treaty, but inferior to the proposals stipulated within the Constitutional Treaty) have a direct impact on designing the structure for coordinating European affairs in the Member States. Given that in Romania the European affairs coordination system was initially inspired by the French model, while later suffering a series of institutional changes (some inspired by models from other EU states), an important part of the study addresses the need to know, from a comparative perspective, the best practices in European affairs coordination and cooperation mechanisms in other EU Member States. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 9
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The study "Perspectives of the Migration Policy in Romania's Current Demographic Context" belongs to the thematic series of papers dedicated to migration initiated by the European Institute of Romania. If initially the issue of migrations analysed the relationship between the Romanian migrants and the European common space ("Free Movement of People" - 2002, "The Migration Phenomenon in Romania from the Perspective of Romania's Adherence to the European Union" - 2004 and "European Perspectives on Asylum and Migration" - 2008), the new suggested themes sought to expand the migrations' topic. In this respect, after analysing and assessing the effects of external migrations in the context of free movement within the communitary space, the European Institute of Romania (EIR) suggests a new scientific challenge, which is also of public interest, namely the analysis of migrations and the relative policies in the context of profound transformations of demographic structures in Romania. The topicality of this issue is confirmed by the increasing interest shown by numerous representatives of the scientific environment, as well as by experts within public institutions or interested politicians. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Migration ; Freizügigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Migrationspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 10
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 11
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    Bucharest: The Research Institute for Agricultural Economy and Rural Development (ICEADR)
    Publication Date: 2015-07-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Agrarökonomik ; Ländliche Entwicklung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Description: The electronics manufacturing sector has played a prominent role in export-oriented development strategies, as participation in this high-tech industry promises access to new technology, high skilled jobs and a fast-growing market. Against this background, many governments in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have sought to attract investment in this sector, where foreign firms became the key actors in reshaping after 1989 and where integrating into global production networks (GPNs) was widely embraced as a means to modernize and upgrade local industries. We assess to what extent the potential benefits arising from integrating into electronics GPNs have materialized in Hungary, an established player and the most important electronics exporting country in the region, and Romania, a newcomer country in electronics manufacturing. To analyse these questions, we look at the organizational and geographical configuration of the electronics sector and examine the impact integration into these networks has had on local firms and workers and to what extent this integration has led to economic and social upgrading. With regard to economic upgrading processes, we suggest that the upgrading concept needs to pay more attention to the 'reach' of economic upgrading. This is particularly important when integration into GPNs takes place via foreign direct investment (FDI), where economic upgrading processes may be focused on transnational corporations (TNCs) with limited spillovers to local firms. The social upgrading trajectory is influenced importantly by global industry dynamics, for example high flexibility pressures and the tiered nature of the workforce in electronics GPNs, and countries' specific institutional and regulatory contexts.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; global production networks ; electronics sector ; foreign direct investment ; economic upgrading ; social upgrading ; Central and Eastern Europe ; Hungary ; Romania ; Elektronisches Produkt ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Auslandsinvestition ; Ungarn ; Rumänien ; Osteuropa
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Recent literature exploring fetal shocks has focused on the effects of exogenous, but rather rare and violent events (e.g., military conflicts, natural disasters, terrorist attacks) and found that in utero experience has scaring, life lasting consequences. In this paper we consider the effect of an arguably more common and milder shock generated by a major and unexpected, albeit temporary, wage cut policy that affected all public sector employees in Romania in 2010. Our main findings suggest an overall improvement in the health at birth (as measured by the low birth weight indicator) of the cohorts exposed to the shock. Moreover, we find significant improvements in health at birth exclusively for boys and not for girls. This effect seems to be driven by significant effects of males exposed to the shock early in gestation. Additionally, we also find a decreased male to female ratio at birth for the cohort exposed to the shock. Overall, our results are consistent with the so-called culling theory hypothesizing that maternal exposure to significant stress early in gestation selects against male frail fetuses and, as a result of this selection in utero, at birth, one should observe significant improvements in health outcomes in the male cohorts.
    Keywords: I19 ; J13 ; J38 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; wage cut ; transitory income shock ; neonatal health ; selection in utero ; Romania ; Lohn ; Schock ; Mütter ; Fertilität ; Kinder ; Gesundheit ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper aims to understand how corruption responds to an income loss. We exploit an unexpected 25% wage cut incurred in 2010 by all Romanian public sector employees, including the public education staff. We investigate a corruptible high-stake exam taking place shortly after the wage announcement. To measure corruption we compare changes in exam outcomes from 2009 to 2010 between public and private schools, as the latter were not affected by the policy. We find that the wage loss induced better exam outcomes in public than in private schools and we attribute this difference to increased corruption by public educators.
    Keywords: I20 ; H70 ; J30 ; ddc:330 ; public educators ; bribes ; high-stakes exam ; Korruption ; Lehrkräfte ; Besoldung ; Bildungsniveau ; Vergleich ; Privatschule ; Schätzung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We experimentally investigate the nature of cooperation in various repeated games, with subjects from Romania and USA. We find stark cross-country differences in the propensity to sustain multilateral cooperation through bilateral rewards and punishments. U.S. groups perform well because sufficiently many cooperators are willing to discipline free riders. Romanian cooperators are less prone to jeopardize their productive bilateral relationships for the benefit of the group, collectively failing to provide adequate discipline. Our analysis indicates that the performance differences constitute a group-level phenomenon, being largely due differences in shared beliefs rather than differences in individuals' preferences.
    Keywords: D02 ; D03 ; ddc:330 ; Kulturelle Identität ; Social Capital ; Kooperation ; Wiederholte Spiele ; Test ; Vergleich ; Rumänien ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: Despite significant economic reforms in many Southern Mediterranean EU neighbour countries, their growth performance has on average been subdued. This study analyses the differences in growth performance and macroeconomic stability across Mediterranean countries, to draw lessons for the future. The main findings are that Southern Mediterranean countries should benefit from closer ties with the EU that result in higher levels of trade and FDI inflows, once the turbulence of the 'Arab Spring' is resolved, and from the development of financial markets and infrastructure. They will also benefit in keeping inflation under control, which will depend in great part on their ability to maintain fiscal discipline and sustainable current accounts. One of the main challenges for the region will be to implement structural reforms that can help them absorb a large pool of unemployed without creating upward risks to inflation.
    Keywords: O40 ; F15 ; F43 ; E61 ; ddc:330 ; Growth ; EU neighborhood policy ; Trade ; FDI ; Financial Development ; Inflation ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Inflation ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Regionale Wirtschaftsintegration ; Westasien ; Nordafrika ; Mittelmeerraum ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The EU has been one of the largest trade partners for so called Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Commodity turnover of these countries with the EU vary between 30% and 50% of total, but their access to the EU market is less preferential than for many other neighboring countries. They trade with the EU on the basis of MFN regime, and five EaP countries, with exemption of Belarus, use privileges provided by Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) or the GSP+ or autonomous trade preferences (Moldova). With the launch of EaP initiative in 2009, relations between the EU and the Eastern European countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) have received new impetus for development. The EaP offers upgrade of relations within three major dimensions, namely (a) the Association Agreement (AA), (b) Agreement on a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA), and (c) Visa Facilitation and Readmission agreements.The AA talks have been launched with all EaP countries expect for Belarus, and four of them have been involved in the DCFTA talks. Ukraine has progressed the most, as after five years of negotiations the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement with embedded DCFTA has been initialed in 2012.The aim of this study is to assess gains and losses that could arise from the DCFTA with the EU for the EaP countries, using information about EU-Ukraine DCFTA as model case for EaP regional trade cooperation.The focus of the paper is on non-tariff (regulatory) component of the EU DCFTA and potential implications of regulatory approximation. Also, current level of harmonization of EaP countries' regulatory framework with the EU acquis in the areas related to the DCFTA is analyzed.
    Keywords: F15 ; ddc:330 ; EaP ; DCFTA ; Regional Integration ; Ukraine ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Freihandelszone ; Handelspräferenzen ; Assoziierung ; EU-Staaten ; Ukraine ; Osteuropa
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2014-03-12
    Description: Industrial decline and restructuring in the transition economies presents a prime example of the relationship between changes in aggregate economic indicators and underlying microeconomic adjustments. This paper employs matched labor force survey data to focus on the magnitude and determinants of the labor market flows associated with the fall in industrial employment in Romania from 1993 to 1995. The data show not only a large drop in aggregate industry employment, but also a decline in each of the disaggregated two-digit sectors. Nonetheless, there are substantial gross flows in both directions, again with significant heterogeneity across sectors. Workers leaving jobs in industry have a variety of destinations: jobs in other industrial sectors, in agriculture, and in services, as well as unemployment and non-participation in the labor force; the data show all of these paths to be significant. Multinomial logit estimates indicate that the probability of paths is affected by both individual and firm characteristics. Among other results, university and general high school education tend to raise the probability of job-to-job flows, particularly from industrial jobs to other industrial jobs and to service sectors, but not to agriculture. Workers with primary and vocational education have the highest probability of becoming unemployed and the lowest probability of finding new jobs in services (less than a third the probability for those with university education). Compared with workers in state-owned companies, workers from the private sector, especially from enterprises of mixed ownership have a greater probability of exiting their industry, as well as higher probabilities of finding jobs in services. The largest outflows, however, concern workers from industrial cooperatives, most of whom become unemployed. The data present a mixed picture of social dislocation and improved reallocation.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; J26 ; J60 ; J68 ; O12 ; P31 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; sectoral shifts ; reallocation ; labor force status ; labor force surveys ; Romania ; Fertigungsberufe ; Deindustrialisierung ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: We trace back Romania's development to a low-tax country among the Member States of the European Union by analysing the major tax law changes in corporate taxation since 1992. We find that the significant reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 45% in 1992 to 16% since 2005 has not been accompanied by a comprehensive broadening of the corporate income tax base as prevalent in many longstanding Member States of the EU and the OECD. Our analysis is not limited to a comprehensive description of the development of corporate taxation in Romania, but goes on with a numerical analysis of the tax burdens at different periods of time which constitute milestones in the development of corporate taxation in Romania. For this purpose, we apply the European Tax Analyzer, which is a computer-based model firm approach. We find that the average company tax burden of the underlying model company has dropped significantly by almost 65% since 1992. Furthermore, our numerical analysis does not confirm the tax base broadening policy. As a result, Romania holds position two among the group of Central and Eastern European EU Member States.
    Keywords: H22 ; H25 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; corporate taxation ; effective tax burden ; transition economy ; EU accession countries ; tax reform ; tax-rate-cum-base-broadening reform ; Unternehmensbesteuerung ; Steuerreform ; Steuerwirkung ; Steuerbelastung ; Übergangswirtschaft ; EU-Erweiterung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper uses census and survey data to identify the wage earning ability and the selection of recent Romanian migrants and returnees. We construct measures of selection across skill groups and estimate the average and the skill-specific premium for migration and return for three typical destinations of Romanian migrants after 1990. Once we account for migration costs, we find evidence that the selection and sorting of migrants by skills is driven by different returns in countries of destination. We also find that the return premium increases with migrants' skills and this drives the positive selection of returnees relative to non-migrants. As these findings are consistent with a model of rational choice in the migration decisions, we simulate a rational-agent model of education, migration and return. Our results suggest that for a source country like Romania relatively high rates of temporary migration might have positive long-run effects on average skills and wages.
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; selection of migrants ; migration premium ; returnees ; Internationale Arbeitsmobilität ; Migranten ; Qualifikation ; Lohn ; Rückwanderung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper aims to understand how corruption responds to financial incentives and, in particular, it is an attempt to identify the causal impact of a wage loss on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector. Specifically, we exploit the unexpected wage cut in May 2010 that affected all Romanian public sector employees, including the public education staff, and examine its effect on students' scores on the high-stakes national exam which occurs at the end of high school - the Baccalaureate. To exploit the effect of an income shock on corruption, we use a difference-in-difference strategy and compare the change in the exam outcomes between the public schools - the treatment group - and the private schools - the control group, which were unaffected by the wage cut. Our findings suggest that the wage loss led the public schools to have better exam outcomes than the private schools in 2010 relative to 2009. We attribute this difference to the increased involvement in corrupt activities by public school staff, which was driven by financial incentives. These results match an unprecedentedly high number of allegations of fraud and bribery against school principals, which earned the 2010 Baccalaureate the title of the Xeroxed exam - akin to identical test answers found to have been distributed to numerous students.
    Keywords: I2 ; H7 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; school principals ; bribes ; high-stakes tests ; Korruption ; Lehrkräfte ; Besoldung ; Bildungsniveau ; Vergleich ; Privatschule ; Schätzung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Description: Over the past three decades the global economy has witnessed the rise of organizationally fragmented and geographically dispersed global production networks (GPNs). An increasing amount of literature drawing on chain and network conceptualizations has accumulated on how these changes affect countries, regions and firms. Comparatively little has, however, been said about the effects on workers and their roles in GPNs. Although the expansion of global production arrangements has been an important source of employment generation in many developing and transition countries, this quantitative assessment reveals little about the qualitative aspects of work nor about the sustainability of these jobs. This paper assesses how integration into GPNs in the increasingly important fast fashion apparel segment, that is based on increased variety and fashionability and on permanently shrinking product life cycles, is impacting on workers and social upgrading. It particularly assesses whether the sourcing practices related to fast fashion, such as short lead times, high flexibility, speed of production, low costs and high quality, create additional hurdles for workers to achieve social upgrading. The focus is on the apparel industry in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Euro-Mediterranean Rim ("Greater Europe") with case studies on Morocco and Romania due to their importance as regional and fast fashion suppliers to Western European buyers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Arbeitsbedingungen ; Soziale Folgen ; Bekleidungsindustrie ; Marokko ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Person(s): Olteanu, Tina
    Keywords: Demokratie ; Korruption ; Korruption ; Zeitung ; Berichterstattung ; Diskursanalyse ; Österreich ; Rumänien ; Österreich ; Rumänien ; Hochschulschrift ; Österreich ; Rumänien 23.12.1861- ; Demokratie ; Korruption ; Österreich ; Rumänien 23.12.1861- ; Korruption ; Zeitung ; Berichterstattung ; Diskursanalyse
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (306 S.)
    ISBN: 9783531185705 , 9783531943510
    RVK:
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Zugl.: Wien, Univ., Diss., 2011
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Person(s): Balas, Egon
    Keywords: Balas, Egon ; Geschichte 1943-1945 ; Juifs - Extermination - Hongrie - Récits personnels ; Juifs - Hongrie - Biographies ; Juifs - Roumanie - Biographies ; Prisonniers politiques - Roumanie - Biographies ; Hongrie - Biographies ; Roumanie - Biographies ; Balas, Egon ; Rumänien ; Ungarn ; Juden ; Politischer Gefangener ; Judenvernichtung ; Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) Personal narratives ; Jews Biography ; Jews Biography ; Political prisoners Biography ; Ungarn ; Hungary Biography ; Romania Biography ; Autobiografie 1922-1966 ; Erlebnisbericht ; Balas, Egon ; Ungarn ; Judenvernichtung ; Geschichte 1943-1945
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 1. ed.
    ISBN: 9783642239205 , 9783642239212
    Uniform Title: Will to freedom
    DDC: 947/.004924/0092
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 25
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    Budapest: Magyar Nemzeti Bank
    Publication Date: 2013-10-09
    Description: This paper investigates the forecasting ability of survey data on exchange rate expectations with multiple forecast horizons. The survey forecasts are on the exchange rates of five Central and Eastern European currencies: Czech Koruna, Hungarian Forint, Polish Zloty, Romanian Leu and Slovakian Koruna. First, different term-structure models are fitted on the survey forecasts. Then, the forecasting performances of the fitted forecasts are compared. The fitted forecasts for the 5 months horizon and beyond are proved to be significantly better than the random walk on the pooled data of the five currencies. The best performing term-structure model is the one that assumes an exponential relationship between the forecast and the forecast horizon, and has time-varying parameters.
    Keywords: F31 ; F36 ; G13 ; ddc:330 ; evaluating forecasts ; exchange rate ; survey forecast ; time-varying parameter ; term-structure of forecasts ; Wechselkurs ; Prognoseverfahren ; Zinsstruktur ; Random Walk ; Schätzung ; Tschechische Republik ; Ungarn ; Polen ; Slowakei ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 26
    Book
    Book
    Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
    Keywords: Führungskraft ; Auslandstätigkeit ; Interkulturelles Verstehen ; Deutsche ; Rumänien ; Ratgeber ; Rumänien 23.12.1861- ; Führungskraft ; Auslandstätigkeit ; Interkulturelles Verstehen ; Deutsche
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 173 S. , Ill.
    ISBN: 9783525491485 , 9783647491486 , 3525491484
    Series Statement: Handlungskompetenz im Ausland
    DDC: 658.312809498
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: The present paper intends to examine the evolution of the European idea in inter-war Romania. On this occasion, I try to have a synthetic presentation of Romanian currents and intellectual evolutions, a history of that idea in inter-war political and intellectual environments. Romanian élites prove to be connected to the evolutions at the European level, offering solutions and professionally commenting the proposals presented. The Romanian conception on the united Europe remarks itself through the great importance given to the political factor - the European states should be united, equal and have the frontiers guaranteed. We have a qualitative evolution that starts with the idea of regional associations culminating with the idea of a united Europe based upon the proposal of Aristide Briand. By the end of the 1930s and mid-40s, the accent is set upon the idea of a European Economic Community, partially based upon the German ideas of World War II.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; history of the idea of Europe ; inter-war period ; European Union ; extremism ; political thinking ; communism ; social-democracy ; Europäische Integration ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; Ideologie ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 28
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: We argue that monetary policies in euro-candidate countries should also aim at mitigating excessive instability of the key target and instrument variables of monetary policy during turbulent market periods. Our empirical tests show a significant degree of leptokurtosis, thus prevalence of tail-risks, in the conditional volatility series of such variables in the euro-candidate countries. Their central banks will be well-advised to use both standard and unorthodox (discretionary) tools of monetary policy to mitigate such extreme risks while steering their economies out of the crisis and through the euroconvergence process. Such policies provide flexibility that is not embedded in the Taylor-type instrument rules, or in the Maastricht convergence criteria.
    Description: Wir argumentieren, dass die Geldpolitik in den Euro-Kandidatenländern darauf abzielen sollte, die exzessive Instabilität in den zentralen Ziel- und Instrumentenvariablen der Geldpolitik zu mildern, insbesondere in Phasen turbulenter Finanzmärkte. Die empirischen Tests der Studie decken einen erheblichen Grad an Leptokurtosis auf, d. h. die Dominanz von so genannten Tail-Risks in den bedingten Volatilitätsserien der monetären Variablen in den Euro-Kandidatenländern. Ihre Zentralbanken wären daher gut beraten, neben den üblichen Instrumenten der Geldpolitik auch unorthodoxe Maßnahmen der Geldpolitik anzuwenden, wenn sie die Länder aus der Krise herausführen und danach auf die Übernahme des Euro vorbereiten. Damit erhielte die Geldpolitik jene Flexibilität, die ihr bei der Anwendung von Instrumentenregeln á la Taylor oder der Maastricht-Kriterien fehlt.
    Keywords: E44 ; F31 ; G15 ; P34 ; ddc:330 ; monetary policy rules ; tail-risks ; convergence to the euro ; global financial crisis ; equity market risk ; interest rate risk ; exchange rate risk ; Regeln der Geldpolitik ; Tail-Risks ; Euro-Konvergenz ; weltweite Finanzkrise ; Vermögensrisiko ; Zinsrisiko ; Wechselkursrisiko ; Geldpolitik ; Monetärer Indikator ; Volatilität ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Zinsrisiko ; Wechselkursrisiko ; Konvergenzkriterien ; Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion ; EU-Erweiterung ; Tschechische Republik ; Polen ; Ungarn ; Rumänien ; Slowakei
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 29
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    Istanbul: TÜSİAD-Koç University Economic Research Forum
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This paper uses a simple VAR analysis to examine 5 CEE countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia) in order to understand whether their business cycles are synchronized with each other and/or with the major economies that they are supposed to be linked with, namely the US, Germany and Russia. We find that there are differences across the CEE countries themselves and that there is no common CEE business cycle. Comparing the individual CEE business cycles with those of the dominant economies, we find that Hungary and Poland are related to the US business cycle, reflecting the fact that they are more integrated with the global economy, whereas Slovakia is closer to the Russian cycle. Finally, splitting the sample into the late 1990s and 2000s due to the transition nature of these economies in the former period shows that the influence of Russia on the CEE economies has declined over time. However, in contrast to the expectations that CEE countries are likely to be affected by Germany in the second half of the sample due to EU negotiations followed by full membership, among the CEE countries only the business cycle of Slovakia is synchronized with that of Germany. On the other hand the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland are synchronized with the US business cycle, showing that globalization has decreased the importance of distance.
    Keywords: E32 ; F15 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; business cycle synchronization ; CEE countries ; EMU ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Tschechische Republik ; Ungarn ; Polen ; Rumänien ; Slowakei
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 30
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This study analyzes the dynamic effect of FDI on local firms' productivity by relaxing the standard implicit assumption that technological spillovers are immediate and pfirmanent. We find that the entry of majority foreign owned firms has a short run negative effect on the productivity of local competitors, which is more than offset by a longer run positive effect. The entry of minority foreign owned firms has an immediate, though short-lived, positive effect on local suppliers through backward linkages. The entry of majority foreign owned firms also improves the productivity of local suppliers, but the effect materializes later and lasts longer.
    Keywords: F2 ; ddc:330 ; FDI ; spillovers ; dynamics ; timing ; Direktinvestition ; Zeit ; Spillover-Effekt ; Produktivität ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The importance of new firm creation in the post-Communist economies of East Central Europe (ECE) has been subject to extensive research. This paper focuses on an area of entrepreneurship which has received relatively little attention in the transition economy context but which is of particular importance for the modernization of the transitioneconomies: knowledge-based entrepreneurship (KBE), or new firm creation in industries considered to be science-based or to use research and development (R&D) intensively. We begin by sketching the situation in Romania's small and medium-sized business sector, then proceed to study the conditions for high-tech firm development in the country, focusing on the institutional infrastructure and policy initiatives. We then turn to the analysis of a series of case studies of firms active in the areas of information technology, pharmaceuticals, and advanced chemistry. Among the issues treated are the resources and strategies involved in KBE in Romania, the relationships (networks) of the firms in question and how they are used for knowledge acquisition. We find that overall Romania appears to be a poor location for KBE, with R&D spending as a percentage of GDP very low (and falling for much of the transition period) and a poorly educated population. Most of the firms studied here rely on foreign markets for development of their more innovative products, whereas domestic markets provide opportunities for higher volume sales of less advanced products. The nature of strategic business relationships and networks varies significantly across the firms studied, with some engaging in virtually no collaboration in the area of innovation, and others engaging quite intensively with academic partners in product development.
    Keywords: L26 ; O31 ; O52 ; P27 ; ddc:330 ; Knowledge-based economy ; entrepreneurship ; transition ; post-communist ; SMEs ; Romaina ; Wissensgesellschaft ; Innovation ; Forschung ; Informationstechnik ; Entrepreneurship-Ansatz ; KMU ; Hochtechnologie ; Systemtransformation ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 32
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The increasing life expectancy and the alarming growth in the incidence of chronic illness make long term care services in high demand and in dire need of change and innovation. As part of the ANCIEN initiative, which aims to comprise a database of European approaches for dealing with long term care, this document creates an overview of the health systems organized in Romania which target individuals with long term care needs. The method of governance, the people’s needs and the available services are presented herein. For the most part, the services provided in this field are covered through the efforts of the family of those in need and are therefore difficult to quantify or analyze. Public services are either insufficient (in terms of quality or accessibility) and the moral stigma associated to using them prevents families from making this choice. However, due to a high demand and a low supply of high quality LTC services, the private market of nursing homes has exploded in the last few years, funded either privately, through NGOs or external donations. The quality and number of available services has greatly improved but the accessibility is still low. At this moment, Romania still does not have an integrated long term care system neither from the legal or the organization of services being offered. There are social and medical services that are run, provided and legislated independently. The current national strategy is to coordinate these services and to create an integrated system with multidisciplinary teams which would include different types of medical specialists and nurses but still maintain and improve the services offered formally or informally as a home based care package.
    Keywords: H51 ; H55 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; long-term care ; health care system ; disability ; Romania ; Langzeitpflege ; Gesundheitswesen ; Sozialer Dienst ; Sozialpolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 33
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper attempts to characterise an anti-inflationary monetary targeting (MT) regime. In order to derive a formal representation of this regime, we formulate the central bank’s optimisation problem under the assumption that it is possible for the monetary targeted variable to have an impact on inflation. We apply a rather general framework to the Romanian experience with MT in the period 1999-2005. We find that during this period Romania's MT regime can be characterised by a concern for price stability and an additional role for smoothing of the central bank's instrument (base money growth). Our results suggest that exchange rate variability and output gap stability appear not to have entered the objective function significantly.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; C32 ; C61 ; ddc:330 ; Monetary Targeting ; optimal monetary policy ; Romania ; Inflationssteuerung ; Geldpolitik ; Preisstabilität ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with growing environmental awareness. This paper analyses the determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) at plant level in the case of Romania using survey data and a Multilevel Regression Model (MRM). Our findings suggest that, although Romania has improved its environmental performance, formal and informal regulation are still only partially developed due to the difficulties of economic transition, and heterogeneity across regions remains considerable.
    Keywords: Q52 ; C29 ; C40 ; ddc:330 ; Pollution abatement and control expenditure ; transition economy ; Multilevel Regression Model (MRM) ; Umweltschutz ; Umweltauflage ; Umweltpolitik ; Übergangswirtschaft ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 35
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: According to the pollution haven hypotheses differences in environmental regulation affect trade flows and plant location. Specifically, environmental stringency should decrease exports and increase imports of dirty goods. This paper estimates a gravity model to establish whether the implementation of more stringent regulations in Romania has indeed affected its competitiveness and decreased exports towards its European trading partners. Our findings do not provide empirical support to the pollution haven hypothesis, i.e. environmental stringency is not found to affect significantly total trade, or its components (pollution intensive trade and pollution intensive trade related to non-resource-based trade).
    Keywords: F14 ; Q28 ; ddc:330 ; Environmental stringency ; competiveness ; gravity model ; Umweltpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Außenwirtschaft ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 36
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; EU-Staaten ; Mittelmeerraum
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 37
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Finanzen ; Finanzpolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 38
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    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2013-06-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilität ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Flexicurity ; Soziale Sicherung ; Sozialpartner ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 39
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    Unknown
    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with growing environmental awareness. This paper analyses the determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) at plant level in the case of Romania using survey data and a Multilevel Regression Model (MRM). Our findings suggest that, although Romania has improved its environmental performance, formal and informal regulation are still only partially developed due to the difficulties of economic transition, and heterogeneity across regions remains considerable.
    Keywords: Q52 ; C29 ; C40 ; ddc:330 ; Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure ; transition economy ; Multilevel Regression Model (MRM) ; Umweltmanagement ; Umweltschutzkosten ; Kontrolle ; Systemtransformation ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Unknown
    Kiel: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Description: This dissertation takes a welfare perspective to analyze how rural households in developing countries manage risks ex-ante and cope with shocks ex-post. The first part looks at risk-coping strategies and analyzes the socio-economic consequences of AIDS-related mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 2 shows that households in rural Zambia are able to stabilize their per-capita incomes after the death of a prime-age member. Yet, risk-sharing arrangements appear to spread the burden beyond directly afflicted households. Chapter 3 demonstrates for North-Western Tanzania that the age at parental bereavement has important consequences for children's long-term capital accumulation in terms of both health and education. These effects, however, depend on the gender of the deceased parent. Preferences of the surviving parent partly protect same-sex children from the detrimental effects of orphanhood, suggesting that risks are not equally shared within households. The second part of the dissertation explores risk-management strategies and investigates the income diversification patterns of farm households in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 4 analyzes the dichotomy of the non-agricultural sector in Western Kenya and the resulting poverty and inequality implications. The results show that only rich households are able to overcome the entry barriers into high-return activities. Low-return activities, however, are not concentrated among the poor. The chapter also provides evidence that high-return non-agricultural activities are associated with increased agricultural productivity. Chapter 5 examines the determinants of diversification in Burkina Faso between 1994 and 2003. Diversification into non-agricultural activities appears to be mainly motivated by insurance motives. Yet, the patterns of diversification also reflect structural change offering better opportunities in the non-farm sector. The final part of the dissertation concentrates on Eastern Europe and looks at the welfare implications of international migration for those who stay behind and the migrants themselves. Chapter 6 examines the reasons for reduced labor supply of migrant-sending households in Moldova. The findings do not support the common view that decreased labor market activity is the result of remittances-driven leisure consumption. Instead, the departure of a migrant appears to raise remaining members' productivity in home production. In addition, young adults in migrant families are substantially more likely to pursue higher education. Chapter 7 investigates the economic drivers of human trafficking. Based on a household survey on human trafficking from Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania and Ukraine, the analysis finds that the individual risk of falling victim to human trafficking is closely related to the size of regional migration flows. The reasons are lower recruitment costs for traffickers and, to a lesser extent, negative self-selection into migration. Together, these findings illustrate that rural households in the developing world have developed various informal strategies to cope with shocks and reduce their exposure to risks. While these strategies help households to temporarily smooth income or consumption, they are likely to perpetuate poverty and reduce economic growth in the longer run. Consequently, measures that protect households from risks should play a prominent role in rural development strategies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; risks ; prime-age mortality ; household income ; human capital ; agricultural activities ; non-agricultural activities ; international migration ; estimation of treatment effects ; sub-Saharan Africa ; Eastern Europe ; AIDS ; Sterblichkeit ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Ländlicher Raum ; Spillover-Effekt ; Sambia ; Kinder ; Gesundheit ; Alleinerziehende ; Bildungsinvestition ; Schätzung ; Tansania ; Landwirtschaft ; Produktivität ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Agrareinkommen ; Einkommensverteilung ; Ländliche Wirtschaft ; Kenia (West) ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Agrareinkommen ; Strukturwandel ; Burkina Faso ; Rücküberweisung (Migranten) ; Migranten ; Familienökonomik ; Arbeitsangebot ; Moldawien ; Menschenhandel ; Illegale Einwanderung ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Familiensoziologie ; Unvollkommene Information ; Weißrussland ; Bulgarien ; Moldawien ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 41
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimawandel ; Klimaschutz ; EU-Umweltpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Haushalt ; EU-Politik ; Finanzreform ; EU-Staaten ; EU-Haushalt ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: Human trafficking is a humanitarian problem of global scale, but quantitative research on the issue barely exists. This paper is a first attempt to explore the economic drivers of human trafficking and migrant exploitation using micro data. We argue that migration pressure combined with informal migration patterns and incomplete information are the key determinants of human trafficking. To test our argument, we use a unique new dataset of 5513 households from Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine. The main result is in line with our expectations: Migrant families in high migration areas and with larger migrant networks are much more likely to have a trafficked victim among their members. Our results also indicate that illegal migration increases trafficking risks and that awareness campaigns and a reduction of information asymmetries might be an effective strategy to reduce the crime.
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; K42 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Human trafficking ; migrant exploitation ; illegal migration ; migration networks ; Eastern Europe ; Menschenhandel ; Illegale Einwanderung ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Familiensoziologie ; Unvollkommene Information ; Weißrussland ; Bulgarien ; Moldawien ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Exploiting a unique institutional feature of the early Romanian privatization setup, when a group of firms was explicitly barred from any privatization, we test how politicians select firms into privatization. Using comprehensive data that includes all firms inherited from socialism, we estimate the relation between pre-privatization firm characteristics - the information known to politicians at the time of decision making - and the effect of privatization on employment, efficiency and wages. With the estimated coefficients we simulate the effect of privatization on non-privatizable and privatizable firms separately, including in the latter group both actually privatized and not privatized enterprises. The simulations show that politicians expected privatization to increase the employment of the privatizable group by 7 - 10 percent, and to decrease it in the non-privatizable group by 10 - 30 percent, depending on the first-stage estimation method, OLS or matching combined with OLS. We do not find such discrepancies in the expected change in firm efficiency; the simulated efficiency effect of privatization is large and positive for both groups of firms, and it 52 - 65 percent for non-privatizable, and 41 - 43 percent for the privatizable firms. The analysis does not support the hypothesis that wages played an important role in privatization decisions. Our study suggests that employment concerns played the key role in selecting firms for privatization, even if efficiency gains had to be sacrificed.
    Keywords: L33 ; P26 ; ddc:330 ; Privatization ; Government objectives ; Firm Efficiency ; Employment ; Wages ; Romania ; Privatisierung ; Öffentliches Unternehmen ; Politisches Ziel ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Lohn ; Produktivität ; Wirtschaftlichkeit ; Schätzung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: With the help of a peculiar institutional feature of early Romanian privatization, when a group of firms was explicitly banned to become private, we test which factors contributed to the selection of firms into long-term state ownership. We find that politicians sheltered large and inefficient firms from privatization, which paid low wages and had high overdue payments. These results are consistent with minimization of employment losses, even if efficiency enhancement of privatization or revenue maximization had to be sacrificed. We hypothesize that this behavior was induced by the unfavorable economic conditions in Romania which brought about large employment losses during the first several years of economic transition.
    Keywords: L33 ; P26 ; ddc:330 ; privatization ; government objectives ; Romania ; Privatisierung ; Politisches Ziel ; Öffentliches Unternehmen ; Rumänien
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: This paper analyzes the costs of (partial) institutional harmonization with the EU acquis which countries of the former USSR are expected to conduct under their Partnership and Cooperation Agreements with the EU and European Neighborhood Policy Action Plans. The public sector will have to take an effort of the transposition and adaptation of EU norms, as well as ensuring that they are complied with. Yet, the major part of the adjustment costs will fall on the private sector, as enterprises will have to make substantial investments to comply with new product requirements and business practices. In this study we used the method of extrapolation of average costs for CEE countries' harmonization with acquis to estimate the potential harmonization costs for the neighboring countries based on internationally comparative macroeconomic indicators like sectoral and total value added. This involved estimating the EU pre-accession support for the CEE countries by main areas as a percentage of the total or sectoral value added, determining the expected degree of limited harmonization in the ENP countries and estimating coefficients of limited harmonization”, which was subsequently used for adjustment of the estimated cost of full harmonization.
    Keywords: F15 ; P33 ; ddc:330 ; Institutional harmonization ; European integration ; European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) ; economic integration ; market access ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Europäische Integration ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Markteintritt ; Kosten ; Osteuropa ; GUS-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: Institutional harmonization is an important part of European integration, and its effects are more far reaching than the effects of trade liberalization. In its policy towards neighbors (the European Neighborhood Policy, ENP), the EU puts a lot of stress on the desirability of institutional harmonization, at least in certain areas. In particular, the free trade agreements that the EU envisages concluding with its Eastern neighbors will involve substantial harmonization of product standards, competition policy and a range of other policies and processes. At the very least, the harmonization will have to focus on the areas that relate to improvement of market access, i.e. removing restrictions to trade, harmonizing product standards and the systems of quality control etc. But in order to implement the new standards and rules, the EU neighbors will have to reform many related areas, so that the harmonization will encompass the whole system of economic governance. Not only will such a revamp help attaining better access to the EU markets, but also (and probably more importantly) it will stimulate modernization of the neighbors economies and bring much needed efficiency gains. In measurement of benefits of harmonization we refer to two methods: one based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling of welfare effects of better market access, and the other employing a growth model to estimate the wider effects of European institutions on growth. The estimation of costs of harmonization bases on extrapolation of the analogous costs in other countries, in particular CEE. These costs include expenses by a public sector on introduction of harmonization measures, as well as private sector expenses and investments related to their implementation.
    Keywords: B41 ; F15 ; P33 ; ddc:330 ; Institutional harmonization ; European integration ; European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) ; market access ; non-tariff barriers ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Institutioneller Wandel ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Europäische Integration ; Nichttarifäre Handelshemmnisse ; Markteintritt ; EU-Staaten ; GUS-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 48
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: This paper provides the quantitative estimate of the potential growth bonus for CIS countries, and in particular EU's Easter Neighbours, that can be a result of deeper institutional harmonisation with the EU. Econometric investigation involving instrumental variable, simultaneous equation and dynamic panel techniques documents the strong positive link between growth performance and reforms, as well as between reforms and European integration. The paper derives the range of possible values of growth bonus from the deepened neighbourhood cooperation between 1 and 3.8 with the median at 1.8 percentage points. The least growth bonus is expected through basic liberalization reforms, while countries with a considerable institutional gap are likely to gain the most.
    Keywords: F59 ; O19 ; O49 ; O57 ; P21 ; P26 ; P27 ; ddc:330 ; institutions ; reform ; growth ; transition ; integration ; neighbourhood ; dynamic panel ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Europäische Integration ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; GUS-Staaten ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The paper discusses the current and potential role of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in anchoring economic reforms in the countries of the EU's Eastern Neighbourhood. It claims that it is too early to assess the success of the ENP in this sphere especially given that the actual progress of the ENP agenda has been limited. A review of the empirical evidence on external reform anchors confirms that the ENP shares some features with the EU accession process that has proven to be an effective mechanism supporting major economic, political and social changes in the countries concerned. The eventual ENP economic offer is meaningful and integration with the EU is getting stronger public support in several CIS countries and among their political elites. On the other hand several factors limit the reform anchoring potential of the ENP. This paper offers recommendations on policies that could strengthen this potential.
    Keywords: P16 ; P48 ; Y80 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; ENP ; CIS ; EU ; political economy ; economic reforms ; reform anchoring ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Politische Reform ; Wirtschaftsreform ; GUS-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Budapest: Magyar Nemzeti Bank
    Publication Date: 2013-10-09
    Description: Before the millennium Hungary's market share in exports of goods was increasing at the fastest rate in Central and Eastern Europe; however, after 2000 that growth became the lowest. The slowdown in growth in Hungary's export market share is mainly due to the stagnating price index of goods exports. The aim of this paper is to examine whether this process was caused by reaching an equilibrium or structural factors. In the paper the exports of goods structure (by product, country, technology, skill and intensity), the relationship between export specialisation and export price indices, and the role of import demand in specialisation are examined for the Visegrad Group and Romania in the periods 19951999 and 20002007. The results imply that the stagnation of Hungarian goods export prices is partly natural and partly brought about by structural factors.
    Keywords: F10 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; export structure ; specialisation ; Export ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Außenhandelspreis ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Visegrad-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper uses a unique survey of Roma and non-Roma in South Eastern Europe to evaluate competing explanations for the poor performance of Roma in the labour market. The analysis seeks to identify the determinants of educational achievement, employment and wages for Roma and non-Roma. LIML methods are employed to control for endogenous schooling and two sources of sample selection bias in the estimates. Nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques are applied in order to identify the extent of discrimination. The key results are that: the employment returns to education are lower for Roma than for non-Roma whilst the wage returns are broadly similar for the two groups; the similar wage gains translate into a smaller absolute wage gain for Roma than for non-Roma given their lower average wages; the marginal absolute gains from education for Roma are only a little over one-third of the marginal absolute gains to education for majority populations; and, there is evidence to support the idea that a substantial part of the differential in labour market outcomes is due to discrimination. Explanations of why Roma fare so badly tend to fall into one of two camps: 'low education' vs. 'discrimination'. The analysis suggests that both of these explanations have some basis in fact. Moreover, a direct implication of the lower absolute returns to education accruing to Roma is that their lower educational participation is, at least partially, due to rational economic calculus. Consequently, policy needs to address both low educational participation and labour market discrimination contemporaneously.
    Keywords: C35 ; J15 ; J24 ; P23 ; ddc:330 ; Roma ; returns to education ; discrimination ; transition ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Bildungsertrag ; Roma (Personen) ; Arbeitsmarktdiskriminierung ; Bildungsverhalten ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Rumänien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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