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  • 1
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-06-22
    Description: Seit dem 24. September erheben die USA Zölle auf chinesische Produkte im gegenwärtigen Wert von ungefähr 250 Mrd. US-Dollar; das sind 50% der Importe aus China. In der Debatte wird oft davon ausgegangen, dass diese Zölle der amerikanischen Volkswirtschaft schaden. Dies stimmt nicht, weil die Belastung zu etwa drei Viertel auf chinesische Produzenten überwälzt werden kann. Da die US-Behörden gerade jene Produkte verzollen, bei denen die Importelastizität hoch ist, werden die Verbraucherpreise im Durchschnitt über alle betroffenen Produkte in den USA um ca. 4,5% steigen, während die chinesischen Anbieter ihre Exportpreise um durchschnittlich 20,5% absenken. Weil die Verbraucherpreise nur moderat steigen, führen die Zölle zu einer Verringerung der Importe um lediglich 37%; daher geht auch das bilaterale Handelsbilanzdefizit der USA mit China nur um ca. 17% zurück. Die USA generieren Zolleinnahmen von 22,5 Mrd. US-Dollar, aber nicht einmal ein Viertel davon wird von Inländern getragen. Zwar verzerren die Zölle die Konsumentscheidungen der Amerikaner; die Überwälzung führt aber dazu, dass die USA insgesamt einen Nettovorteil von 18,4 Mrd. US-Dollar erzielen.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Weltwirtschaft ; Handels-hemmnissse ; Protektionismus ; Zollpolitik ; USA ; WTO
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Zölle gehörten schon vor den Trump’schen Maßnahmen gegen Stahl und Aluminium zum Alltag im transatlantischen Handel. So sind auf amerikanische Pkw 10%, auf Motorräder 6%, auf Äpfel 17% und auf Weintrauben 20% fällig. Die Zölle der USA sind im Durchschnitt niedriger. Es gibt aber auch hier Zollspitzen, die den EU-Exporteuren wehtun: Bei wichtigen Milchprodukten sind durchschnittlich 20% fällig, bei Kleinlastwagen 25%, bei Handtaschen 8%, bei Babynahrung 23% und bei Schokolade 9%. Insgesamt waren Exporte der USA in die EU im Jahr 2015 mit 5,7 Mrd. US-Dollar an Zollzahlungen belastet, während Exporte der EU in die USA zu Zollzahlungen von ca. 7,1 Mrd. US-Dollar geführt haben. Trotz höherer Durchschnittszölle sind die Zollzahlungen der Europäer insgesamt geringer, weil die Importe der EU aus den USA um 150 Mrd. US-Dollar unter den Importen der USA aus der EU liegen.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Zoll ; Zollpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU ; USA
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Calgary: University of Calgary Press
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: Canada is the one of the first in-depth studies of China's increasing interest in the Arctic. It offers a holistic approach to understanding Chinese motivations and the potential impacts of greater Chinese presence in the circumpolar region, exploring resource development, shipping, scientific research, governance, and security. Drawing on extensive research in Chinese government documentation, business and media reports, and current academic literature, this timely volume eschews the common assumption that China poses an acute threat to Arctic states' polar interests. Instead, it offers a nuanced assessment of how different Chinese stakeholders approach the region and how carefully managed relationships can contribute to positive circumpolar development. Analyzing Chinese interests and activities from a Canadian perspective, the book provides an unparalleled point of reference to discuss the implications for the Canadian and broader circumpolar North.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Beziehungen ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Rohstoffpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Transitverkehr ; Frachtschifffahrt ; Kanada ; China
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: In der April-Umfrage des ifo World Economic Survey (WES) wurden die Teilnehmer nach ihrer Einschätzung der durch die US-Reformen der Steuer- und Handelspolitik angestoßenen Veränderungen befragt. Eine deutliche Mehrheit der Befragungsteilnehmer geht davon aus, dass die Änderungen der US-Handelspolitik negative Auswirkungen auf die jeweiligen Herkunftsländer der Experten sowie auf die USA haben. Die Einschätzung der Steuerreform ist differenzierter: Während etwa die Hälfte der Experten von negativen Auswirkungen auf ihr jeweiliges Land ausgeht, erwartet die Mehrheit, dass die USA von dieser Reform profitieren werden.
    Keywords: H30 ; O51 ; ddc:330 ; Steuerreform ; Steuerpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Weltwirtschaft ; USA
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Die angekündigten und zum Teil eingeleiteten Maßnahmen der USA zum Schutz ihrer Wirtschaft, nicht zuletzt die Einführung von Zusatzzöllen, haben fatale Folgen für das globale Handelssystem. Die USA sind auf dem Weg, die bisherigen Regeln der Weltwirtschaft außer Kraft zu setzen und einen Handelskrieg zu beginnen. Zudem entziehen die USA faktisch der Welthandelsorganisation WTO die Unterstützung. Steht die WTO vor ihrem Ende? Martin Braml und Gabriel Felbermayr, ifo Institut, gehen davon aus, dass die US-Regierung kein Interesse am Kollaps der WTO hat. Vermutlich wolle sie durch Drohgebärden Raum für Verhandlungen schaffen. Um die verfahrene Situation für die WTO aufzulösen, bedürfe es globaler Nulllösungen, die keine Ausnahmen mehr zulassen. Wenn diese Nulllösungen sowohl Zölle, Marktzugangsbeschränkungen, Antidumping-Maßnahmen und den Schutz geistigen Eigentums betreffen, sei dies für alle Seiten gleichermaßen schmerzhaft wie segensreich. Wolfgang Weiß, Deutsche Universität für Verwaltungswissenschaften Speyer, sieht in dem US-Unilateralismus die Zerstörung der Grundlagen internationaler Regeln. Insgesamt belegten die Aktionen der USA eine Haltung, die an den Grundfesten der WTO als einem multilateralen Regelwerk rüttelt. Fritz Breuss, WU Wien, erläutert die derzeitige Strategie der USA mit drei »Spielzügen«: Druck, Kooperation und/oder Handelskrieg. Vor allem die EU, aber auch China, sollten dem Druck der USA nicht nachgeben. Nach Ansicht von Christoph Scherrer, Universität Kassel, sollte man nicht das Ende der WTO vermuten. Angesichts der Interessenlage der US-Industrie und ihren politischen Einflussmöglichkeiten sei nicht mit einem ausufernden Handelskrieg zu rechnen, sondern mit einer weiteren Stärkung wirtschaftlicher gegenüber politischen Körperschaften. Christoph Herrmann und Caroline Glöckle, Universität Passau, zeigen, dass das derzeitige Vorgehen der USA wie auch die unterschiedlichen Reaktionen ihrer Handelspartner komplexe und überwiegend ungeklärte welthandelsrechtliche Fragestellungen aufwerfen. Benjamin Jung, Universität Hohenheim, legt dar, unter welchen Bedingungen ein Handelskrieg gewonnen werden kann und welche Schlussfolgerung sich daraus für die europäische Position ergibt. Seinen Berechnungen zufolge können die USA einen Handelskrieg nur gewinnen, wenn der Rest der Welt unterschiedliche Strategien verfolgt und nicht als einheitlicher Block auftritt. Für Tim Krieger und Laura Renner, Universität Freiburg, verkennt die Trump-Administration, dass Schutzzölle in negativer Weise zumeist auf das Land zurückfallen, das sie zuerst eingeführt hat, weil ein effizienzerhöhender Wettbewerb ausbleibt. Nach Einschätzung von Bernd Lange, Europäisches Parlament, sieht Trump die Welthandelsorganisation als störendes Element, das die USA in ihrer Handlungsfähigkeit einschränkt.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Weltwirtschaft ; Handelshemmnisse ; Protektionismus ; Zollpolitik ; USA ; WTO
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Gabriel Felbermayr zeigt, wie Ricardos Modell für eine modere handelspolitische Beratung genutzt werden kann.
    Keywords: D31 ; F43 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Komparativer Vorteil ; Produktivität ; Arbeitsteilung ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Freihandel ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Innovationsdiffusion
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Im ifo Schnelldienst 9/2017 wurde Ricardos bahnbrechende Leistungen für die moderne Volkswirtschaftslehre gewürdigt. Wolfram F. Richter, Technische Universität Dortmund, setzt sich in seinem Kommentar mit dem Zahlenbeispiel in Ricardos Theorie komparativer Kosten auseinander und fragt, wie sich eine effiziente Ricardianische Produktion charakterisieren lässt, wenn nicht nur zwei Länder und zwei Güter betrachtet werden.
    Keywords: D31 ; F43 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; Komparativer Vorteil ; Produktivität ; Arbeitsteilung ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Freihandel ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Innovationsdiffusion
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: When President Trump came into office the US administration launched a detailed analysis of American trade relations. It aimed to identify "unfair trade practices" that are supposedly increasingly being used by other countries, and that are economically damaging to America. This study simulates potential protectionist trade policies on the part of the USA using historical data. The results enable a comprehensive analysis of the political debate and, above all, of its meaningfulness. The study illustrates that the USA does actually face economic imbalances, and especially high trade deficits, which are increasingly causing upsets in individual branches within the States. At the same time, however, the study also makes it clear that the solution to such economic challenges does not lie in a protectionist trade policy. On the contrary, such a policy would only exacerbate problems in the long term. The study ends with a policy recommendation for the USA and the functioning, rule-based, multilateral trade system.
    Description: Die neue US-Administration hat mit der Amtsübernahme Präsident Trumps eine detaillierte Analyse der amerikanischen Handelsbeziehungen initiiert. Ziel ist die Identifizierung 'unfairer Handelspraktiken', die vermeintlich durch andere Nationen zunehmend eingesetzt werden und den USA wirtschaftlich schaden. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert die angedrohten protektionistischen Handelspolitiken der USA unter Heranziehung historischer Daten. Auf Basis der vorliegenden Ergebnisse ist eine umfassende Bewertung der politischen Debatte und insbesondere ihrer Sinnhaftigkeit möglich. Die Studie illustriert, dass die USA mit ökonomischen Ungleichgewichten konfrontiert sind, insbesondere mit hohen Handelsdefiziten, die zunehmend zu Verstimmungen in einzelnen Industrien innerhalb der USA führen. Zugleich wird aber aus der Studie auch deutlich, dass die Lösung für solche wirtschaftlichen Herausforderungen nicht in einer protektionistischen Handelspolitik zu finden ist, im Gegenteil. Eine solche Politik würde die Probleme auf lange Sicht nur verschärfen. Die Studie schließt mit einer Politikempfehlung im Sinne der USA und des funktionierenden regelbasierten, multilateralen Handelssystems.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Protektionismus ; Zoll ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; NAFTA-Staaten ; WTO-Recht ; USA ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: I study the business practices of the Comédie française, the main theater in Paris, between 1680 and 1793. The theater was an actors' partnership and operated within a (contested) oligopoly. Newly available data provide revenues by price category for over 32,000 performances. Attendance varied considerably from one performance to the next. Total revenues increased in the second half of the 18th century as demand for entertainment in Paris boomed. The increase came in part from box rentals (by performance or by season). Pricing practices changed over time, as premium pricing for high-demand events made way for premium pricing on specific weekdays, and ultimately constant pricing. The repertory consisted of proven classics to which successful novelties were added. As demand grew, the theater provided more variety and more novelty.
    Keywords: L11 ; L82 ; N73 ; N83 ; ddc:330 ; entertainment industry ; history of theater ; oligopoly ; France ; Paris ; Comédie Française ; Theater ; Einnahmen ; Preismanagement ; Oligopol ; Wirtschaftsgeschichte ; Frankreich ; Paris
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Handelsabkommen ; Mitteleuropa ; Osteuropa ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Der ifo Konjunkturtest für Februar beinhaltete Sonderfragen zu den Erwartungen deutscher Unternehmen bezüglich der Handelspolitik der neuen US-Administration. Die Mehrzahl der befragten Unternehmen erwartet zwar protektionistische Maßnahmen seitens der US-Regierung, befürchtet aber keine Umsatzeinbußen.
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Unternehmen ; Industrie ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Deutschland ; USA
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Since June 2007, the EU and India have been negotiating a comprehensive free trade agreement, but negotiations broke down in 2013. Nevertheless, both sides have expressed their desire to revive talks on the Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA). To quantify potential economic consequences, we use a multi-country, multi-industry Ricardian trade model with national and international input-output linkages. Based on the assumption that the FTA would eliminate all tariffs between the EU and India and reduce non-tariff barriers, we simulate trade, value added, and welfare effects of the BTIA. The long-run level of real per capita income would change by 1.30% in India and by 0.14% in the EU. We find that outsiders to the agreement remain largely unaffected relative to the status quo. However, substantial regional heterogeneity exists across the 134 geographical, investigated entities. Due to an agreement, EU-Indian trade could approximately double particularly in business services. We find a small amount of trade diversion due to tightly integrated value chains, but a clear effect on structural change in India. So, at a first glance, both parties should have an interest in forming a FTA.
    Keywords: F02 ; F13 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; Indien ; EU-Staaten ; Außenhandel ; Auslandsinvestition ; Handelshemmnisse ; EU-Staaten ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The election of Trump into the Oval Office is much of a non-event for EU trade-policy detail, possibly even the TTIP: they have been deteriorating for years. Europe and the global trading system can survive new trade frictions and creeping protectionism, but a Trump that wants to go radical will make everyone miserable.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelspräferenzen ; TTIP-Staaten ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Die Wahl von Donald Trump zum 45. Präsidenten der USA am 8. November 2016 stellt die europäischen Partner vor einige Herausforderungen. Im Wahlkampf hat Trump eine protektionistische Handelspolitik angekündigt, um gegen unliebsame Handelspartner höhere Zoll- und andere Schranken zu errichten. Simulationen mit dem ifo-Handelsmodell zeigen, dass eine Abschottung der USA mit erheblichen Wohlstandsverlusten für das Land verbunden wäre. Das BIP würde um bis zu 9% sinken, wenn die USA Importzölle von 45% und nicht-tarifäre Barrieren von 15% gegenüber allen Handelspartnern erheben und diese mit denselben Hemmnissen zurückschlagen würden. In Deutschland würde der Elektroniksektor aufgrund von Handelsumlenkungen profitieren, der Automobilsektor und der Maschinenbau dann, wenn die USA nur gegenüber China und Mexiko Zölle erheben würden. Die meisten anderen Sektoren würden jedoch verlieren.
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; USA ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 15
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F02 ; F13 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Zollunion ; Strategie ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Türkei
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Geschichte 1992-2016 ; USA ; Internationale Politik ; Politik ; Politische Wissenschaft ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; USA ; Political science ; Political economy ; United States ; International relations ; Political Science and International Relations ; Political Economy ; International Relations ; US Politics ; USA ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Geschichte 1992-2016
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online Ressource (XII, 267 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783658123130 , 9783658123123
    DDC: 339.5
    Language: German
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  • 17
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    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: The global trade and investment architecture (GTIA) plays a critical role in shaping the organisation and structure of international commerce - from production and distribution to consumption. Yet, tensions and questions abound - some longstanding, some new - about whose interests it best advances, its distributional impacts, and its responsiveness to changing market forces and political demands. Although there is a regular supply of proposals on rules and policies for global trade and investment, critical thinking on the trade and investment architecture is less prevalent. This paper seeks to update and bolster the analytical foundations for such discussion by reviewing the changing demands on the global architecture for trade and investment, and by mapping its contours. To begin, we review the changing global landscape for trade and investment, the key policy debates, and the myriad pressures on policymakers - arguing that these have implications for what is needed in terms of a global architecture. Alongside key enduring challenges, we identify important shifts and game changers in trade and investment flows, which in turn spur new policy challenges and implications for the governance architecture. Second, we present a systematic mapping of the contemporary global architecture for trade and investment currently, noting its on-going evolution. In so doing, we underscore that the trade and investment architecture is broader in scope and more complex, with a wider array of actors and functions, than commonly recognised or discussed in scholarly work. We also argue for analysing the trade and investment architecture in a unified fashion. Further, the paper highlights the changing ways that governments and stakeholders seek to advance international cooperation on trade and investment. The proliferation of private standards and the emphasis on "behind the border" regulatory matters illustrate the expanding array of relevant actors relevant to international trade and investment diplomacy, and the rising interest in moving beyond treaty negotiations to new modalities for cooperation - ranging from soft law approaches and technical cooperation to public-private partnerships.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationales Abkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationales Investitionsrecht ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: Over recent years, many states have taken steps to refine and modernize their investment treaties. They have done this to, among other things, clarify what were often vaguely worded standards, insert provisions on procedural and jurisdictional questions, and expand the express ability of states to issue binding interpretations on certain questions. Together, these reforms can help narrow states' exposure to claims and liability under investment treaties. Those reforms, however, are typically only included in newer treaties or model agreements. States typically have legacies of existing treaties that are "old-style" and therefore are still exposed to claims, litigation, and potential damages awarded under those agreements. To mitigate that exposure, states can exercise the important powers they possess as "masters of their treaties" and use practice and agreement to help shape interpretation of treaty provisions. This note focuses on this strategy. In addition to setting out the general rules regarding state practice and agreement as a means of influencing treaty interpretation, it (1) identifies three issues in investment treaty law - FET, MFN, and shareholder rights - that may be particularly ripe for proactive efforts by states applying this interpretive strategy; and (2) sets out a series of questions that aim to facilitate interstate efforts to identify consensus on these controversial treaty provisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationales Investitionsrecht ; Internationales Abkommen
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School (CBS), Asia Research Centre (ARC)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-11
    Description: China's impressive development since the introduction of market-oriented reforms in the late 1970s has had a considerable impact on the world economy. After a first decade and a half of cautious experiments with liberalization, markets, and internationalization, Chinese reforms accelerated in the early 1990s and the Chinese economy started growing at a rate that has not been matched by any other country. The GDP growth rate has averaged nearly 10 percent per year since that time. China has become the world's largest exporter and one of the largest importers, with a huge domestic market driven both by export-oriented industry and nearly 1.4 billion increasingly affluent domestic consumers. It is one of the main destinations for foreign direct investment (FDI) and has also become an important outward investor. The emergence of this new economic superpower has created both opportunities and challenges for other countries. The purpose of this paper is to focus on some of the challenges and to discuss three imbalances that put pressure on the relationship between the EU and China. These concern the large deficit in Europe's trade with China, the unequal conditions for European investment in China and Chinese investment in Europe, and the EU's inability to agree on a common China policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Auslandsinvestition ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Collaborative Research Centre 990 - EFForTS
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: While traders of agricultural products are known to often exercise market power, this power has rarely been quantified for developing countries. In order to derive a measure, we estimate the traders' revenue functions and calculate the Marginal Value Products directly from them. We subsequently find determinants affecting their individual market power. An exceptional data set with detailed information on the business practices of rubber traders in Jambi, Indonesia is employed. Results show that market power at the traders' level exists and is substantial. This market power is amplified in situations of extreme remoteness, and weakens with increasing market size.
    Keywords: F14 ; Q13 ; L14 ; ddc:330 ; Trader Survey ; Market Power ; Lerner Index ; Marginal Value Products ; Indonesia ; Marktmacht ; Einnahmen ; Produktionsfunktion ; Landhandel ; Kautschuk ; Indonesien
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Auslandsinvestition ; Handelshemmnisse ; USA ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Ein Siebtel aller deutschen Exporte wird von der Elektroindustrie getätigt. Mit einem Ausfuhrvolumen von 166 Mrd. Euro im Jahr 2014 gehört sie zu den weltweit vier größten Lieferanten elektrotechnischer und elektronischer Produkte und Systeme und ist damit ein unmittelbarer Profiteur von Erleichterungen im internationalen Handel. Andreas Gontermann und Jochen Schäfer, ZVEI - Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V., Frankfurt am Main, stellen die Ergebnisse von Berechnungen des ZVEI vor, die zeigen, dass bisherige Freihandels- und Assoziierungsabkommen der Europäischen Union die deutschen Elektroausfuhren in die entsprechenden Partnerländer regelmäßig befördert haben.
    Keywords: L63 ; F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Elektroindustrie ; TTIP ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 23
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Eine zentrale vertretende These der Ökonomie lautet: Die Aufhebung von Beschränkungen im Handel und Kapitalverkehr weltweit vermehrt die Wohlfahrt. Internationale Abkommen und Zollunionen verfolgen das Ziel des Freihandels. Auch das europäische Integrationsprojekt basiert mit dem Binnenmarktprogramm und den vertraglich abgesicherten vier Freiheiten, für Handel, Kapital, Personen und Dienstleistungen, auf dieser Grundidee. Im Rahmen der EU wird dies noch durch die Währungsunion ergänzt. Aber an der These der wohlfahrtssteigernden Wirkung des Freihandels gibt es vermehrt Kritik. Die Finanz- und Eurokrisen haben zusätzlich die Debatten über die Erweiterung und Vertiefung der EU einschließlich der Europäischen Währungsunion verstärkt. Auch wirft das geplante transatlantische Freihandelsabkommen grundsätzliche Fragen von Grenzen der ökonomischen Integration auf. Zu diesen Themen fand vom 10. bis 12. Juli 2015 eine wissenschaftliche Tagung unter der Leitung von Wolfgang Quaisser in der Akademie für Politische Bildung Tutzing statt. Einige der dort vorgestellten Vorträge werden hier veröffentlicht.
    Keywords: F13 ; F63 ; ddc:330 ; Globalisierung ; Freihandel ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Kapitalverkehrskontrolle ; Welt ; TTIP
    Language: German
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  • 24
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    Unknown
    Bochum: Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Institut für Entwicklungsforschung und Entwicklungspolitik (IEE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: We investigate the impact of Chinese activities in sub-Saharan African countries with respect to the growth performance of economies in that region. Using a Solow-type growth model and panel data for the period 1991 to 2011, we find that African economies that export natural resources have benefited from positive terms-of-trade effects. In addition, there is evidence for displacement effects of African firms due to competition from China. Chinese foreign investment and aid in Africa does not have an impact on growth.
    Keywords: F14 ; F23 ; F35 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; China ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Trade ; FDI ; Foreign aid ; Economic growth ; South-south cooperation ; Auslandsinvestition ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Chinesisch ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 25
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Mit dem Abschuss einer Passagiermaschine mit 298 Insassen über der Ostukraine am 17. Juli 2014 mutmaßlich durch pro-russische Separatisten haben die Beziehungen zwischen Russland und dem Westen einen neuen Tiefpunkt erreicht. Bereits am 17. März 2014, einen Tag nach dem erfolgreichen Referendum über die Abspaltung der Krim von der Ukraine, hatte die Europäische Union Sanktionen gegen Russland in Form von Ein- und Durchreiseverboten sowie der Einfrierung von Vermögen verhängt. Sie folgte damit dem Vorbild der Vereinigten Staaten, die solche Maßnahmen schon zuvor ausgesprochen hatten. Unmittelbar vor der neuen Eskalation hatten sowohl die EU als auch die USA ihre Sanktionen bereits verschärft, um die russische Unterstützung für die Separatisten zu unterbinden. Aktuell ist eine weitere Verschärfung wahrscheinlich (Stand: 22. Juli 2014). Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet, welche Auswirkungen durch Sanktionen zu erwarten sind und ob ein Einlenken Russlands wahrscheinlich ist. Dazu werden die wirtschaftlichen Verflechtungen des Westens mit Russland sowie historische Erfahrungen mit Sanktionen dargestellt.
    Keywords: F50 ; F51 ; F13 ; ddc:330 ; Russland ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Politischer Konflikt ; Sanktion
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Exportkredit ; Staatliche Einflußnahme ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: This study contributes to the literature on the competitiveness of Romanian exports with a new perspective over the decade 2001-2011, by overlapping of two complementary analyses: of the export performance dynamics and of the domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers. The analyzed period includes the period of global economic growth (mainly 2003-2007) and the first years of the economic crisis (2009-2011 ). The year 2007, when Romania joined the European Union, is in the middle of the analyzed period. The dynamics of Romania's export performance was assessed through a specific method combining three different research lines(1) changes in the ranking of exported products in the reference years 2001 and 2011, (2) evolution of the performance of key products exported in 2001 and (3) the position in 2001 of key products exported in 2011. The analysis of domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers provides, for the first time for Romania a brief study on the position of the country on the global value chain, following the logic proposed by the European Commission in its last two European Competitiveness Reports (2012 and 2013). When corroborated, the results of the two analyses can be used to discuss the extent to which the current structure of exports contributes to the generation of domestic revenues and as such might prove useful in the debate on the identification of a country brand for Romania. In order to achieve the latter goal, we conducted two detailed case studies on two reference sectors of the Romanian economy: motor vehicles and creative industries. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Performance-Messung ; Einnahmen ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; EU-Binnenmarkt ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 28
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Seit einigen Jahren steigt die Dominanz weniger Vereine im deutschen Fußball. Wiederholte Gewinne der Meisterschaften in der Fußball-Bundesliga und die Beteiligung an Spielen auf europäischer Ebene versetzen diese Vereine finanziell in die Lage, dauerhaft in ihre Spieler-Kader zu investieren. Eine bedeutende Einnahmequelle ist dabei die Vermarktung der Fernsehrechte. Dadurch, dass diese in der Bundesliga zentral durchgeführt wird, soll die finanzielle Ausstattung der Vereine angeglichen werden. Der Autor kommt allerdings zu dem Schluss, dass dies nicht gelingt und die Zentralvermarktung im öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunk sogar sportpolitisch schädlich ist. Zudem liegt eine wettbewerbsverfälschende Subventionierung vor.
    Description: In order to maintain competitive balance and uncertainty of outcome, professional sports leagues have developed several kinds of distribution mechanisms. For example, in Germany one of these is the collective selling of television rights for football matches by the league organisation, which enables the league to share television revenues. In this article it is argued that central marketing and sharing of television revenues in German football does not enhance competitive balance among members of the Bundesliga but rather leads to a lesser degree of competitive balance and thus less uncertainty of outcome in the league. Because public broadcasting stations pay for television rights from which some clubs profi t more than others, it can be seen as illegal state aid for these clubs.
    Keywords: H23 ; M42 ; P00 ; ddc:330 ; Fußball ; Rundfunkrecht ; Einnahmen ; Wettbewerb ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 29
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Vienna: Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Europe (and in particular the European Union) is a regional economic area and thus an embedded feature of globalisation. Since the Lisbon Treaty entered into effect on 1 December 2009, the EU has grown from a "political midget" to a notable political "global player". Although Europe has gradually lost its top position in global trade it continues to be a "world trade superpower". Since its introduction in 2002, the euro has become the world's second most important reserve currency. With the WTO's Doha Round still stuck, the EU runs a large network of bilateral free trade agreements ("spaghetti bowl"), and is pursuing several strategies to ward off the dangers of globalisation: For one, its constant enlargement makes for an ever larger internal market, which implicitly raises borders against third countries. This immunisation effect is further strengthened by the enlargement of the euro area. Secondly, the EU's competition and anti-dumping policy efficiently ensures fair competition within the EU's internal market. The losers in the globalisation process are helped by the globalisation fund set up by the EU.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Globalisierung ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Großmacht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: German
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  • 31
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 32
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Dresden: ifo Institut, Niederlassung Dresden
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: Der Freistaat Sachsen wird in den kommenden Jahren vor komplexen Herausforderungen stehen. Diese umfassen einerseits demographische Aspekte wie den Rückgang sowie die Alterung der Bevölkerung. Hier könnten mittelfristig Anpassungsprozesse auf Sachsen zukommen, deren Finanzierung zumindest teilweise durch das Land getragen werden muss. Andererseits muss gleichzeitig auf fiskalische Herausforderungen reagiert werden, die u. a. durch das Abschmelzen der Bundesergänzungszuweisungen im Rahmen des Solidarpaktes II entstehen. Eine umsichtige und nachhaltige Haushaltsplanung ist daher eine Grundvoraussetzung, um die finanzielle Handlungsfähigkeit des Landes aufrechtzuerhalten. Dies erfordert eine realistische, aber vorsichtige Abschätzung der Einnahmeentwicklung, die auch bei unvorhergesehenen Ereignissen oder einer insgesamt ungünstigeren wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung geeignet ist, die langfristigen Ziele der Landesregierung (z. B. ein strukturell ausgeglichener Haushalt) zu erreichen.
    Keywords: O10 ; ddc:330 ; Einnahmen ; Konjunktur ; Konjunkturprognose ; Wirtschaftslage ; Sachsen
    Language: German
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  • 34
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    Dresden: ifo Institut, Niederlassung Dresden
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: Die öffentlichen Haushalte haben zuletzt von der guten konjunkturellen Entwicklung der Jahre 2010 und 2011 profitieren können. Für den Freistaat Sachsen muss jedoch langfristig weiterhin von sinkenden Einnahmen ausgegangen werden. Aus diesem Grund diskutiert der vorliegende Artikel die aktuellen Entwicklungen der Einnahmesituation Sachsens. In den Prognoseszenarien zeigt sich, dass ein stärkeres Wirtschaftswachstum bzw. höheres Steueraufkommen auch weiterhin den Einnahmerückgang zwar teilweise kompensieren, jedoch nicht vollständig abfangen können wird.
    Keywords: O10 ; ddc:330 ; Einnahmen ; Konjunktur ; Konjunkturprognose ; Wirtschaftslage ; Neue Bundesländer ; Sachsen
    Language: German
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  • 35
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Natural resources account for 20% of world trade, and dominate the exports of many countries. Policy is used to manipulate both international and domestic prices of resources, yet this policy is largely outside the disciplines of the WTO. The instruments used include export taxes, price controls, production quotas, and domestic producer and consumer taxes (equivalent to trade taxes if no domestic production is possible). We review the literature, and argue that the policy equilibrium is inefficient. This inefficiency is exacerbated by market failure in long run contracts for exploration and development of natural resources. Properly coordinated policy reforms offer an avenue to resource exporting and importing countries to overcome these inefficiencies and obtain mutual gains.
    Keywords: F1 ; F13 ; Q3 ; ddc:330 ; natural resources ; trade ; export tax ; tariff escalation ; OPEC ; WTO ; terms of trade ; Natürliche Ressourcen ; Rohstoffpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Exportsteuer ; Zollpolitik ; Terms of Trade ; Allokationseffizienz ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The idea that environmental and trade policies should be formulated in an integrated framework has been gaining momentum so that to ensure the integrity and consistency of climate change negotiations. In a complementary way to the negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), some countries have already started or are in the process of launching national mitigation plans for reducing greenhouse gases emissions which have an important interface to the international trade regime. The United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) are examples of countries in the process of considering important national plans for the mitigation of their emissions. In both cases, these programmes will have an important interface to trade policies. In this context, the main objective of this study is to highlight the increasingly interdependency of environmental and trade issues in international negotiations as well as to suggest how this might affect Brazilian competitiveness exports, recalling that Brazil is still a non Annex I country.
    Keywords: Q01 ; ddc:330 ; trade and environment ; competitiveness ; border trade adjustments ; Umweltpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Grenzüberschreitende Umweltbelastung ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper aims to understand and examine one of the domestic determinants of Brazilian foreign trade policy strategies from 1995 to 2010, focusing on the articulation of its trade policy with its foreign policy at large. Thus, the role of multilateralism and regionalism in Brazilian foreign policy is analyzed in order to identify and understand Brazil's trade negotiation strategies in the period under review. With this work, I try to shed light on the debate about domestic determinants of foreign trade policy in Brazil in recent decades, explaining the adoption of a three-tracks negotiating strategy, which combines the multilateral approach with a two-speed regionalism.
    Keywords: F50 ; F13 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade policy ; Brazil ; multilateralism ; regionalism ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 38
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Recent research indicates that the democratic peace - the observation that democratic nations rarely fight each other - is spurious: that advanced capitalism accounts for both democracy and the democratic peace (Mousseau 2009). This is not a trivial prospect: if economic conditions explain the democratic peace, then a great deal of research on governing institutions and foreign policy is probably obsolete. This study addresses all the recent defenses of the democratic peace and reports new results using a new measure that directly gauges the causal mechanism of contract flows dependent on third-party enforcement. Analyses of most nations from 1961 to 2001 show contract-intensive "impersonal" economy to be the second most powerful variable in international conflict - following only contiguity - and, once considered, there is no evidence of causation from democracy to peace. It is impersonal economy, not democracy or unfettered markets, which appears to explain the democratic peace.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Politischer Konflikt ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Demokratie ; Systemvergleich ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2014-12-18
    Description: In the absence of effective world-wide cooperation to curb global warming, import tariffs on embodied carbon have been proposed as a potential supplement to unilateral emissions pricing. We consider alternative designs for such tariffs, and analyze their effects on global welfare within a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of global trade and energy. Our analysis suggests that the most cost-efficient policy could be region-specific tariffs on all products, based on direct plus electricity emissions. In the end, however, the potential cost savings through carbon tariffs must be weighed against the administrative costs as well as legal issues and political considerations.
    Keywords: Q43 ; Q54 ; H2 ; D61 ; ddc:330 ; carbon leakage ; embodied carbon ; border tariffs ; Umweltbelastung ; Treibhausgas ; Treibhausgas-Emissionen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Zoll ; Kosten-Wirksamkeits-Analyse
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar el potencial sesgo pro-pobre en la actual estructura de protección en seis países de África Sub-Sahariana (ASS), es decir, si redistribuye ingresos de los hogares ricos a los pobres. También exploramos la medida en que las barreras que enfrentan los exportadores de la ASS en el resto del mundo están sesgadas a favor de los hogares pobres o ricos. Para ello, partimos de un modelo simple de producción agrícola familiar y proponemos una ampliación para incluir los ajustes en los ingresos laborales asociados con cambios en los salarios de trabajadores calificados y no calificados. A continuación, creamos indicadores que reflejan las diferencias en los cambios en el bienestar a través de los niveles de ingresos asociados con la eliminación de las medidas proteccionistas en ASS. Los resultados sugieren que la propia política comercial de ASS se inclina a favor de los hogares pobres. Por el contrario, las políticas comerciales de los socios comerciales de ASS tienden a estar sesgadas a favor de los hogares ricos de ASS.
    Description: The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential pro-poor bias in the existing structure of protection in six Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (i.e., whether it redistributes income from rich to poor households). We also explore the extent to which the barriers faced by SSA exporters in the rest-of-the-world are biased in favor of poor or rich household. To this end, we start with a simple agricultural household production model and propose an extension to include adjustments in labor income associated with changes in unskilled and skilled wages. We then build indicators that capture the differences in welfare changes across income levels associated with the elimination of SSA's own trade protection, as well as trade protection on SSA's export bundle by the rest-of-the-world. Results suggest that SSA's own trade policy is biased in favor of poor households. In contrast, the trade policies of SSA's trading partners tend to be biased in favor of SSA's rich households, especially when ad-valorem equivalents of NTMs are taken into account. -- Trade policy ; wage elasticities ; poverty ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: F13 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Trade policy ; wage elasticities ; poverty ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Protektionismus ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Umverteilung ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The means of contest design may include differential taxation of the prize. This paper establishes that, given a revenue-maximizing contest designer who faces a balanced-budget constraint, the optimal taxation scheme corresponding to an all-pay auction is appealing in two senses. First, it ensures exceptional equitable final prize valuations. Second, it is effective; it yields total contestants' efforts that are larger than those obtained under almost any Tullock-type lottery. Furthermore, when a budget surplus is allowed, the superiority of optimal taxation under the APA is preserved in terms of equity and effectiveness relative to optimal taxation under any contest success function.
    Keywords: D70 ; D72 ; D74 ; D78 ; ddc:330 ; contest design ; revenue maximization ; balanced-budget constraint ; budget surplus ; optimal differential taxation ; endogenous stakes ; all-pay auction ; lottery ; Glücksspiel ; Optimale Besteuerung ; Auktionstheorie ; Einnahmen ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Over the last decade, the internal and external macroeconomic imbalances in China have risen to unprecedented levels. In 2008, China's national savings rate soared to over 53 percent of its GDP, whereas its current account surplus exceeded 9 percent of GDP. The current paper presents a unified framework for understanding the structural causes of these imbalances. I argue that the imbalances are attributable to a set of policies and institutions embedded in the economy. Moreover, the accession of China to the World Trade Organization has dramatically amplified the effects of these structural distortions. I document major trends in aggregate savings, investment, trade, and net foreign asset positions in China, and explore options for policy reforms aimed at rebalancing the Chinese economy.
    Keywords: E21 ; O16 ; F32 ; ddc:330 ; aggregate savings ; current account ; income distribution ; structural distortions ; trade policies ; China ; Sparen ; Leistungsbilanz ; Zahlungsbilanzungleichgewicht ; Einkommensverteilung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has a long history of intellectual independence. This article details how Western countries tried to marginalise the organisation and its work - which is often critical of Western powers - during the 2012 UNCTAD conference. While developing countries were able to mobilise and partially beat back these attempts for now, the organisation's ability to contribute to global macroeconomics remains under threat.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entwicklungsorganisation ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Industriestaaten ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Außenpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; China ; Außenpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (201 S.)
    Edition: 1. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783531174471 , 9783531933788
    DDC: 327.51
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 45
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: This paper interprets China's overall trade policy since its accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) almost a decade ago, and more recently in the wake of the global economic crisis. The first section briefly summarises policy trends leading up to WTO accession, as well as recent trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) patterns. The second section looks at China in the WTO: its record of implementing WTO commitments; its participation in the Doha Round; and in dispute settlement. The next section looks at China's trade-related reforms outside the WTO, especially unilateral measures and preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Section Four highlights challenges for China's trade policy: in the context of domestic reforms; in the WTO; in PTAs; in its key bilateral relationships; and in the context of global macroeconomic tensions. Section Five puts Chinese trade policy in a bigger domestic political-economy and geopolitical context. Section Six concludes. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; WTO-Mitgliedschaft ; China
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper investigates the R&D persistence of R&D active firms in different markets with different intensities of competition, based on firm-level panel data for the period 1996-2008. In a dynamic setting of the empirical model it turns out that persistence is strongly related to market competition (measured by the number of principal competitors). Persistence of R&D expenditures is more likely to be observed in markets with few principal competitors (between 6 and 10) and is very unlikely to be observed in polypolistic type of markets (more than 50 competitors). These results call for a stronger coordination between competition policy and innovation promotion policy, since the former basically aims at larger markets with many competitors, while the latter aims at persistence of R&D efforts and thus markets with fewer competitors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Innovationspolitik ; Schweiz
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Elmshorn: Nordakademie - Hochschule der Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: Der Betrieb einer Photovoltaikanlage durch eine gemeinnützige Körperschaft kann ein sinnvolles Mittel zur Verfolgung einer Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie darstellen. Vor der Investition in eine Photovoltaikanlage ist indes zu bedenken, dass der Betrieb der Anlage grundsätzlich einen wirtschaftlichen Geschäftsbetrieb i. S. des § 14 AO darstellt. Er kann jedoch als Selbstversorgungseinrichtung i. S. des § 68 Nr. 2 Buchstabe b) AO eingestuft werden, wenn mindestens 80 Prozent des produzierten Stroms von der gemeinnützigen Körperschaft selbst verbraucht werden. Ist diese Voraussetzung erfüllt, so sind die Einkünfte aus diesem Zweckbetrieb gem. § 5 Abs. 1 Nr. 9 KStG bzw. § 3 Nr. 6 GewStG von der Ertragsbesteuerung befreit. Die Lieferungen des in das allgemeine Versorgungsnetz eingespeisten Stroms unterliegt gem. § 12 Abs. 2 Nr. 8 Buchstabe a) UStG dann im Rahmen der Umsatzsteuer dem ermäßigten Steuersatz i. H. v. sieben Prozent. Liegen die Voraussetzungen einer Selbstversorgungseinrichtung hingegen nicht vor, so unterliegen die Gewinne aus dem wirtschaftlichen Geschäftsbetrieb der Körperschaftsteuer und der Gewerbesteuer. Darüber hinaus dürfen in diesem Fall grundsätzlich keine Mittel i. S. des § 55 Abs. 1 AO eingesetzt werden, um die Gemeinnützigkeit nicht zu gefährden. Eine Finanzierung ist dann lediglich über Fremdkapital oder über freie Rücklagen i. S. d. § 58 Nr. 7 Buchstabe a) und Nr. 11 möglich. Bei wirtschaftlichen Geschäftsbetrieben unterliegen die Umsätze gem. § 12 Abs. 1 UStG dem Normaltarif i. H. v. 19 Prozent.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Photovoltaikanlage ; Einnahmen ; Gemeinnützigkeitsrecht ; Steuerbegünstigung ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: This paper explores the role of country asymmetries for trade and industrial policies with heterogeneous firms. Our analysis delivers a number of novel results. First, trade policies, infrastructure policies and industrial policies which improve the business conditions in one country have negative productivity and welfare effects on the trading partner. Second, symmetric trade liberalization is immiserizing for a trading partner whose business conditions are inferior. Third, there are gains from trade even for a country whose monopolistically competitive sector with heterogeneous firms is wiped out by the switch from autarky to trade.
    Keywords: F12 ; F13 ; F15 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; firm heterogeneity ; welfare ; trade policies ; industrial policies ; business conditions ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Industriepolitik ; Standortpolitik ; Mehr-Länder-Modell ; Produktivität ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The objective of the present paper is to analyze the Trade Defence Policy of the BICs, in the last 15 years, with emphasis to similarities and contrasts. The paper starts with the exam of the main issues of trade defence regulation as established in the GATT and the WTO. Then it moves to the evolution of initiations and application of measures for each of the BICs. Considering the importance of the Appellate Body decisions in the Dispute Settlement Mechanism, the paper examines the main panels in the area having BICs as complainants or defendants. The paper concludes with some implications of this analysis to the Trade Defence Policy of Brazil.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Brasilien ; Indien ; China
    Language: Portuguese
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: The objective of the paper is to explore and give an overview of two central policy alternatives to improve the integration between the European Union and developing countries by removing barriers to trade: trade preferences and trade facilitation. After reviewing the relevant literatures and discussing the issues which constitute problems or opportunities for practitioners and researchers in both areas, the paper concludes that while at least some trade preferences actually have been less of a failure than their reputation suggests, trade facilitation is a far more promising policy option for the future.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; Trade preferences ; Trade Facilitation ; European Union ; Developing Countries ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Außenhandelspräferenz ; Außenhandelsgewinn ; Handelsabkommen ; Entwicklungsländer ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2014-12-18
    Description: In a world where the prospects of a global agreement to control greenhouse gas emissions are bleak, the idea of using trade policy as an implicit regulation of foreign emission sources has gained many supporters in countries contemplating unilateral climate policies. Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in imported goods. The appeal seems obvious: as OECD countries are, on average, large net importers of embodied emissions from non-OECD countries, carbon tariffs could substantially extend the reach of OECD climate policies. We investigate this claim by simulating the effects of embodied carbon tariffs with a computable general equilibrium model of global trade and energy use. We find that embodied carbon tariffs do effectively reduce carbon leakage. However, the scope for improvements in the global cost-effectiveness of unilateral climate policy is limited. The main welfare effect of the tariffs is to shift the burden of OECD climate policy to the developing world.
    Keywords: F18 ; H23 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Umweltbelastung ; Treibhausgas ; Treibhausgas-Emissionen ; Ökosteuer ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Zoll ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; OECD-Staaten ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Auslandsinvestition ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: This paper explores the ways in which macroeconomic imbalances have driven policy discussions between the United States (US) and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the last decade. The PRC's current account surplus, its growing foreign exchange reserves, and its shifting policies on exchange rate adjustment have become a central preoccupation of US trade policy. The paper considers the evolving political economy of the US policy stance and of the PRC's response; it assesses the opportunity costs of an approach that has sometimes focused on the exchange rate to the exclusion of other issues; and it explores the ramifications for economic governance in the short- and medium-run. The paper finds that there has been ample mutual misunderstanding between the US and the PRC in their economic arguments; that the momentous debates have the potential to severely impair the institutions of global economic governance; and that there is likely to be an important race between economic and demographic forces that will naturally redress the imbalances and the political imperatives for each country to stand tough and fight.
    Keywords: F42 ; F51 ; ddc:330 ; Zahlungsbilanzungleichgewicht ; Währungsreserven ; Wechselkurspolitik ; China ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; USA
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We econometrically evaluate the performance effects of a six month e-learning programme in a large retail chain with monthly data on sales revenue, for four years using panel regressions. Participants in early cohorts show positive performance effects during training periods that depreciate afterwards. We conclude that offering training on a voluntary basis leads participants with the highest expected idiosyncratic gains and the highest talent to self-select into early participation. As performance effects already unfold during training, our findings put forward the importance of continuous training with close coaching unlike single training incidences.
    Keywords: C31 ; C33 ; J24 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; evaluation ; company training ; e-learning ; average treatment effect ; average treatment effect on the treated ; selection effect ; continuous learning ; continuous vocational training ; Betriebliches Bildungsmanagement ; E-Learning ; Handelsberufe ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Einnahmen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Handelsregionalismus ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; APEC-Staaten
    Language: German
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: In the course of the last decade, the IBSA states (India, Brazil, South Africa) have increased their weight in the shifting global order, particularly in economic affairs. Can the same be said about the IBSA states' position in the international security hierarchy? After locating the IBSA coalition in the shifting world order, we analyze its member states' willingness and capacity to coordinate their security policies and build a common global security agenda. In addition, we explore the state of and perspectives on bi- and trilateral collaboration initiatives on defense and armaments between India, Brazil and South Africa. A key reason for the mostly modest results of global security agenda coordination and cross-regional defense collaboration is that the prevailing security concerns of each country are located at the regional level. Therefore, the starting point of an assessment of the prospects of IBSA's security cooperation and its potential impact on the strategic global landscape has to be a comparative evaluation of the regional security environments, focusing on overlaps and potential synergies between the national security policies of the three state actors.
    Description: Im Verlauf der letzten Dekade konnten die IBSA-Staaten (Indien, Brasilien, Südafrika) ihre Position in der sich verschiebenden Weltordnung erheblich verbessern; das gilt insbesondere für ihren Einfluss auf globale Handelsfragen. Lässt sich ein ähnlicher Aufstieg der IBSA-Staaten in der internationalen Sicherheitsordnung konstatieren? Die Autoren verorten die IBSA-Koalition in der sich verschiebenden Weltordnung und analysieren die Bereitschaft und Fähigkeit der drei Staaten, ihre Sicherheitsstrategien zu koordinieren und eine gemeinsame Sicherheitsagenda zu entwerfen. Ferner werden die Bedingungen und Perspektiven biund trilateraler Verteidigungs- und Rüstungszusammenarbeit untersucht. Im Ergebnis zeichnen sich bisher allenfalls anfängliche Bemühungen bei der Zusammenarbeit im Verteidigungssektor und bei der Entwicklung einer globalen Sicherheitsagenda ab. Ausschlaggebend dafür sind die primär auf der regionalen Ebene liegenden Sicherheitsprioritäten der IBSA-Staaten. Die perspektivische Bewertung des potenziellen Einflusses der Staatenkoalition auf globale Sicherheitsfragen erfolgt demnach vor dem Hintergrund der regionalen Sicherheitsstrategien Indiens, Brasiliens und Südafrikas. Dabei stehen mögliche Überschneidungen und Synergien zwischen den regionalen Sicherheitsstrategien im Zentrum des Interesses.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; India ; Brazil ; South Africa ; IBSA Dialogue Forum ; security policies ; security context ; military power ; Politischer Konflikt ; Bündnissystem ; Großmacht ; Militärpotenzial ; Internationale Beziehungen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Indien ; Brasilien ; Südafrika
    Language: English
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Asia is fast becoming the largest recipient of Japan's foreign direct investment (FDI). Within the Asian region, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been the major investment destination of Japan. In the manufacturing sectors, however, the investment flows from Japan to ASEAN - with Thailand being the largest recipient - has been declining. In contrast, Japan's FDI in the services sectors in ASEAN has been growing rapidly. The recent phenomenon of the Singapore Shift in Japan's FDI in the ASEAN services sectors proves interesting. The prominent strategy of Japanese companies is to establish a commercial presence in Singapore, which they expect to be the hub of Southeast Asia, thereby enabling them to supply services to the entire ASEAN region. The magnitude of the Singapore Shift varies for every services sub-sector. By comparing transport and logistics with finance and insurance industries, this paper considers the critical determinants of the Singapore Shift.
    Keywords: F2 ; F13 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Direktinvestition ; Japan ; Singapur ; ASEAN-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Adverse effects of the global financial crisis on international trade include falling demand, increased trade protectionism, and drying up of trade finance. Much attention has focused on the impact of the crisis on goods trade; however literature on its impact on services trade is limited, especially on the services trade in the People's Republic of China (PRC). This paper analyzes the impact of the global financial crisis on the PRC's services trade, discusses policy responses by the government, and puts forward policy suggestions. The main findings of the paper are as follows: Although the global economic and financial crisis spawned a synchronized recession leading to a contraction in the PRC's services trade, the crisis has had a moderate effect on the PRC's trade in services because of the lower internationalization of services. The PRC's trade surplus in goods decreased and its trade deficit in services increased after the crisis. Structural reforms are now urgently needed to help support the recovery of output and trade. A possible solution to rebalancing the trade balance (trade surplus in goods and trade deficit in services) would be to expand trade in services. The degree of openness for services is lower than for goods in the PRC. Further liberalization in services trade is the appropriate policy choice for the government. Continued policy and regulatory reform in favor of services trade will be vital to supporting economic recovery. Improved market access and national treatment of foreign service suppliers would help enhance the productivity and competitiveness of local services firms and upgrade the industry structure of services, which is essential for the country's economy to change from being driven by exports to being driven by domestic demand. Decreasing trade and investment barriers would help expand services trade and investment, and increase PRC involvement in the globalization of services.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Internationaler Dienstleistungsverkehr ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China
    Language: English
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: This paper provides trade flow projections for major Asian developing economies (ADEs) up to 2030 against the backdrop of an in-depth analysis of policy shifts and trade patterns over the past 4 decades. Merchandise trade of ADEs has grown at a much faster rate in the global context, with a distinct intraregional bias. Global production sharing has become a unique feature of the economic landscape of the region, with the People's Republic of China playing a pivotal complementary role as the premier assembly center within the regional production networks. According to the projections made within the standard gravity modelling framework, total real nonoil trade of ADEs would increase at an average annual rate of 8.2 during the next 2 decades, with a notable convergence of individual countries' rates to the regional average. The share of intraregional trade in total nonoil trade would increase steadily from 53% in 2010 to 58% in 2030. The trade-to-GDP ratio would increase from 39.4% and 74.4% between these 2 years. These predictions need to be treated with caution as they are based on the assumption that the trade structure pertaining to the estimation period will remain unchanged in the next 2 decades.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelseffekt ;