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  • Außenhandel
  • 2010-2014  (91)
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  • 1
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Die deutsch-russischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen haben sich seit den 1990er Jahren fast unbemerkt von der (medialen) Öffentlichkeit positiv weiterentwickelt. Russland wurde zwar als G8-Mitglied und eines der wichtigen Schwellenländer der BRIC-Gruppe wahrgenommen, mehr Aufmerksamkeit genoss allerdings China. Die Bedeutung Russlands für die deutsche Wirtschaft ist - abgesehen vom Erdgasimport und dem damit untrennbar verbundenen Staatsunternehmen Gazprom - dagegen im Verborgenen geblieben.
    Description: In view of the Russian annexation of Crimea and its ongoing efforts to destabilise Ukraine, political decision-makers in the EU and the US are considering economic sanctions against Russia. The article analyses whether the German economy would be affected by restrictions on trade and investment relations. As a result, German exporters would suffer from restrictions on business relations with Russia, but they would be able to compensate for possible losses. Russian gas export interruptions, however, would be a more severe problem. Due to Russia's dependence on revenues from the export of natural resources as well as on technology imports from Western countries, the Russian economy would be hit particularly hard.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F51 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Erdgas ; Außenhandel ; Kapitalmobilität ; Deutschland ; Russland
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany's net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany's export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Humankapital ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Vermögen ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; Handelseffekt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; WTO-Verhandlungen ; WTO-Recht ; Außenhandel ; GATS ; Freihandelszone ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F23 ; F34 ; G32 ; ddc:330 ; Kreditrationierung ; Betriebliche Wertschöpfung ; Außenhandel ; China
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; CGE-Modell ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F20 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; BRICS-Staaten ; Eurozone ; Auslandsinvestition ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Exportkredit ; Exportkreditversicherung ; Außenhandel
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Sebastian Benz while he was working at the Ifo Institute. It was completed in December 2013 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich. It includes five self-contained chapters. All chapters discuss different implications of the growing importance of trade in intermediate inputs. The first chapter compares the impact of international trade in intermediate inputs (offshoring) on wage inequality in two distinct but similar frameworks. In the first framework the profitability of offshoring is based on increasing returns to scale on the task-level, whereas the second framework relies on differences in relative factor endowments of the two countries involved in offshoring. The second chapter provides a theory of offshoring under imitation risk that explains optimal dynamic adjustments of firms' offshoring decisions and yields two new channels by which offshoring affects wage inequality. Chapter 3 studies the impact of intellectual property rights and of offshoring costs on the rate of innovation and on the offshoring intensity. In chapter 4 I estimate knowledge spillovers through outsourcing relationships between German firms, measured by the number of those firms' successful patent applications. The last chapter describes sector-level input-output relationships in eleven European economies and estimates the importance of international trade in intermediate inputs and internationally mobile capital for the interdependence of output shocks in those countries.
    Keywords: C21 ; F11 ; F12 ; F14 ; F15 ; F16 ; F21 ; F23 ; F43 ; J31 ; O30 ; O31 ; O34 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Immaterialgüterrechte ; Vorleistungen ; Kapitalmobilität ; Einkommensverteilung ; International ; Wissenstransfer ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Outsourcing ; Patent ; Faktorproportionentheorem ; Lohnstruktur ; Trade in tasks ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Vorleistungen ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Anforderungsprofil ; Lohnstruktur ; Imitationsstrategie ; Risiko ; Sachenrecht ; Innovation ; Wissenstransfer ; Outsourcing ; Theorie ; Deutschland ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Vorleistungen ; Außenhandel ; Kapitalmobilität ; Faktorproportionentheorem ; Theorie ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Benedikt Heid while he was working at the ifo Institute and the University of Bayreuth. It was completed in December 2013 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. It includes six self-contained chapters which deal with the following topics in empirical international trade and development economics: the expansion of firms' export destinations across space and time (chapter 1), the extension of structural gravity models for developed countries to include unemployment (chapter 2) and for Latin American and Caribbean developing countries to additionally include informal employment (chapter 3) as well as the relation between foreign direct investment, trade, and informal employment as illustrated by the maquiladora industry in Mexico (chapter 4), the interaction between migration and trade and their effects on unemployment (chapter 5), and the dynamics of democracy and income chapter 6).
    Keywords: C23 ; C26 ; C33 ; D72 ; E21 ; F10 ; F20 ; O10 ; O17 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Demokratie ; Panelforschung ; Export ; Gravitationsmodell ; Einkommen ; Informeller Sektor ; Außenhandel ; Kosten ; Internationale Wanderung ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Handelspräferenzen ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Export ; Internationaler Markt ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Welt ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Handelspräferenzen ; Internationale Migration ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Nationaleinkommen ; Demokratie ; Demokratisierung ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Anfang Dezember 2013 einigten sich die Mitgliedsländer der WTO auf ein neues Welthandelsabkommen. Gabriel Felbermayr, ifo Institut und Universität München, sieht einen Anpassungsbedarf der WTO an die neue Gemengelage in der Weltwirtschaft, da in Zukunft immer häufiger in regionalen Abkommen zusammengefasste Ländergruppen als zentrale Spieler des Welthandels auftreten werden. Für Wilhelm Kohler, Universität Tübingen, hat das Ergebnis zwar Potenzial, aber mit »Trade Facilitation« betrete die WTO ein Terrain, in dem ihr Ansatz zur Handelsliberalisierung an Bedeutung verliere. Volker Treier, Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag, betrachtet die Vereinbarung als Gewinn für die Wirtschaft. Ein Verlierer bei den Ergebnissen von Bali sei nicht auszumachen. Nach Meinung von Heribert Dieter, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin, ist die Vereinbarung von Bali ein wichtiger Schritt, aber der Konflikt zwischen der multilateralen Ordnung und den konkurrierenden Präferenzabkommen sei noch nicht überwunden. Und Christoph Herrmann, Universität Passau, hält fest, dass das Bali-Paket eher eine Mischung kleiner Lösungen für Einzelprobleme darstellt als den großen Durchbruch für die Doha-Runde. Nach den Berechnungen von Cosimo Beverelli, Simon Neumüller und Robert Teh, WTO, kann eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung des Abkommens zu einem Anstieg des Handels und so zu einer Wohlfahrtsverbesserung führen. Richard Senti, ETH Zürich, bezeichnet die effektiven Verhandlungserfolge der WTO-Ministerkonferenz eher als »bescheiden«, aber immerhin sei die Phase des Stillstands beendet und eine Atmosphäre des Aufbruchs geschaffen worden. Für Matthias Lücke, Institut für Weltwirtschaft Kiel sind die Entscheidungen von Bali weder ein Grund für Euphorie noch für Resignation mit Blick auf die WTO. Fortschritte beim Abbau wirtschaftlich bedeutsamer Handelsbarrieren seien aber vor allem durch bilaterale Abkommen zu erwarten. Peter-Tobias Stoll, Universität Göttingen, gibt zu bedenken, dass die in Bali be
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; WTO-Recht ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenhandel
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Das Bekleidungsgewerbe in Europa hat weite Teile seiner industriellen Basis verloren. In deutlich eingeschränkterem Maße trifft dies mittlerweile auch für das Textilgewerbe zu. Dennoch können sich die Textil- und Bekleidungsunternehmen einiger weniger europäischer Länder vergleichsweise gut in dem wie kaum ein anderer Industriesektor von der internationalen Arbeitsteilung geprägten Gewerbe behaupten. Hierzu zählen insbesondere Vertreter der deutschen Textil- und Bekleidungsbranche, die sich seit der Wirtschaftskrise 2008/09 nicht nur besser als der EU-Durchschnitt, sondern auch als fast alle ihre westeuropäischen Kontrahenten entwickeltet haben. Im Textilgewerbe ist der Erfolg deutscher Firmen ihrer Fokussierung auf die (hoch-)technischen Textilsegmente zu verdanken. Doch auch hier machen inzwischen Textilunternehmen aus China der deutschen Branche ihre führende Stellung streitig. Nichtsdestotrotz werden auch künftig deutsche Firmen im Geschäft mit Textilien und Mode erfolgreich national und international mitmischen.
    Keywords: F10 ; L67 ; ddc:330 ; Textil- und Bekleidungsindustrie ; Bekleidung ; Textilien ; Außenhandel ; Branchenentwicklung ; Europa ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 13
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Spillover-Effekt ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Hamburg: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: This article provides a review of literature on African Agency and the drivers of change within EU–African trade politics in negotiations on Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and African governments.
    Description: Revised Author's Version.
    Description: Agence africaine et de partenariat économique UE-Afrique. Revue article Cet article fournit une revue de littérature sur l'agence africaine participative et les facteurs de changement au sein de la politique commerciales UE-africains dans les négociations sur les Accords de partenariat économique entre l'Union européenne et les gouvernements africains.
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; F54 ; F63 ; O24 ; Y3 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; EPAs ; civic agency ; Africa ; development aid ; EU ; ECOWAS ; Partizipation ; Außenhandel ; Subsahara-Afrika ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Book
    Book
    Wildau : TH
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Außenhandel ; Hochschulschrift ; Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Außenhandel
    Abstract: Europäisches Management
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XXIX, 43 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Wildau, TH, Bachelorarbeit, A2015/0133
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
    Person(s): Werner, Heinz
    Keywords: Wirtschaft ; Außenhandel ; Global Sourcing ; Auslandsgeschäft ; Klein- und Mittelbetrieb ; Unternehmensgründung ; Economics ; Industrial management ; Industrial procurement ; Außenhandel ; Global Sourcing ; Auslandsgeschäft ; Klein- und Mittelbetrieb ; Unternehmensgründung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XI, 79 S. 16 Abb)
    ISBN: 9783658059491
    DDC: 658.72
    Language: German
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  • 17
    Book
    Book
    Wildau : TH
    Keywords: Marktanalyse ; Außenhandel ; Malaysia ; Hochschulschrift ; Marktanalyse ; Außenhandel ; Malaysia 16.09.1963-
    Abstract: Betriebswirtschaft
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: VII, 88 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Wildau, TH, Bachelorarbeit, A2014/0820
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  • 18
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: This paper analyzes the current status of fisheries and aquaculture in Southeast Asia and international trade. Analysis concludes that a policy of sustainable management for both capture fisheries and aquaculture is of greatest importance, but such a policy has been neither planned nor implemented with a holistic and long-term perspective. Current policy reflects a short-term view and the immediate needs of each nation. Therefore, capacity building of human resources and organizations, including governments, is needed for the formulation of holistic national policies to seek long-term and fundamental remedies for the sustainable management of fisheries resources and intensified and extensive aquaculture. Such holistic national policies should include science-based management, monitoring, enforcement, coordination of capture fisheries and aquaculture, and international trade policies. It may include the effects of climate change and oil price increases, as well as international market trends and regulations or barriers. Moreover, international trade will be promoted based on the sustainability of capture fisheries and aquaculture. ADB members and governments are urged to provide official development assistance for policy implementation, in particular to the private sectors that may not otherwise receive any, and to small and community-related businesses. Recommendations focus on building capacity for the long run, among others, for which facilitation should be provided.
    Keywords: F64 ; Q22 ; O13 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; fisheries ; development of natural resources ; aquaculture southeast asia ; Fischerei ; Aquakultur ; Fischschutz ; Außenhandel ; Südostasien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 19
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this paper we show that price equalization alone is not sufficient to determine the barriers to international trade. There are many barrier combinations that deliver price equalization, but each combination implies a different volume of trade. We demonstrate this first theoretically in a simple two-country model. We then demonstrate the result quantitatively for the case of capital goods trade: barriers have to be large in order to be consistent with the observed trade flows even though our model implies that capital goods prices are similar across countries. Zero barriers to trade in capital goods will deliver price equalization in capital goods, but cannot reproduce the observed trade flows.
    Keywords: F01 ; F02 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; capital goods trade ; Internationaler Preiszusammenhang ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Markteintritt ; Zwei-Länder-Modell ; Theorie ; Investitionsgut ; Preis ; Außenhandel ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 20
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    Bonn: Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Die Studie zeigt, dass sich insbesondere kapitalintensiv gefertigte Produkte, deren Fertigung mit hohen Skaleneffekten verbunden ist, für den Außenhandel eignen. Entsprechend treten vor allem Unternehmen aus dem Produzierenden Gewerbe und dem distributiven Sektor als Exporteure auf. Die Erbringer von Dienstleistungen sind kaum exportaktiv. Tendenziell weisen Großunternehmen im höheren Maße Auslandsaktivitäten auf als KMU. Im Hinblick auf die Bedeutung des Exports für die Beschäftigung in Deutschland belegt eine nach Sektoren differenzierte Betrachtung, dass in fast allen Wirtschaftszweigen die exportierenden Unternehmen eine überdurchschnittliche Beschäftigungsentwicklung aufweisen. Allerdings war deren Beschäftigungsentwicklung in den Abschwungjahren 2008/09 unterdurchschnittlich. Die kleinen und mittleren unter den exportierenden Unternehmen weisen durchgehend eine positivere Beschäftigungsentwicklung als die exportierenden Großunternehmen auf. Zudem waren sie durch den Konjunktureinbruch in den Jahren 2008/09 deutlich weniger betroffen.
    Description: The study shows that especially products - whose production is capital-intensive and characterised by large economies of scale - are suitable for foreign trade. Hence, in particular en-terprises from the manufacturing and the distributive sector are engaged in export activities. Providers of services, by contrast, show a much lower propensity to export. As a general rule, large enterprises show a higher degree of export activities than SMEs. With regard to the importance of export activities for the level of employment in Germany, an analysis by economic sectors reveals that in almost all sectors exporting enterprises show an above-average employment development. However, during the years 2008/09, marked by the global economic crisis, their employment development was below-average. Among the entirety of all exporting companies, small and medium-sized enterprises continu-ously show a more positive employment development than exporting large enterprises. In addition, exporting SMEs have been less negatively affected by the economic slump in 2008/09.
    Keywords: J63 ; L25 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; KMU ; Außenhandel ; sozialversicherungspflichtige Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsplatzeffekte ; Job-Turnover ; SME ; international trade ; employment ; job creation ; job turnover
    Language: German
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  • 21
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: China is the leading exporter of rare earths, elements which are crucial to the development of high-tech products and new green technologies. In recent years, however, China has begun imposing export restraints on these elements in order to benefi t its domestic economic development. This reduces global supply and thus artifi cially leads to higher prices for importing countries. The EU, the US and Japan have launched a formal complaint in the WTO against China's export restrictions. China claims that these restrictions are aimed at environmental protection. This paper examines China's rare earth policy and its compliance with WTO rules.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kritische Metalle ; Außenhandel ; WTO-Recht ; Handelskonflikt ; Geopolitik ; China
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2013-09-13
    Description: Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV) wurden am Thünen-Institut für Betriebswirtschaft verschiedene Analysen durchgeführt, die als Grundlage für die Ausarbeitung einer BMELV-Zukunftsstrategie Gartenbau genutzt werden sollen. Die Untersuchungen dienen der Erarbeitung wettbewerbsrelevanter Informationen, kön-nen jedoch nicht als umfassende Wettbewerbsanalyse angesehen werden. Letztere hätte den zeitlichen Rahmen der Analysen gesprengt. In diesem Working Paper werden die Arbeiten des Thünen-Instituts in diesem Kontext präsentiert und übergreifend interpretiert. Im Einzelnen wurden folgende Untersuchungen zur Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Gartenbaus in Deutschland durchgeführt: Befragung von Stakeholdern zu den Problemen und Hemmnissen sowie den Chancen und Potenzialen von Strategien für die Entwicklung des deutschen Gartenbaus, deskriptive Analyse des Produktionsgartenbaus anhand von Verkaufserlösen, Verbrauch und Außenhandel, Übersicht über die Struktur des Dienstleistungsgartenbaus in Deutschland, Untersuchung der Rentabilitätsentwicklungen der gärtnerischen Produktionssparten, Analyse der zu erwartenden Nachfrageentwicklungen nach gartenbaulichen Produkten und Dienstleistungen unter dem Einfluss des demografischen Wandels, Bestandsaufnahme wichtiger staatlicher Einflussgrößen im Gartenbau und Organisation, Durchführung und Auswertung des Workshops Kooperationen und Wert-schöpfungsketten im Gartenbau. Im Folgenden werden themenübergreifend von der betrieblichen Ebene ausgehend über Absatz- und Nachfrageaspekte die Kernergebnisse und -schlussfolgerungen dieser Untersuchungen zu-sammengefasst und die wesentlichen Handlungsempfehlungen vorgestellt.Vor dem Hintergrund eines intensiven Strukturwandels, der in allen Sparten des Gartenbaus und insbesondere im Gemüsebau beobachtet werden kann, zeigen die Untersuchungen eine eher mäßige Rentabilität des Gartenbausektors, auch wenn die Flächen- und die Arbeitsproduktivität in den Betrieben aller Sparten in den vergangenen 15 Jahren durchaus gesteigert werden konnten. Negativ auf die Ren-tabilität wirkte vor allem die Steigerung der Kosten von Produktionsfaktoren. Hier sind insbeson-dere die Kosten der Arbeit sowie die der Energie zu nennen. In der Vergangenheit konnten die steigenden Energiekosten durch Innovationen in Technik und Kulturführung weitgehend kom-pensiert werden. Die zukünftigen Handlungsmöglichkeiten zur Abfederung weiterer Energiepreissteigerungen erscheinen jedoch eher begrenzt. Dagegen ist für den Faktor Arbeit zu erwarten, dass die Rationalisierung im Gartenbau fortschreitet, um den Anstieg der Arbeitskosten zu begrenzen. Dafür wird die Entwicklung von neuen Technologien für den Gartenbau auch in Zukunft erforderlich sein. Diese Entwicklung ist insbesondere im Zierpflanzenbau schon relativ weit fortgeschritten.
    Description: On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) at the Thünen Institute of Farm Economics several analyses were carried out as an information basis for the elaboration of the Ministry's strategy for the future of horticulture in Germany. In this context the analyses presented in this Working Paper aim at providing information on the competi-tiveness of the sector and provides an interpretation of the results with respect to policy recommendations. The following studies on aspects of competitiveness of horticulture in Germany were conducted: a survey among stakeholders on constraints and problems as well as opportunities and potential strategies for the development of German horticulture, a descriptive analysis of the horticultural sector and the foreign trade with horticultural products, an overview of the business structures in the gardening and landscaping sector, an analysis of the developments in profitability of the horticultural branches, an investigation of the expected developments in demand of horticultural products and services considering demographical change, a review of public policy influence on horticulture and the organization, implementation and analysis of a workshop cooperation and value chains in German horticulture. This summary presents the key results and conclusions from these analyses across the studies starting at the level of the horticultural enterprises, followed by aspects of marketing and de-mand of horticultural products and finally derives recommendations. The results show that profits have been rather moderate for all horticultural branches over the past 15 years, despite of intensive structural change, particularly in vegetable production. Yet, both land and labor productivity has increased for horticultural farms of all branches. Increasing costs of production, particularly for energy and labor, have impacted negatively on profitability. The lack of qualified skilled labor is already a problem for many farms and will become more se-vere in the future. A continued mechanization to reduce labor costs is expected. Hence, for the development of the farms in the future, further technology development will be necessary.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:630 ; Gartenbau ; Gemüsebau ; Obstbau ; Baumschule ; Zierpflanzenbau ; Garten- und Landschaftsbau ; Dienstleistungsgartenbau ; Produktionsgartenbau ; Wertschöpfung ; Wettbe-werbsfähigkeit ; Rentabilität ; Strukturwandel ; Außenhandel ; Wertschöpfungsketten ; Kooperationen
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 23
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 24
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to update the information on net food importing countries, using different definitions of food, separating countries by their level of income, whether they are in conflict and whether they are significant oil exporters. The study also estimates the changes in net food importing status of these countries over the last two and a half decades, and, most important, the study measures the relative importance of these net food imports in the import basket of the countries. Our results show that while many low-income countries are net food importers, the importance and potential impact of the net food importing status has been highly exaggerated. Many low-income countries that have larger food deficits are either oil exporters or countries in conflict. Food deficits of most low-income countries are not that significant as a percentage of their imports. Our results also show that only 6 low-income countries have food deficits that are more than 10 percent of their imports. Last two decades have seen a significant improvement in the food trade balances of low-income developing countries. SSA low-income countries are an exception to this trend. On the other hand, there are a group of countries which are experiencing civil conflicts which are large importers of food, and these countries can not meet their basic needs. They also need special assistance in the distribution of food within their boundaries. Therefore, one should modify the WTO Ministerial Declaration, and focus on these conflict countries rather than the broad net food importers.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Nahrungsmittel ; Außenhandel ; Welt ; Entwicklungsländer ; Niedriglohnländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 25
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The paper tabulates Myanmar's merchandise trade as reported by its partner countries, thereby circumventing the data constraints stemming from Myanmar's patchy trade records. It then estimates Myanmar's export potential, based on the bilateral export patterns observed for six other countries in Southeast Asia. Against that benchmark and controlling for outliers, Myanmar is found to be trading at about 15% its potential. The bulk of this gap is explained by very low trade with the industrialized countries. Through reintegration with the world economy accompanied by deep economic reforms domestically, Myanmar would be expected to be closing this gap rather swiftly.
    Keywords: F14 ; F17 ; ddc:330 ; Myanmar ; gravity model ; export potential ; Außenhandel ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Myanmar
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 26
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    Zurich: University of Zurich, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper investigates empirically how similarity of demand structures - approximated by similarity of income distributions - affects trade patterns along both the extensive and intensive margin. The idea that similarity of demand structures intensifies trade goes back to the well-known Linder hypothesis. Based on a sample of 102 countries, I find that bilateral trade volumes are increasing in the overlap of two countries income distributions. This effect is driven by both the extensive and intensive margin. I establish two novel measures of income similarity - the average income level of the overlap area and the range of incomes for which two distributions overlap - and document that both are important determinants of bilateral trade margins. My analysis shows that the positive relationship between similarity of income distributions and bilateral trade margins is present at the aggregate and disaggregate level of trade flows.
    Keywords: F10 ; D31 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; similarity of income distributions ; Linder hypothesis ; nonhomothetic preferences ; extensive and intensive margin of trade ; gravity equation ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsgewinn ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Sozialprodukt ; Vergleich ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 27
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Does financial health shore up firm productivity? This paper empirically investigates this question and presents productivity as another driving factor in translating financial development into real economic progress. Our empirical framework employs Levinsohn and Petrin's (2003) semi-parametric estimation of total factor productivity (TFP) using firm-level panel data during 2002 - 2008, and incorporates financial health variables into conventional determinants of firm productivity. Our findings suggest that liquidity and access to external credit boosts firm productivity, with the latter particularly imperative for exporting and/or importing firms. We also present supplementary results regarding economies of scale, high-tech capital accumulation, human capital investment and foreign ownership.
    Keywords: O16 ; O25 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; financial health ; total factor productivity ; financial development ; Wirtschaftlichkeit ; Produktivität ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Außenhandel ; Panelforschung ; Vietnam
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 28
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with national debt crises and recession. A problem common to all of these countries is the collapse of national demand. Foreign trade might seem a logical way to restore economic strength, but little is known about the international competitiveness of these countries' industries. This paper sheds light on their export structures using the revealed comparative advantage indicator.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Komparativer Vorteil ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Griechenland ; Irland ; Portugal ; Spanien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 29
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    Vienna: FIW - Research Centre International Economics
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: TTRIOPOL studies the role of domestic bioenergy potentials for agriculture, the wider economy and international trade for Austria. In particular, agricultural biomass pro-duction can contribute to significant shares of energy provision in Austria. A detailed scenario is developed to explore the opportunities and challenges of enhanced domestic biomass production based on short rotation forestry (SRF) for heat supply which is currently among the most competitive technologies. To that end, TRIOPOL establishes a model linkage between a sectoral supply-model for Austrian agriculture and a national small open economy general equilibrium model. Model results show that a biomass premium of 65 € per ton dry matter is required to support 250,000 ha of SRF on cropland in Austria by 2020. The thus provided bioheat covers some 33 petajoule (PJ) heat energy demand in Austria; taking into account the likely rising of energy prices by 2020, this number rises to 47 PJ. Substantial land use changes may also be compensated by increases in land use intensity and as well as changes in imports and exports. Scenario results suggest that domestic food production of non-meat commodities falls by 1.3%. The sector meat products profits from the high competitiveness of Austrian livestock production and responds by a slight increase in net exports. The results of the quantitative analysis shall support the scientific and political debate on securing food and energy supply as well as economic development goals.
    Keywords: C63 ; C68 ; E20 ; F10 ; Q18 ; Q21 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Bioenergie ; Landwirtschaft ; Nahrungsmittelproduktion ; Landnutzung ; Wärmebereitstellung ; Außenhandel ; Modellstudie ; Modellkopplung
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 30
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 31
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 32
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Für die wirtschaftspolitische Analyse ist die Betrachtung bilateraler Handelssalden nur begrenzt sinnvoll. Es kommt auf den Wertschöpfungsgehalt des Handels an, denn dieser ist für die heimische Wohlfahrt, für heimische Löhne, Kapitaleinkommen und Steueraufkommen maßgeblich. Die offiziellen Handelsdaten, die auch ausländische Wertschöpfung beinhalten, weichen in der Regel stark von den bereinigten Daten ab. Erste Ergebnisse eines ifo-Forschungsprojekts, in dem bilaterale Wertschöpfungsströme berechnet werden, zeigen, dass beispielsweise die Nettowertschöpfungsexporte Deutschlands in die GIPS-Staaten in der Handelsbilanz um etwa 20% überschätzt werden.
    Keywords: F01 ; F10 ; F13 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Wertschöpfung ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Handelsbilanz
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 33
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Investitionspolitik ; Arbeitsmarkt ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Viele Kritiker gehen davon aus, dass im Zuge der Globalisierung der Kündigungsschutz und die Arbeitslosenunterstützung reduziert und gesetzliche Mindestlöhne gesenkt bzw. gar nicht erst eingeführt werden. Eine neue Studie, die den Einfluss von Globalisierung auf die Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen in 140 Ländern untersucht, gibt keine Hinweise darauf, dass die Globalisierung zu einer Deregulierung der Arbeitsmärkte geführt hat.
    Keywords: A13 ; C43 ; D63 ; F01 ; P52 ; ddc:330 ; Globalisierung ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Außenhandel ; Kündigungsschutz ; Arbeitslosenversicherung ; Mindestlohn ; Vergleich ; Welt
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 35
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Investitionspolitik ; Arbeitsmarkt ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 36
    Book
    Book
    Herne : Kiehl
    Keywords: Außenhandel ; Deutschland ; Lehrbuch ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Außenhandel
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 247 S. , graph. Darst.
    Edition: 4., aktualisierte und überarb. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783470545141
    Series Statement: Kompakt-Training Praktische Betriebswirtschaft
    Uniform Title: Außenhandel Kompakt-Training
    DDC: 382.10943
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Gabler
    Keywords: Management ; Wirtschaft ; Außenhandel ; Economics ; International economics ; Economics/ Management Science ; Lehrbuch ; Außenhandel
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVIII, 429 S. 143 Abb, digital)
    Edition: 3., überarb. u. erw. Aufl. 2013
    ISBN: 9783642357725 , 9783642357732
    Series Statement: Springer-Lehrbuch
    DDC: 381
    Language: German
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  • 38
    Book
    Book
    Wildau : TH
    Keywords: Wirtschaftspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Hochschulschrift ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Außenhandel
    Abstract: Europäisches Management
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XIII, 34 S. , Ill., graph. Darst.
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Wildau, TH, Bachelorarbeit, A2014/0206
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  • 39
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We formulate a dynamic game model of trade in an exhaustible resource with a quantity-setting cartel. We compute the feedback Nash equilibrium and two Stackelberg equilibria under two different leadership scenarios: leadership by the strategic importing country, and leadership by the exporting cartel. We numerically show that as compared to the Nash equilibrium, both players are better off if the importing country is the leader. The follower is worse off if the exporting cartel is the leader. Among the three game-theoretic outcomes, the world welfare is highest under the importing country's leadership and lowest under the exporting country's leadership.
    Keywords: C73 ; L72 ; Q34 ; F18 ; ddc:330 ; dynamic game ; exhaustible resource ; Stackelberg leadership ; optimal tariff ; Erschöpfbare Ressourcen ; Außenhandel ; Kartell ; Zolltarif ; Optimale Besteuerung ; Dynamisches Spiel ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 40
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: The main objective of this paper is to analyse trade flows and tariff policies of health products. Compared to previous studies, we not only focus on medicines, but on a large set of products that enter the public health space and can be identified in the common trade classification. The first contribution is thus to construct three groups of health products based on the 2007 Harmonized System classification of international trade. Using these commodity groups, we analyse trade flows between 167 countries for the years 1996 to 2009. We find that trade in health products has developed very dynamically, with trade in dosified medicine displaying the strongest growth with an annual growth rate of almost 12 per cent. The results further indicate that the market of health products is dominated by a small number of developed countries. Looking at tariffs on health products for developed and developing countries as well as LDCs and transition economies we find that the overall level of tariffs is low, but far from being zero, especially in the last three country groups. Finally, studying the tariffs on health products in preferential trade agreements between developing countries, the results show that the tariff level is low, but in some individual cases still substantive.
    Keywords: F14 ; I11 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Public health ; tariffs ; trade ; pharmaceuticals ; medical devices ; medical technology ; Gesundheitswesen ; Außenhandel ; Zoll
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 41
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper studies the relationship between export policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, food exporters may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large price shocks. This creates a complementarity between the price of food in international markets and export policy. Specifically, unilateral actions by exporting countries give rise to a multiplier effect: when a shock in the international food market drives up (down) its price, governments respond by imposing export restrictions (subsidies), thus exacerbating the initial shock and soliciting further export activism. We test this theory with a new dataset that comprises monthly information on trade measures across 125 countries and 29 food products for the period 2008-10, finding evidence of a multiplier effect. Global restrictions in a product (i.e. the share of international trade covered by export restrictions) are positively correlated with the probability of imposing a new export restriction on that product, especially for staple foods. Large exporters are found to be more reactive to restrictive measures, suggesting that the multiplier effect is mostly driven by this group. Finally, we estimate that a 1 per cent surge in global restrictions increased international food prices by 1.1 per cent on average during 2008-10. These findings contribute to inform the broader debate on the proper regulation of export policy within the multilateral trading system.
    Keywords: F13 ; F59 ; Q02 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Loss aversion ; Export policy ; Multiplier effect ; Food crisis ; WTO ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Nahrungsmittel ; Außenhandel ; Exportbeschränkung ; Multiplikator ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 42
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Using a micro-level dataset of wind turbine installations in Denmark and Germany, we estimate a structural oligopoly model with cross-border trade and heterogeneous firms. Our approach separately identifies border-related from distance-related variable costs and bounds the fixed cost of exporting for each firm. Variable border costs are large: equivalent to roughly 400 kilometers (250 miles) in distance costs, which represents 40 to 50 percent of the average exporter's total delivery costs. Fixed costs are also important; removing them would increase German firms' market share in Denmark by 10 percentage points. Counterfactual analysis indicates that completely eliminating border frictions would increase total welfare in the wind turbine industry by 5 percent in Denmark and 10 percent in Germany.
    Keywords: F14 ; L11 ; L20 ; L60 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; trade costs ; oligopoly ; spatial competition ; constrained MLE ; Windenergieanlage ; Außenhandel ; Räumlicher Wettbewerb ; Oligopol ; Dänemark ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 43
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: As tariffs are increasingly being reduced, trade economists and policymakers have begun to emphasize the importance of reducing non-tariff trade costs to facilitate international trade flows. However, the measurement of trade costs and transport costs, in particular, is not an easy task. For developing country policymakers, it is important to accurately understand their country’s trade facilitation status (improvement as well as deterioration) at the commodity level, to be able to design appropriate trade facilitation policies. However, in reality, the majority of policymakers and researchers tend to overuse data from the World Bank’s Doing Business Report, despite the fact that data on costs to export and import under its trading-across-borders component have several inherent weaknesses. In this paper, we suggest that the use of trade statistics calculated in conjunction with Doing Business data is helpful in understanding overall as well as detailed commodity-level trade costs. The two can be regarded as alternative indicators of trade efficiency, because both indicators improve when the trade transaction is streamlined. Moreover, by using trade statistics, we can compute not only long-term trade costs but also trade costs for each commodity group, unlike the case of Doing Business data where the assumption of a standardized 20-foot, 10-ton dry cargo of a country’s leading export or import product is employed. Based on commodity-level trade costs, more concrete trade facilitation policies targeting specific sectors can be developed.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; transport costs ; commodity level ; trade statistics ; c.i.f.-f.o.b. ; trade facilitation ; Transportkosten ; Transaktionskosten ; Außenhandel ; Nichttarifäre Handelshemmnisse ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Asien
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We empirically examine the heterogeneity in the effects of multiple dimensions of distance on trade across detailed product groups. Using finite mixture modeling on bilateral trade data at the 3-digit SITC level, we endogenously group product categories into an, a priori unknown, number of segments based on estimated coefficients of multiple dimensions of distance in the gravity equation. We find that institutional distance, whether countries belong to the same trade block and especially geographical distance are crucial and distinct factors to classify commodities in homogeneous groups.
    Keywords: F14 ; F21 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral trade ; gravity models ; distance ; institutions ; product heterogeneity ; finite mixture modeling ; Außenhandel ; Geographische Entfernung ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Handelshemmnisse ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 45
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F10 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; Maschinenbautechnik ; Branchenentwicklung ; Wachstumsbranche ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Außenhandel ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Klimawandel ; Außenhandel
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 47
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    Unknown
    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Description: Value chain interventions are increasingly used by international organizations and national donor agencies in the context of their private sector development (PSD) activities. These interventions are broadly labeled as value chains for development and share common characteristics such as the focus on improving market access conditions for and upgrading opportunities of developing country firms and producers to promote market-based and often export-oriented development. They differ however also along certain dimensions, most importantly with regard to the explicit focus on broader development objectives, the scope and specific activities supported, and the type of targeted actors for the intervention (Henrikson et al. 2010; Humphrey/Navas-Aleman 2010). The global value chain (GVC) framework and the academic literature on GVCs that has developed in the last two decades are broadly used as a basis for donor-led value chain interventions. The paper argues that taking the GVC framework as a basis for interventions to support private sectors in developing countries has the potential to make PSD interventions more effective in terms of improving economic and social outcomes of participating in international trade and global production. To secure the effectiveness of value chain interventions and their development effects, two factors are however critical: First, integration in GVCs should not be seen as "a panacea" for development but as "windows of opportunity" (Phillips/Henderson 2009: 60) that can have important development effects but should be complemented by more locally and regionally based development approaches (th0at may in itself involve the development of local or regional value chains). Second, the critical tradition and broader perspective of the GVC literature needs to be brought back and taken into account when re-designing existing or initiating new generations of value chain policies and interventions (Neilson/Pritchard 2011), in particular the focus on structural and asymmetric power relationships, the ambivalent role of lead firms, the important role of institutions and particularly the state and strategic state policies, and the focus on broader socio-economic and poverty reducing effects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wertschöpfung ; Außenhandel ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 48
    Book
    Book
    Wildau
    Keywords: Außenhandel ; Auslandstätigkeit ; Vorbereitung ; China ; Hochschulschrift ; China ; Außenhandel ; Auslandstätigkeit ; Vorbereitung
    Abstract: Wirtschaft / Recht
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: VI, 90 Blätter , Illustrationen
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Technische Hochschule
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  • 49
    Book
    Book
    Wildau
    Keywords: Unternehmensgründung ; Lebensmittelhandel ; Unternehmensplanung ; Außenhandel ; Hochschulschrift ; Unternehmensgründung ; Lebensmittelhandel ; Unternehmensplanung ; Außenhandel
    Abstract: Wirtschaft / Recht
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: X, 49 Blätter , Illustrationen
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Technische Hochschule
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  • 50
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: Tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be beggar-thy-neighbor policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.
    Keywords: F13 ; F59 ; Q34 ; ddc:330 ; Natural Resources ; Export Taxes ; Tariff Escalation ; Prisoner's Dilemma ; WTO ; Natürliche Ressourcen ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelspolitik ; Exportsteuer ; Zoll
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 51
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Scholars and policy makers believe that democracy will bring prosperity through integration into the global economy via increased international trade. This study tests two theories as to why democracies might trade more. First, political freedom may be correlated with economic freedom, thus prompting higher levels of economic activity, thereby driving states to trade more. Second, democracy implies higher quality governance either through institutions or policy-making procedures. I utilize a bilateral gravity trade model covering approximately 150 countries from 1950 to 1999, with fixed effects for time, importers and exporters. I find the theory that democracy, and many of its components, promotes international trade unconvincing. Economic freedom does not have the expected impact on international trade levels, but quality of governance variables have broad economic and statistical significance.
    Keywords: F1 ; O17 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; trade ; democracy ; governance ; Africa ; gravity model ; Außenhandel ; Demokratie ; Governance-Ansatz ; Gravitationsmodell ; Afrika
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting. This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals that the only beneficiaries of emigration are small enterprises.
    Keywords: F22 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Emigration ; Brain Drain ; Small Businesses ; International Trade ; Firm-level analysis ; Internationale Wanderung ; Brain Drain ; KMU ; Außenhandel ; Dänemark
    Language: English
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    Köln: Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne (EWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-16
    Description: The seaborne steam coal market changed in recent years. Trade volumes grew dynamically, important players emerged and since 2007 prices increased significantly and remained relatively high since then. In this paper we analyse market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios in this market: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. We conclude from our results that international steam coal trade is not perfectly competitive as there is a large spread between marginal costs and prices and a low capacity utilisation in 2008. Further, trade flows are generally more diversified in reality than in the competitive scenario. However, also the Cournot scenarios fail to accurately explain real market outcomes. We conclude that only more sophisticated models of strategic behaviour can predict market equilibria in international steam coal trade.
    Keywords: C61 ; L11 ; L71 ; Q31 ; ddc:330 ; Steam coal trade ; mining costs ; market structure ; Kohle ; Außenhandel ; Marktstruktur ; Außenhandelspreis ; Welt
    Language: English
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper presents the specificities of Hungarian foreign trading firms from different perspectives, like concentration, efficiency and sectoral structure. Hungarian trade is highly concentrated similarly to other countries. Trading firms are more efficient than their non-trading peers, exporting firms lead the ranking. The trading status is more important in the efficiency ranking than the domestic vs. foreign ownership. This has primary relevance to policies, as they should remove all the barriers what firms confront when entering foreign markets in order to enhance productivity.
    Keywords: D24 ;