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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Escuela Militar de Cadetes %u201CGeneral José María Córdova%u201D
    free Journals Online: 5(7)2009 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: Escuela Militar de Cadetes %u201CGeneral José María Córdova%u201D
    Print ISSN: 1900-6586
    Electronic ISSN: 2500-7645
    Topics: Political Science
    Keywords: Kolumbien ; Militär
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  • 2
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    München, Berlin: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Collaborative Research Center Transregio 190 - Rationality and Competition
    Publication Date: 2018-11-28
    Description: Industrialization and the rise of nationalism were the two major developments in Germany before the World War I. A novel county-level dataset reveals that industrialization and nationalism measured by membership in the \"Kriegervereine\'\", the biggest civil organization at the time, were negatively correlated. Using coal potential as an IV for identification, I find strong evidence for a causal impact of industrialization on nationalism. In order to detect possible mechanisms, a three stage IV regression model produces strong support that migration and trade union membership were crucial factors that linked industrialization and nationalism.
    Keywords: F06 ; N13 ; N33 ; ddc:330 ; nationalism ; industrialization ; prussia
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: According to some definitions, an energy transition refers to the time that elapses between the introduction of a new primary energy source, or prime mover, and its rise to claiming a substantial share of the overall market. According to one academic view, energy transitions take an incredibly long time to occur. Another view argues the opposite. It suggests that there have been many transitions at varying scales that have occurred quite quickly - that is, between a few years and a decade or so, or within a single generation. This paper holds that both sides are partly right, and partly wrong. After presenting evidence in support of either thesis, it elucidates four lessons for energy analysts and policy makers.
    Keywords: N7 ; P28 ; P48 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; energy transitions ; energy pathways ; transition pathways ; energy security
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Munich: Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
    Publication Date: 2020-02-08
    Description: We examine whether compulsory voting influences political participation as measured by voter turnout, invalid voting, political interest, confidence in parliament, and party membership. In Austria, some states temporarily introduced compulsory voting in national elections. We investigate border municipalities across two states which differ in compulsory voting legislation using a difference-in-differences approach. The results show that compulsory voting increased voter turnout by 3.5 percentage points but we do not find long-run effects. Once compulsory voting was abolished, voter turnout returned to pre-compulsory voting levels. Microdata evidence suggests that compulsory voting tends to crowd out intrinsic motivation for political participation which may explain why compulsory voting is not found to be habit-forming.
    Keywords: D72 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Compulsory voting ; election ; voter turnout ; difference-in-differences ; Austria
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: This paper explores the potential of an approach suggested by Manski of obtaining nonparametric bounds for treatment effects in evaluation studies without knowledge of the participation process. The practical concern is the effects of continuous vocational training in East Germany. The empirical application is based on a large cross-section that covers about 0.6% of the total population in 1993. The results are rather mixed. The large width of the intervals obtained emphasise the fundamental problem of all evaluation studies without good knowledge of the relationship between potential outcomes and the participation process. However, in some cases suitable exclusion restrictions are indeed capable of bounding the treatment effects strictly away from zero.
    Keywords: C14 ; C49 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Nonparametric estimation of treatment effects ; training evaluation ; East German labour markets ; Mikrozensus ; Berufsbildung ; Wirtschaftspolitische Wirkungsanalyse ; Schätztheorie ; Bildungsertrag ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Neue Bundesländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Vienna: WWWforEurope
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: WP 201 takes a historical perspective in analysing past systemic social-ecological transition processes. The research paper (MS 27) emerging from task 201.2 explores two major energy transitions of the past: the transition to the use of fossil fuels (e.g. starting with coal in the UK in the 17th century, and continuing in the rest of the world with coal and oil since). How was this transition linked to major institutional transformations, frequently paved by revolutions? We statistically demonstrate how similar processes occurred in many countries, and accellerated over time. In contrast to more common approaches, we do not focus on the introduction of particular technologies, but on the gradual substitution of biomass as the key source of energy by fossil fuels, and also on the increase in the amount of economically available energy. Beyond the common indicator TPES (total primary energy supply) we use and expand our historical database that countains the indicator DEC (domestic energy consumption). DEC encompasses, beyond TPES, also the energy converted by human and animal nutritional intake. We analyse the role of revolutions for the respective energy transition statistically and are able to identify statistical breaks in population growth, energy consumption and economic growth linked to the occurrence of revolutions. We compare trajectories of European and Non-European countries, and we compare countries in which the transition to the use of fossil fuels was marked by revolutionary processes with countries where this was not the case. Particular attention is paid to the phase of the transition in which revolutions have occurred, and the impact this shock had on the further course of the energy transition and on economic growth. The second marked transition analyzed occurred in the mature industrial economies in the early 1970s, in association with the first and second oil price shocks. In practically all mature industrial countries, there was triggered a termination of the steep incline of metabolic rates in favour of a fairly stable per capita level of energy and materials consumption, while economic growth continued. We investigate the policy responses in key policy areas coping with these "shocks" and achieving a reduction of biophysical growth while maintaining growth in the economy and employment. We employ a number of different methods for this analysis: we investigate long time series data statistically to explore at what time and in what sequence certain trends changed. On the other hand, we explore policy analysis literature for a number of countries qualitatively. Finally, we synthesize what can be learned from such macro societal transitions: what role do external shocks, structural change and energy policies play? Which lessons are to be learnt from past transitions in order to be in a better position to manage the transition ahead of us?
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q02 ; Q28 ; Q32 ; Q34 ; Q38 ; Q43 ; Q48 ; Q5 ; ddc:330 ; Academic research ; Biophysical constraints ; Demographic change ; Ecological innovation ; Economic growth path ; Economic strategy ; Energy transitions ; Globalisation ; Holistic and interdisciplinary approach ; Industrial innovation ; Industrial policy ; Innovation policy ; Institutional reforms ; Labour markets ; New technologies ; Policy options ; Post-industrialisation ; Socio-ecological transition
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: In economics and other social sciences, complex processes are often represented by numerical models of reality which more or less well reflect behavioral relationships and interactions. Such attempts are the subject of a lecture course 'Mathematical Theory of Democracy' by the author at the Faculty of Economics of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One new result in this field is presented here in the form of a statistical test to decide whether a political party or coalition of parties represents a majority of the population. For this purpose, party or coalition positions on a sample of policy issues, like introduction of a legal nationwide minimum wage, privatization of railways, and others, are compared with the results of public opinion polls on the same issues. The test is based on estimating the statistical significance of the coincidence observed (i.e. how likely is the coincidence by chance) to the end of accepting or rejecting the representativeness hypothesis. The test is developed for single parties and coalitions of two or three parties. It is illustrated with an estimation of representativeness of five major German parties and their potential coalitions basing on the official party manifestos published before the German parliamentary elections 2009 and on relevant polls of public opinion.
    Description: In der Ökonomie und den anderen Sozialwissenschaften wird immer wieder versucht, komplexe Prozesse der Wirklichkeit durch numerische Modelle abzubilden - was mit Abstraktionen für z. B. Verhaltens- und Wirkungsrelationen mehr oder weniger gut gelingt. Solche Versuche sind Gegenstand einer Vorlesungsreihe 'Mathematische Theorie der Demokratie' des Autors an der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät des Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie. Ein neues Ergebnis in diesem Bereich wird hier vorgelegt in Form eines statistischen Tests, der entscheiden soll, ob eine politische Partei oder eine Parteienkoalition repräsentativ im Sinn der Bevölkerungsmehrheit agiert. Zu diesem Zweck wird die Übereinstimmung von Parteien- oder Koalitionspositionen mit Ergebnissen von Meinungsumfragen in der Bevölkerung verglichen, etwa zur Einführung eines bundesweiten gesetzlichen Mindestlohns oder der Privatisierung des Schienenverkehrs und anderem mehr. Der Test basiert auf der Einschätzung der statistischen Signifikanz der beobachteten Übereinstimmung (d.h. wie wahrscheinlich ist eine nur zufällige Übereinstimmung), um die Hypothese von der Repräsentativität der Politik zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen. Die Studie spielt die Repräsentativität von einzelnen Parteien sowie von Zweier- und Dreier-Koalitionen durch. Darunter ist auch die Konstellation der fünf großen deutschen Parteien und ihrer potentiell möglichen Koalitionen auf der Basis der Bundestagswahl von 2009.
    Keywords: C12 ; C44 ; C63 ; D71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; mathematical theory of democracy ; statistical test ; parties ; coalitions ; representativeness ; Bernoulli matrices ; sums of random vectors ; Demokratie ; Politische Partei ; Öffentliche Meinung ; Wahlverhalten ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Beaver Creek, Ontario: Canadian Center of Science and Education
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The aim of this paper is to examine whether and how some structural characteristics of the Italian Network contract (NC) influence small firms’ performance. Since the ‘70s Italy has had a long history of network alliances characterized by the establishment of the industrial districts. However, this type of informal agreements have proved to be inadequate to counter the effects of globalization and of the changes that have occured in the international economic scenario. Consequently, the legislator has enacted the law n. 33/2009 by introducing a new type of formal agreement, named NC, in order to increase firms' competitiveness. Research findings on the Italian NC have shown the existence of positive effects on firms’ performance. However, in most cases the analyses have been based on a limited number of firms and have not verified the influence of some network structural characteristics. This research wishes to fill this gap by increasing the existing literature on the subject. The empirical analysis, based on a firm level panel data, highlights that in networks composed of small firms the results are not always consistent with prior studies. Network characteristics differently influence the firms’ performance measures. The analysis shows that network diversity and network's geographical openness are negatively related to firms’ performance. Instead, network size has a limited impact on firms' performance expressed only by the ROA.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Network agreements ; Network diversity ; Network’s geographical openness ; Network size ; Small firms’ performance ; Italian SMEs
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: Die Zunahme der Komplexität von Entscheidungssituationen sowie die Knappheit der verfügbaren Ressourcen in Wirtschaft und Politik führen zu wachsenden Anforderungen an die Allokationsplanung. In dieser Studie wird ein interdisziplinäres Modell zur Analyse und Kontrolle der Effektivität praktischer Budgetplanung aus systemtheoretischer Sicht entworfen. Die Anwendung des Modells erfolgt auf das System Berlin (West), wobei aber eine analoge Vorgehensweise auch für größere gewerbliche und öffentliche Unternehmen von Interesse ist. Als Voraussetzung für eine Effektivitätsanalyse der Ressourcenplanung erweist sich die Definition von strategischen Zielen und deren Quantifizierung mittels Zielgewichten sowie die Entwicklung eines Indikatorensystems als Grundlage für die Bewertung der aktuellen Systemqualität. Auf Grundlage der relevanten Finanzströme werden Thesen rationalen Entscheidungsverhaltens simuliert und hinsichtlich ihrer praktischen Relevanz analysiert. Dies führt zu einer Erhöhung der Transparenz und damit zu einer besseren Beherrschbarkeit komplexer Entscheidungssituationen.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 10
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    North York: Canadian Center of Science and Education
    Publication Date: 2020-02-10
    Description: Empirical evidence suggests that capital structure varies across firms facing different levels of information asymmetry, however, this evidence contradict the prediction of pecking order hypothesis. Although debt capacity constraints offer some explanation for this discrepancy, it fails to explain the behavior of small high growth firms who do not issue debt even with no debt capacity constraints. Against this backdrop, this study investigated the effects of financial constraints on firm capital structure in Kenya. This was implemented by interacting a financial constraints dummy with the right-hand side variables of pecking order test equation to allow for any variation of capital structure across financial constraints regimes. The results show that constrained firms use less internal funds and have less cash than unconstrained firms. Pecking order theory was not supported. However, allowing financial constraints regimes in pecking order equation improved the fit of the model and produced results that are consistent with pecking order prediction. Financing behavior varies with financial constraints status. The wider the wedge between the cost of debt and the opportunity cost of internal funds, the higher the value transferred to debt-holders and the lower the debt utilization. To improve firm access to capital, policies should be geared towards reducing the wedge between the cost of external and internal funds.
    Keywords: D82 ; D92 ; E22 ; G31 ; G32 ; G33 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; financial constraints ; manufacturing ; investment ; capital structure ; Kenya
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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